e-learning and Pedagogy Programme by HC120727134830


									                   eLearning and Pedagogy September Update
The Programme activities are being broadly grouped under two themes, ‘Designing for
Learning’ (with a practitioner planning focus on elearning) and ‘Understanding my Learning’,
(with a learner reflection focus on elearning). The first theme, ‘Designing for Learning’ is
exploring the process of designing, planning, sequencing or orchestrating learning tasks
which may include the use of e-learning tools. Completed activities to date which fall under
this theme are work packages 1a, 1b, 2, 4a and 4b.

The second theme, ‘Understanding my Learning’, will explore the learner-perspective on
elearning. This new strand of activities will focus on issues such as perceptions, participation,
the value and meanings learners attach to elearning opportunities, correlating this with
age/stage/type of learning.

A table showing all strand activities is included in Appendix B. A detailed overview of all the
strand activities together with commentary on how the outcomes and recommendations from
completed activities may be taken forward is contained in ‘Designing for Learning: An update
on the Pedagogy strand of the JISC eLearning Programme’ .

Further information on the first phase of activities together with a selection of project reports
can be found at http://www.jisc.ac.uk/elp_ouctomes.html

1. Completed activities

1.1 Work Package 1b: e-learning Models Desk Study – A framework for
modelling elearning in practice

This study carried out by Chimera: Institute of Socio-technical Innovation and Research,
University of Essex under Professor Chris Fowler is now complete. The project was funded to
review the potential for modelling learning practice and to develop, where possible, some
conceptually robust frameworks for doing so.

Key outcomes

   The first key outcome of this project (Review of eLearning Theories, Frameworks and
    Model, T Mayes and S de Freitas, 2004) offers a mapping of ‘theoretical accounts’ onto
    ‘practice models’. The authors classify theoretical accounts of learning into three
    perspectives (associative, cognitive and situative), not mutually exclusive, but each
    implying a different set of priorities for learning and teaching practice.
   A second key outcome of the project (Mapping Theory to Practice and Practice to Tool
    functionality based on the Practitioners’ perspective, C Fowler and T Mayes, 2004)
    provides a more detailed mapping in the form of a matrix. Broad design principles are
    mapped to generic learning outcomes, and these to a corresponding set of teaching
    activities. The teaching activities are then described in progressively greater detail, for
    example by mapping to learner roles and groups, and to appropriate means of
    assessment. An earlier iteration of this mapping was evaluated by the LTRI case studies
    team, and refined in the light of these recommendations.
   A recommended use for the table is as the basis for a planning tool or ‘advisor’ to support
    the process of designing for learning, in which practitioners are guided from a broad idea
    of learning outcome to detailed plans for the delivery of relevant learning activities.
   A framework of this kind is useful largely through its capacity to point practitioners
    towards examples of good practice, of the kind that are most likely to be relevant to their
    needs. The project team therefore recommends that the framework should be used not
    only to develop a generic planning tool but also to link categories and scenarios with ‘real

eLearning and Pedagogy Report (September 2004)                                                      1
    world’ case studies.

Key recommendations

Recommendations for the next phase of work include:
    1.   Validation of the categories of the framework through consultation and against
         existing case study resources
    2.   Development of criteria for selection and classification of case studies
    3.   Liaison with standards bodies
    4.   Further development of the proposed planning tool - The team has been awarded
         funding under the Distributed e-Learning Programme to take this forward and will
         continue to work with the Pedagogy team to ensure the tool remains focused on the
         needs of practitioners and their learners.
1.2 Work Package 2: Research Study on the effectiveness of resources, tools
and support services used by practitioners in designing and delivering
elearning activities – Moving on practice

This study was carried out by University College London/Institute of Education under Dr
Martin Oliver and is now complete. The aim of the project was to determine what kinds of
outcome were most likely to be actually adopted and embedded into learning and teaching,
as well as to identify and exploit existing resources.

