SENSOR TEST by jennyyingdi


									                  SENSOR + TEST 2012
                  DIE MESSTECHNIK - MESSE
                  The Measurement Fair
                  22 – 24 June 2012, Nürnberg, Germany

                  26. – 28.5.2009, Nürnberg, Germany

                  26. – 28.5.2009, Nürnberg, Germany
                  26. – 28.5.2009, Nürnberg, Germany

SENSOR+TEST 2012                                                             23 February 2012
                                                                             Tel +49 5033 9639-0
Welcome to the Innovation Dialogue                                           Fax +49 5033 1056

at the Most Important Measurement Fair Worldwide                             26. Februar 2009
                                                                             Tel +49 5033 9639-0
                                                                             Fax +49 5033 1056

Editors please note:
                                                                             26. Februar 2009
This overview has a modular structure. Using the subheadings you can         Tel +49 5033 9639-0
find those components for your reports that are most suited for your         Fax +49 5033 1056
readership. You will also find more information about the exponents
described here as well as other product novelties in the ever increasing     26. Februar 2009
overall offerings at:                  Tel +49 5033 9639-0
                                                                             Fax +49 5033 1056

The 19th international trade fair for sensor, measuring, and testing
technology, the SENSOR+TEST, will be held from 22 to 24 May 2012 at
the Nürnberg Exhibition Centre. The SENSOR+TEST is a must-go venue
for developers and engineers from all industries. As Christoph Kleye, the
chairman of the Exhibition Committee puts it, “Without the latest sensor
and measuring technology, you can’t go on optimizing devices, machines,
systems, or processes and without the latest testing technology, you can’t
keep up with the ever increasing quality standards. There is no comparable
platform in Europe, where innovative users meet so many innovative
suppliers of sensor, measuring, and testing technology.”

The AMA Association for Sensor Technology, the host organization, is
counting with about 550 exhibitors and approximately 8,000 visitors from
all over the world.
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Focal Topic 2012: “Electromobility”
The advances in the area of electric mobility are enormous. Obviously,
sensors, measuring, and testing systems are crucial for the fast
development of viable, reliable, and successful vehicles. In view of these
facts, the Executive Board of the AMA Association declared “Electro-
mobility” as the focal topic of the SENSOR+TEST 2012.

Whether it be sensors for drive-train monitoring or battery management,
special measuring systems for automotive testing or new testing processes
for electromotors, state-of-the-art technology and numerous prototypes
under development can be found at the SENSOR+TEST from the 22nd to
24th of May:

A special forum in Hall 12 is to provide a dedicated and concentrated
overview of new products and solutions on the subject of “electromobility”.
Moreover, on the 22nd of May 2012 the program of the lecture forum in
hall 12 will deal exclusively with topics under this motto – including a forum
discussion with highly competent speakers.

Product Overview
The text below is based on the preliminary information given to AMA
Service GmbH, the fair organizers, before end of January 2012 by the
exhibitors. It comprises a preview of products, services, and trends to be
presented at this year’s SENSOR+TEST. The structure follows the Sensor
and Measuring Technology Directory published by the AMA Association for
Sensor Technology in Berlin.

Geometrical Parameters
The measurement of distance, gap, position, angle, tilt, attitude, etc. is
among the most common tasks encountered in the most diverse
applications, ranging from mobile telephony to machine-tool manufacturing
and testing technology. The wide spectrum of offers presented by the
exhibitors at the SENSOR+TEST will show a variety of sensor principles
from interferometers to potentiometers, from the Hall sensors to differential

In smartphones or tablet PCs, a triaxial sensor for the geomagnetic field is
to be applied for determining tilt or attitude. The monolithic chip is
produced in CMOS technology and requires an area of 1.5 x 1.5 mm². The
sensitivity for the x and y-axes is stated as 0.15 µT, for the z-axis it is
0.25 µT. An I2C interface provides integration in superordinate systems.1
Acceleration sensors for tilt measurement in aerospace applications or
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railway engineering have quite different dimensions. They have a
sensitivity of ±1g or ±2g, have an operating range of –55 °C to +125 °C,
are MIL-STD-833-G certified, and provide a measuring range of ±60° or
±90°. Their bandwidth extends up to 200 Hz.2 Potentiometers for position
determination or angle measurement without “fader scratch” have been
optimized for minimal noise and absolute contact reliability. After
comprehensive testing of comparable systems, these potentiometers were
chosen for satellite control.3 For every 360° turn, an angle sensor or rotary
pulse generator, designed on the tunnelling magneto-resistance principle,
generates an exceptionally large sine-cosine signal of 160 mV/Vpp without
amplification. Thanks to its high resistance of more than 1 MOhm, this
sensor component is ideally suited for low-power applications.4

