Slavery in Territories

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					Essential Question

   What were the primary
    causes of the Civil War?
Slavery and
  Western
 Expansion
      The Missouri Compromise
   1819 – Missouri
    applied for
    statehood

   11 slave states

   11 free states
Missouri Compromise
            Missouri requested
             to enter as a slave
             state

            How to maintain the
             balance in Congress
             between slave and
             free?
         Missouri Compromise
   Proposed by Henry
    Clay (KY)

   Maine admitted as a
    free state

   Missouri admitted
    as a slave state
Missouri Compromise


            No slavery in the
             Louisiana Purchase
             territory north of
             Latitude 36/30
             (Missouri’s southern
             border)
Missouri Compromise
     Quote, Thomas Jefferson
“This momentous question, like a firebell in
  the night, awakened and filled me with
  terror. I considered it at once as the knell
  [funeral bell] of the Union. It is hushed,
  indeed, for the moment. But this is a
  reprieve only, not a final sentence.”
     Results of the Mexican War

   Increased tension
    between the North
    and the South

   Should slavery
    spread westward to
    the new territories?
Wilmot Proviso
     David Wilmot
      (Democrat from PA)

     Proposed no slavery in
      any territory gained
      from Mexico

     Angered Southerners
          Popular Sovereignty

   Proposed by Lewis
    Cass

   Citizens of new
    territories would
    vote on the slavery
    issue
       California

   After the gold rush
    increases its
    population,
    California applied to
    become a state
       The Compromise of 1850

   Reading the text on page 323 of your
    textbook, describe the six major
    resolutions of Clay’s compromise, then
    indicate whether the North or the South
    would most benefit from each.

   Use the chart on your worksheet.
         Compromise of 1850


1.   CA admitted as a free state
2.   Popular sovereignty in NM and UT
3.   Resolve TX border dispute with NM
4.   Pay TX $10 million
5.   Abolish slave trade in DC
6.   New Fugitive Slave Act
                         Fugitive Slave Act
   Southern
    slaveowners
    traveled north to
    track down
    escaped slaves

   Northerners did
    not want to assist
    southerners in
    recapturing slaves
     Henry David Thoreau, “Civil
           Disobedience”

“Unjust laws exist. Shall we be content to
  obey them, or shall we endeavor to
  amend them, and obey them until we
  have succeeded, or shall we transgress
  them at once?”
Mounting
Violence
Kansas-Nebraska Act
            Desire to open
             northern Plains to
             settlement

            Led by Stephen
             Douglas (IL)
            Kansas-Nebraska Act
   Repealed the Missouri
    Compromise

   Divided territory into
    two states: Kansas and
    Nebraska

   Allow popular
    sovereignty to
    determine the issue of
    slavery
Kansas-Nebraska Act

            Passed in May 1854

            Northerners hurried
             to Kansas to make
             an anti-slave
             majority
     Bleeding Kansas

   Slave supporters
    from Missouri
    attacked Kansas
    residents, voted
    illegally

   Became a territorial
    civil war
Lawrence, Kansas
Caning of Charles Sumner
                May 1856 – Charles
                 Sumner (MA) accused
                 slave supporters in the
                 Senate of corruption in
                 Kansas

                Preston Brooks
                 (southern
                 Congressman) caned
                 Sumner
      Caning of Charles Sumner

   Southerners considered Brooks a hero –
    gave him canes inscribed with “Hit Him
    Again”

   Northerners strengthened determination
    to resist slavery
Dred Scott Decision
            Attempt by the
             Supreme Court to
             settle the decision
             about slavery in the
             western territories

            Southern majority
             of judges
                 Dred Scott
   Slave who traveled
    with owner from
    Missouri to free
    territory for many
    years

   Sued for freedom
    after his master’s
    death
Dred Scott Decision

            Supreme Court
             Justice Roger B.
             Taney

            Ruled against Dred
             Scott by claiming
             African Americans
             were not citizens
       Quote, Roger B. Taney
“It is the opinion of the Court that the act of
  Congress which prohibited a citizen from
  holding and owning [enslaved persons] in
  the territory of the United States north of
  the line therein mentioned is not
  warranted by the Constitution and is
  therefore void.”
           Dred Scott Decision

   Stated the federal
    government could
    not deny slavery in
    any territories of
    the United States
John Brown’s Raid
           Abolitionist

           Attempted to seize the
            federal arsenal of
            weapons at Harpers
            Ferry, VA

           Wanted to lead an
            insurrection of slaves
            John Brown’s Raid
   Oct. 16, 1859

   Brown took control
    of the arsenal

   U.S. Marines
    captured him

   Tried and executed
Brown’s Statement to the Court
“I believe that to have interfered as I have
  done . . . I have done no wrong, but right.
  Now it is deemed necessary that I should
  forfeit my life for the furtherance of the
  ends of justice and mingle my blood . . .
  With the blood of millions in this slave
  country whose rights are disregarded by
  wicked, cruel and unjust enactments, I
  say, let it be done!”
           Southern Response

   Believed northerners were plotting the
    murder of slaveowners



   Georgia Senator Robert Toombs, “Defend
    yourselves! The enemy is at your door!”

				
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