Key outcomes

   The study (A typology of effective interventions to support elearning practice, R Sharpe,
    2004) identified three key processes that needed to be supported in successfully
    embedding elearning:
              Representing and sharing knowledge (creating resources that represent an
                  understanding of a concept/process)
              Developing practitioners (supporting people to do something new or
              Developing organisations (supporting wider change in communities or
   The project team conducted a systematic review of existing ‘interventions in practice’,
    classifying these as content resources, enabling tools, institutional activities, and national
    services. These reviews raised a number of important issues for the funders of services
    to support elearning practice, principally concerning the need for greater user
    requirements analysis and impact evaluation.
   As a result of these background reviews, six principles for effective intervention were
        1. Usability: Interventions should have a clearly defined user base, use language
             appropriate to those users, be known of by those users, and be functionally
             accessible to those users.
        2. Contextualisation: Practitioners continue to favour interventions which are
             contextualised for them i.e. those which have a clear and explicit statement of
             purpose; acknowledge the realities of the educational setting; allow practitioners
             to work on their own real life issues; and take account of the language, values,
             culture and priorities of their particular community.
        3. Professional learning: Changing practice requires practitioners to learn,
             specifically to alter their conceptions of teaching and learning through e.g.
             opportunities to construct their own meanings; learning from experience through
             reflection; informal learning; problem based learning; action learning; peer
             supported learning.
        4. Communities: There may be real advantages to working within the existing
             communities and networks with which practitioners are already affiliated. This
             links to secondary issues of authenticity and ownership: practitioners should

eLearning and Pedagogy Report (September 2004)                                                   2
           experience interventions as genuinely sharing their concerns, and being provided
           or supported by people which whom they can identify.
        5. Learning Design: Practitioners need to be supported in engaging with a process
           that starts with the educational approach. Effective interventions are dependent
           on an understanding of the curriculum design process and of learning outcomes.
        6. Adaptability: Effective use is influenced by a practitioner’s ability to adapt and
           reuse the resource; resources must be easily repurposed. Adaptability is closely
           related to contextualisation: i.e. resources may be well contextualised for a
           narrow range of situations, or generally adaptable to a wide range of situations.

Key recommendations

The recommendations from this study fall into two parts: recommendations for embedding of
existing outputs, and recommendations for further research. In the first category, the JISC is
    1. To disseminate the typology to service providers and developers.
    2. To further develop the typology to provide a planning tool with links to case studies in
         effective intervention.
    3. To recommend JISC services and project managers use the typology to plan and
         evaluate their deliverables, especially to ensure contextualisation for different

Recommendations for further research focus on identifying what kinds of intervention have
been most successful at helping practitioners to move on their practice in elearning:
   4. To validate (and amend) the existing typology of effective practice, and enrich it with
      links to examples that have proven value.
   5. To investigate the practice and process of ‘designing for learning’, in order to better
      understand user requirements.
   6. To conduct more general research into evaluating the impact of development
      practices and services.
   7. To conduct more general research into how resources such as case studies are
      being used, and whether features such as video clips, interviews with practitioners,
      annotations etc make them more usable in practice.

1.3 Work Package 4a: Review of Learning Design Tools – Supportive systems
and tools

Sandy Britain, consultant to the e-Learning and Pedagogy strand, has carried out a review of
current learning design tools. A working definition of learning design tools is: Computer-based
tools that may be used by practitioners to support the planning, design, sequencing and/or
orchestration of learning activities in a classroom, blended or distanc elearning context.

Key outcomes
The final report, A Review of Learning Design: Concept, Specifications and Tools, S Britain,
2004, is available from http://www.jisc.ac.uk/project_elearn_ped_learning_design_tools.html

Key recommendations

Following the review of tools, which focused on basic functionality, an evaluation programme
has been drawn up to investigate these tools in use. In the first instance this has focused on
LAMS as the system at the most advanced stage of development, but it is hoped that the
evaluation will uncover some general issues for learning design, and provide some generally
applicable research tools. (See Work Package 4c for details of this evaluation).