A broad spectrum of Hall sensors for angle and position determination is
manufactured in Austria. These sensors are especially designed for use in
vehicles for monitoring the movement of the gear shift lever, the position of
the gas pedal, and the like. They can control brushless motors in electric
vehicles or detect the rotary angle of the steering wheel.5

Distance/Gap/Layer Thickness
Miniature encoders with an 18-mm diameter have been designed for a
number of distance measurements in robotics, medical technology, or
semiconductor production. They offer a resolution of 1,600 pulses per
revolution and an index signal.6

White light reflectance spectroscopy (WLRS) is used for measuring
thicknesses in multiple layers of transparent, semi-absorbing films.
Coatings of material with known optical properties and thicknesses of 5 nm
to 300 µm can be analyzed statically or dynamically in real-time.7

Interferometic linear distance measuring systems the size of a matchbox
are targeted for applications in the area of precision machining tools,
coordinate measuring machines, power sensor technology, or material
interaction analysis. Resolutions of less than 0.1 nm are attained for a
measuring range of 1,000 mm. Force measurements in the nano-Newton
range can be made by sampling an optimized deformation element.8 Other
interferometric distance sensors can achieve sub-nm resolutions for
measuring distances of 400 mm. They can be used at temperatures
between 300 K and 10 mK – even in an ultra-high vacuum.9

Ultrasonic proximity sensors in a cylindrical design are to be presented in
Nürnberg for ranges between 30 mm and 3,500 mm. They provide a
voltage output with a fixed characteristic or a switching output. Models are
available for gap-free mounting in pharmaceutical or food industry
applications and designed for clean-in-place (CIP) processes.10 11 Optical
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distance sensors based on the LIDAR (light detection and ranging)
principle work with IR pulses and analyze run time. They are used in driver
assistance systems in vehicles.12 Inductive distance measuring systems
can be directly built into hydraulic or pneumatic cylinders – or in shock
absorbers for that matter. The material measure is on a flexible or rigid
PCB. The design has been optimized for mass production.13

Fibre-optic light guides with integrated Bragg gratings are well suited for
measuring the degree of bowing under load of bridges or other static or
dynamic structures or geophysical analyses. They can even be used when
the weight of measuring cables or strong electrical fields are involved.14 15
The exhibitors at the SENSOR+TEST are also offering optical strain
gauges based on the same principle.

Provided for the selection of objects according to size and position are
area laser light barriers. A laser generates a 35-mm wide and 22-mm thick
light band to detect particles with a diameter as of 20 µm. These sensors
can also be used for checking thread breakage or measuring diameters.16

Fill Level
An enterprise from China will present its transmitters with pressure sensors
boasting long-term stability for the hydrostatic measurement of tank fill
levels. They are protected against overvoltage, moisture, dust, and water
and can be used in explosion hazard areas as well as for parameterization
as per HART protocol.17

Mechanical Parameters
The list of mechanical parameters extends from pressure and force or
weight to mechanical stress and torque or density and viscosity. Visitors at
the SENSOR+TEST will be sure to find a plethora of different sensors for
these parameters. Especially for pressure measurement, there is no trade
fair that offers a greater range of products or suppliers.

Micromechanical pressure sensors or switches for temperatures between
-25 °C und +85 °C for surface mounting on PCBs provide two logical
switching outputs and one analog output. They can be used singly or be
combined. The parameters can be configured via an I2C interface. The
pressure is connected via vertical, metallic ports. Similar models are
available for precision measuring ranges of 0 to 5 mbar to 1200 mbar
(relative, absolute, or differential) with digital output signals for pressure
and temperature. Pressure sensor modules for measuring ranges from
10 mbar to 30 bar provide a very good 24-bit resolution. Low power
consumption and high long-term stability indicate suitability for application
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in mobile devices. They can be used for person location in buildings or
patient position monitoring in clinics, for instance.18 A pressure switch,
based on a capacitive sensor principle, is to be presented for application in
vacuum systems for semiconductor production, in freeze dryers, packaging
machines, or autoclaves. For measuring ranges between 1 Pa and 100
kPa, the absolute accuracy is 0.25%.19