1.4 Work Package 4b: Case Studies on Effective Practice in eLearning –
Illustrating effective practice

A series of case studies illustrating examples of innovative and effective practice in relation to
eLearning in the post-16 and HE communities is being researched and produced. The case

eLearning and Pedagogy Report (September 2004)                                                   3
studies will be used to illustrate a range of different approaches to e-learning, and will include
examples from further education, higher education and adult and community learning. Using
the six requirements identified in the Research study (Work package 2), the programme set
out to provide case studies that were ‘usable, contextualised, adaptable, designed to support
professional learning and owned by the communities that produced them’. The case studies
needed to focus on the issues that are of relevance to learning design, i.e. those features
identified in the elearning models project: learner roles and needs, available tools and
resources, subject domain, generic learning outcome, teaching approach, and (sequence of)
learning tasks.

Key outcomes
 In pursuit of these objectives, the strand has funded two initial case study projects, the
   Netskills project is now complete with the LTRI study completing at the end of October
 The ten Netskills case studies illustrate a range of elearning approaches from FE, HE and
   ACL institutions, often selected in responses to pedagogical challenges. The case studies
   will be available from the JISC website at the end of September with edited versions will
   also be included in the publication, Effective practice with eLearning.
 Xube Productions have produced five high quality video clips which illustrate the written
   studies. These include testimonies from practitioners and learners on their use of
   elearning from across the post-16 sector. Their aim is to provide a richer medium for
   communicating the learning and teaching experience.
 These projects have contributed to the development of and piloted a template for
   describing case studies.

Key recommendations

In order to maximise the use and benefits of case studies, further work is needed to explore
how an evolved template might be used to allow cross-searching of existing case study
resources. This could promote the development of more effective case study formats, and
also identify gaps in coverage of the relevant practices and issues.

2. Current activities

2.1 Work package 4c: Evaluation of a Learning Design Tool (LAMS) by

Following the review of tools, which focused on basic functionality, an evaluation programme
has been drawn up to investigate these tools in use. In the first instance this has focused on
LAMS as the system at the most advanced stage of development, but it is hoped that the
evaluation will uncover some general issues for learning design, and provide some generally
applicable research tools.

Progress to date

   Forty practitioners from UK HE, FE and ACL institutions have been recruited and trained
    in the use of LAMS. Many of these participants plan to cascade the use of LAMS to
    others at their host institutions, so the study will be able to investigate the system in use
    across a wide range of subject and sector contexts.
   Data is being collected through structured questionnaires, interviews, focus groups and
    observations, over a six-month period covering pre-exposure through the use of LAMS in
    real learning contexts. The key question for evaluation is: Does LAMS support effective
    practice in designing for learning?
   The evaluation study has now been awarded to a research team based at the University
    of Oxford.
   Access and support for practitioners using LAMS on returning to their institutions has
    been negotiated with James Dalziel and Macquarie University with a Memorandum of
    Understanding now in place.

eLearning and Pedagogy Report (September 2004)                                                   4
   A workshop for participants in the LAMS evaluation is being planned for January 2005 to
    share experiences and practice.

Further information on the project together with all project documentation and reports can be
found at http://www.jisc.ac.uk/elp_lams.html

3. Consultation Strategy
Consultation with the practitioner communities representing further education (FE), adult and
community learning (ACL) and higher education (HE) sectors, has continued. Through
presentations at conferences, attendance at key events, discussion on the associated mailing
lists and through the JISC website, there has been active interest in the activities and
intended outcomes from the strand. A good response to the first consultation questionnaire
has been received with the detailed analysis being included in the supporting paper,
‘Designing for Learning: An overview of the eLearning and Pedagogy Strand’.