A Taiwanese supplier will be at the SENSOR+TEST to show his digitally
compensated pressure transducers. These are factory calibrated, the
parameters being stored in an OTP memory. The sensors boast ratiometric
or digital interfaces (SPI and I2C) and are thus able to communicate easily
with microprocessors. The internal resolution is specified as 16 bit. The
power supply and consumption target mobile applications.20 Similar
sensors from Switzerland have measuring ranges between 70 mbar and
1,000 mbar. They target applications in climatic technology, pneumatic
control, or for breathing monitors in medical technology.21 Digital
differential pressure sensors offer measuring ranges as of ±25 Pa at a
zero-point repeat accuracy of 0.03 Pa. They function according to the
principle of thermal flow measurement with exceptional long-term stability,
resolution, and accuracy.22

A number of Chinese suppliers will present their pressure sensors and
transmitters at the SENSOR+TEST. Among these is a model with a silicon
strain gauge, which is mounted on a stainless-steel membrane in a high-
temperature process. The pressure port consists of a single part, without
any welding seam.23 Semiconductor pressure sensor elements are
available in different states, with or without housing and signal
amplification. The simplest measuring cells are operated with a constant
current or constant voltage. These models as well as the transmitters are
supposed to be particularly vibration resistant.24 From the Netherlands we
shall see pressure sensor lines boasting a I2C interface for integration in
superordinate systems. They can also be operated via a special adapter
directly from a USB port.25 Coming from Slovenia is a new generation of
ceramic pressure sensors for OEM applications. The measuring ranges go
from 10 mbar to 30 bar and the resistance of the measuring bridge is
10 kOhm.26

Piezoresistive pressure transducers for OEM applications with a long-term
stability of 0.1% FS/a offer measuring ranges between 2 bar and 700 bar.27
A variety of different models are available, starting from a measuring cell
with a 19-mm diameter for assembly and going to a submersible version
for hydrostatic fill-level measurement.28 Differential pressure transmitters
with measuring ranges as of ±60 Pa (up to 70 kPa) are available for testing
seals on systems with pressures of up to 17 bar. They provide industrial
grade, analog output signals at an accuracy of at least 0.1% FS.29
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For use in HVAC (heating, ventilation, air conditioning), differential
pressure transmitters will be presented at the SENSOR+TEST, that can be
adjusted on site, including the measuring range as well as the analog
output signal. An optional autocalibration module keeps the transducers
practically maintenance free.30 A product line of pressure transducers for
low-pressure ranges used for filter monitoring or fill-level checking in tanks
is to be shown at the fair that are resistant against aggressive media.31

Hermetically sealed sensors based on thinfilm strain gauges without
gaskets or as ceramic capacitive designs were improved and are now
available with different electrical and mechanical connectors for industrial
or automotive applications.32 Also to be seen at the SENSOR+TEST are
pressure transmitters with thinfilm strain gauges and a CANopen interface
that are especially designed for use in utility vehicles or work machines. At
a sampling rate of up to 1,000/s, the pressure measuring ranges go up to
800 bar. IC packaging technology has been adapted to especially rugged
ambient conditions.33 There is one model designed for series-production
vehicles that operates at a temperature range of -40 °C to +150 °C.

Presented as well at the SENSOR+TEST are digital differential-pressure
manometers for measuring leakages on building shells. They are used in
conjunction with blower-door tests for inspection of low-energy houses.34

Load Cells
OIML-R60-certified shear-force load cells are available in a range of
100 kg to 15 t in accuracy classes C3, C4, and C5.35 An intelligent washer
uses the side-load dependency of the optical-fibre photoconductivity to
measure the surface pressure of a bolted assembly. The concept is also
available for potentially explosive areas.36 Force measuring devices that
can be used for an extended period of time without auxiliary energy work
with a manometer and special hydraulic cylinder. The devices are utilized
in roller mills, the aircraft industry, or in mechanical engineering.37

Torque measuring flanges are available nowadays with a 24-bit resolution.
They can be used for friction-loss measurements, for instance. It is all
about optimizing the efficiency factor in the ppt (parts per thousand) range.
The measured values are digitized on the rotating flange and transmitted
telemetrically to a measurement computer.38