Two meetings of the Experts Group have already taken place with a third planned for the 24
September. Through the Experts mailing list, this group has actively participated in
discussions around the first phase of strand activities. The membership of this group has
grown to 85, with representatives from institutions across the UK and from strategic partner

4. Communications Strategy
As part of the communications strategy for the strand, updates about current activities have
been introduced and are disseminated through the eLearning and Pedagogy news area on
the JISC website (http://www.jisc.ac.uk/elp_news.html) and the strand’s mailing lists.
Providing information in a condensed form enables all users to keep abreast of the work of
the main contributors to the strand while still offering links to more detailed and in-depth
information and analysis where required. The updates will be issued four times a year during
the lifespan of the eLearning Programme and will contain three topics:
      Report on activities in the eLearning and Pedagogy Strand
      Report from the eLearning and Pedagogy Experts’ Group
      Recent and forthcoming events and presentations

In addition to these updates, news articles about the strand and key findings to date have
been prepared and submitted to various partner agencies. JISC Inform, ALT-N and Nilta have
accepted articles to date for publication. The outcomes of the strand’s completed activities are
currently being reviewed and synthesised. It is recognised that the dissemination of outcomes
to meet the requirements of differing audiences will result in the production of various outputs.
The key audiences have been identified as practitioners in FE, HE and ACL communities,
researchers and strategic bodies – partner agencies and funding council.

A series of publications disseminating the outputs of the programme activities are being
planned with the assistance of the Communications team, the first of which is ‘Effective
Practice with eLearning’. A succinct and practitioner-focused publication outlining the key
principles and theoretical perspectives underpinning designing effective learning with
technology, the guide also contains the ten new case studies, some with video clips on a
complementary CD-ROM. These represent the views and achievements of practitioners
across the breadth of post compulsory education, from higher and further education and adult
and community learning. Aimed at those whose primary role is to design effective learning
activities, whatever the context of delivery, this new publication complements research papers
currently being completed from the research studies. The publication will be launched in
October 2004 at the RSC Learning Journey Conference in Wolverhampton. Sector Support,
Techdis, the RSCs and the Pedagogy team are jointly co-ordinating the event which if
successful, will be rolled out through the RSCs across the UK as an elearning staff
development event.
A detailed list of events that eLearning and Pedagogy has been and will be represented at
over the next few months is available in Appendix A.

eLearning and Pedagogy Report (September 2004)                                                  5
Appendix A
Calendar of Events for e-learning and Pedagogy
(May 2004 – January 2005)
Date                        Event                             Purpose

12 May 2004                 Second Experts Meeting held       Project teams present interim
                            at SOAS, London                   findings
13 May 2004                 NILTA Staff Development           Presentation: eLearning and
                            Conference                        Pedagogy, Sarah Knight
17 June 2004                ETI Training Day, Belfast in      Training Event: What is effective
                            partnership with FPP team at      practice in elearning and how can
                            Becta                             we evaluate practice? Sarah Knight
29 June- 1 July 2004        ILTHE Conference                  Attendance with JISC stand: Helen
6 July 2004                 JISC Joint Programme              Presentation: Designing for
                            Meeting, Brighton                 Learning, H Beetham and S Knight

7 – 8 July 2004             JISC LAMS Evaluation:             Sarah Knight and Helen Beetham
                            Training of 40 practitioners at   facilitating
                            Kemnal Technology College

20 - 22 July 2004           alt-i-lab 2004                    Facilitation of strand on Learning
                                                              Design, Sarah Porter and Sarah
14-16 September 2004        ALT-C                             Presentation: Learning Design: a
                                                              framework for designing e-learning,
                                                              Helen Beetham and Sarah Knight.
                                                              Pre-launch of publication – Effective
                                                              Practice in eLearning
24 September 2004           Third Experts Meeting held at     Project teams present final findings
                            Aston University, Birmingham
18 - 19 October 2004        RSC Learning Journey              Launch of publication – Effective
                            Conference, Wolverhampton         Practice in eLearning
                                                              Contributions to materials and
                                                              presentations for event.
16-18 November 2004         Association of Colleges 9th       Abstract accepted for ‘Impact of
                            Annual Conference,                Innovative Technologies’
17 – 18 November 2004       NIME International                Presentation: Putting learning into
                            Symposium on ‘eLearning in        eLearning, Sarah Knight
                            Higher Education: Conditions
                            for Success’, Japan
29-30 November 2004         Becta Practitioner                Suggested participation and
                            Conference                        attendance to promote Effective
                                                              Practice in eLearning publication

18-19 January 2005          NILTA Annual Conference           Suggested participation and
                            2005                              attendance to promote Effective
                                                              Practice in eLearning publication

Appendix B: Programme Activities for the e-learning and Pedagogy
Programme – Designing for Learning and Understanding my Learning

eLearning and Pedagogy Report (September 2004)                                             6
Objective                      Work Packages/Activities                Details                                           Outputs

(1) to review and enhance      1a. Review (e-learning models) -        The objectives of this Review are to:                Background study to inform
    current knowledge about    Describe the areas of research,          describe the communities of practice                Activities 1b and 2 ( 5b)
    effective pedagogies for   development and practitioner guidance      relevant to these two studies;                    Detailed ITT for Activities 1b & 2
    e-learning;                where e-learning models are found.       describe what may be meant by an                   Completed Review available
                                                                          ‘elearning model’;                                 from JISC website
                                                                        describe what is meant by ‘learning design’        Series of short articles for the
                                                                          and how this concept relates to the                website, journals and
                                                                          concept of a e-learning models;                    publications in production.
                                                                        delimit the theoretical scope of these two
                                                                          studies by identifying achievable, practical
                                                                          outcomes for the practitioner communities;
                                                                        review some approaches already tried,
                                                                          and suggest some challenges likely to
                                                                        identify further resources that might be
                                                                          useful to the studies (mostly in the

                               1b. Desk study (e-learning models)         Describe what is understood by ‘effective        Publication, ‘Effective practice
                                                                           practice’ in relation to elearning                with eLearning’ launched in Oct
                                                                          Develop an evaluation framework that may          04.
                                                                           be applied to new instances of elearning         Evaluation and modelling tools
                                                                          Identify and describe the range of models         with guidance on use
                                                                           that inform the design and implementation        Initial descriptions of a number of
                                                                           of elearning activities                           e-Learning activities or
                                                                          Develop a modelling tool that may be              approaches.
                                                                           applied to new instances of elearning            Resources for practitioners: e.g.
                                                                           activity design and implementation.               guidelines on best practice;
                                                                                                                             approaches to e-learning ( 5b)

eLearning and Pedagogy Strand Report (September 2004)                                                                                                       7
                             1c. Learner Consultation               Review existing research into learner             Enhanced knowledge on
                                                                     perceptions of elearning                           learners’ perceptions and use of
                                                                    Scope effective form and process for               elearning to support their
                                                                     national learner consultation                      learning experience.
                                                                    Learner consultation to take place from           Models of elearning from
                                                                     February to July 2005                              learners ( 4b)
                                                                    The methodology will be both
                                                                     broad/shallow and narrow/deep, to capture
                                                                     the learner perspective in detail (including
                                                                     observational/ethnographic work).
                                                                    Learner consultation conducted in
                                                                     collaboration with the Distributed
                                                                     eLearning and Frameworks strands, to
                                                                     ensure that outcomes can be leveraged for
                                                                     requirements analysis in both areas.

                             Community consultation (ongoing)       Advise on what is understood by ‘effective        Recommendations to
                                                                     practice’ in elearning                             researchers and funding bodies:
                                                                    Advise on the range of models of elearning         priorities for future R&D in e-
                                                                     currently available                                learning ( 5b)
                                                                    Feed back on emerging outcomes from
                                                                     activities 1a and 1b
(2) to explore how this      2. Research study (practitioners)      Identify the resources (e.g. case studies),       Report: supporting the effective
    knowledge can be                                                 tools (e.g. learning design tools) and             adoption of e-learning
    effectively applied by                                           community practices that are used to               ( 5b)
    practitioners in                                                 support practitioners in adopting e-learning      Annotated list of links to
    developing e-learning                                           Evaluate the most effective resources,             appropriate resources, tools and
    and teaching practice;                                           tools and approaches for supporting                services ( 5b)
                                                                     practitioners                                     Recommendations for
                                                                                                                        development and format of
                                                                                                                        programme outcomes( 5b)

eLearning and Pedagogy Strand Report (September 2004)                                                                                                8
                                 Community consultation (ongoing)      Advise on the range of resources/tools/           Recommendations to developers
                                                                        practices currently in use                         and funding bodies: supporting
                                                                       Comment on emerging outcomes from                  innovative e-learning practices
                                                                        activity 2
(3) to develop terminology       3. Review (terminology)               Identify the range of taxonomies,                 Background study with CETIS
    and frameworks that will                                            frameworks and modelling languages used           Proposals for further
    improve understanding                                               for describing educational (including e-           development work with partner(s)
    and sharing of practice                                             learning) practice
    in e-learning;
(4) to investigate               4a. Review (design tools)             Review current state of learning design as        Report on learning design tools
    approaches to design of                                             a specification and as an activity                 for practitioners is available from
    e-learning activities, and                                         Review and evaluate technologies that              JISC website
    make recommendations                                                support effective learning design                 List of learning design
    for further development                                                                                                technologies for further
    (of software, guidelines                                                                                               exploration (Activity 4b)
    or standards)                                                                                                         Detailed ITT for Activity 4c
                                 4b. Describing and evaluating         Identify a range of elearning activities and      Database of consistently
                                 elearning Practice                     approaches in use, across a variety of             described and evaluated e-
                                                                        learning contexts and sectors (post-16 and         learning activities and
                                                                        higher education).                                 approaches. ( 5b)
                                                                       Describe (model) and evaluate these               Case studies on effective
                                                                        activities.                                        practice in e-learning supported
                                                                       Gather other relevant case study data              with video clips and other
                                                                        such as video clips, lessons learned etc           evidence. ( 5b)
                                                                                                                          Case studies to form part of
                                                                                                                           Effective practice with eLearning

eLearning and Pedagogy Strand Report (September 2004)                                                                                                     9
                                4c. Evaluating Learning Design Tools      to explore the range of tools currently             Report on practitioner evaluation
                                                                           available, initially LAMS, to support the            of LAMS expected in April 2005.
                                                                           design, planning, sequencing and                    Recommendations as to the
                                                                           orchestration of learning tasks/activities           further development and
                                                                          to explore the range of contexts in UK               adoption of learning design tools
                                                                           post-16 education in which these tools               in UK post-16 education
                                                                           might be used                                       Recommendations as to the
                                                                          to evaluate the impact on practitioners of           refinement of the learning design
                                                                           employing these tools                                specifications.
                                                                          where appropriate and feasible, to
                                                                           evaluate any impact on learners
                                                                          to report these findings in a format that will
                                                                           advance overall understanding of this
                                                                           class of tools and allow recommendations
                                                                           to be made as to their further development
                                                                           and adoption in UK post-16 education

                                Community consultation (ongoing)          Advise on priority areas for evaluation and
                                                                          Comment on emerging outcomes from
                                                                           activity 4b
(5) to develop                  5a. Synthesis of key outcomes from        Critically reflect on, synthesise and               Synthesis of project and stand
    recommendations and         projects                                   communicate outcomes of strand                       outcomes and outputs
    resources for the                                                                                                          Recommendations for further
    community, e.g. practical                                                                                                   activities to embed outcomes.
    toolsets, methodologies     5b. Design, create and maintain           Collate outcomes from programme                     Practitioner resources with
    etc.                        practitioner-based resource(s)             Activities                                           community ownership and input
                                                                          Make outcomes available internally to               Continuation strategy
                                                                           programme teams and consultants
                                                                          Make outcomes available to JISC user
                                                                           groups via Community consultations

eLearning and Pedagogy Strand Report (September 2004)                                                                                                       10
                            Community consultation (ongoing)      Advise on priority areas for practitioner
                                                                   guidance and support
                                                                  Participate in community events and
                                                                   communication opportunities
                                                                  Comment on outcomes from Activity 5

eLearning and Pedagogy Strand Report (September 2004)                                                          11

To top