Time-Dependent Parameters
Thanks to the great importance of vehicle development in Germany, the
SENSOR+TEST is the fair for accelerometers as well as vibration,
oscillation, and sound analysis systems, not to forget the plethora of speed
and flow sensors.
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Designed for the somewhat more robust applications in utility vehicles or
agricultural machinery, is a combined gyro/tilt/accelerator sensor boasting
a measuring range of ±75 °/s. It comes with a CANopen interface and has
diagnosis function.39 Playing in a different league are extremely small,
triaxial acceleration sensors for mass-produced consumer products, such
as smartphones or tablet PCs. With a 2x2 mm² footprint and a 1-mm
height, these sensors are optimized for minimal energy consumption, and
have measuring ranges between ±2 g and ±8 g as well as an integrated
wake-up function. System integration is via an I2C interface.40 Quite larger
and designed for series vehicles is a triaxial acceleration sensor with a
measuring range of ±2 g, having comprehensive self-diagnosis capa-
bilities. It is thus suited for SIL and fail-safe applications. It is shock proof
up to 20,000 g and at temperatures from -40 °C to +125 °C.41 For even
more rugged applications, such as pile-driving, percussion-drilling, or drop-
hammer tests of all kinds, there are triaxial sensors with a measuring range
of up to 20,000 g. The piezoresistive measuring elements have integrated
stops for overload protection.42

The sound, or more correctly the noise emission, of electric vehicles is a
question of vibration. Once the engine noise, which drowns out all other
noise, is absent, more differentiating measurements are required. Such
tasks can be performed by contactless scanning laser vibrometers for
acoustics and structural dynamics.43 The location of noise sources as well
as the noise level can be determined by electret measuring microphones,
of which numerous versions can be seen at the SENSOR+TEST. They are
optimized for arrays (acoustic cameras), room acoustic or free-field
measurement. Such devices including TEDS can be supplied for test

Rotational Speed
To measure speeds from 300 to 120,000 rpm at a distance of up to 80 mm
(radially from the shaft), a speed sensor based on the magnetic-inductive
principle in an M18 housing is presented in Nürnberg. The sensor can
measure through any non-magnetic housing or fill media providing a 5-V
TTL pulse per revolution. It is used in machine tools, fans, motors,
centrifuges, or turbochargers.45

A completely different area of time-dependent parameters is found in flow
measurement. Especially advantageous for research and analysis appli-
cations is the measurement of very small quantities. A novel system,
based on the thermal measuring principle, offers measuring ranges
between 1.5 mg/h and 600 mg/h (water equivalent) with a chamber volume
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of less than 1 mm³.46 47 The devices can be supplied with diverse
automation interfaces by DeviceNet, Profibus-DP, Modbus or EtherCat.
For chromatographic tests, a sensor is presented that offers a measuring
range of up to 5 µl/min at a resolution of 0,5 nl/min. The pressure
resistance of the measuring capillaries is rated at 1,000 bar.48 Visitors at
the SENSOR+TEST will also find sensors for measuring ranges as of
3 ml/min with a very fast response time of approx. 40 ms, suited for flow
measuring of hydrocarbon-based liquids, such as photoresists or

Thermal Parameters
Traditionally, most suppliers of temperature measuring technology – from
thermocouples and resistor thermometers to FBGs (fibre-Bragg gratings)
and highly specialized thermal imaging cameras – are to be found at the

Among the more unusual contactless measuring means is the application
of autonomous SAW (surface acoustic wave) sensors. Such sensors react
to external sampling pulses transmitted over ultrasound frequencies. They
are used in generator coils for wind energy turbines, continuous furnaces,
gear trains, or high-voltage cables.50 To detect hotspots on a fibre optical
sensor cable, the reflectivity change in Bragg gratings is used. Such
sensor cables are preferred for extensive systems, such as those found in
refineries, power plants, or switch yards as well as in conveyor-belt
bearings, generators, or switch cabinets. They can sustain temperatures
up to 200 °C, before being irreversibly damaged. The optical signal is
queried by an evaluation unit for alarm situations.51 52 53

Punctiform, contactless measurement of very high temperatures of up to
3,000 °C is performed by pyrometers. These are applied for process
monitoring in steel, metal, silicon, glass, and cement production or in
induction furnaces, annealing, welding, or crystal growing. Software for
parameterization and signal evaluation is available.54 55 Quotient pyro-
meters ensure that measurements are largely independent of a correct
emission setting.

IR Cameras
The SENSOR+TEST is a meeting point for the suppliers of infrared
cameras for focal-plane temperature measurement and monitoring. Entire
national parks are monitored for early forest-fire detection.56 Today, a
resolution of 1280x1024 pixels attained by a cooled InSb detector
corresponds to the HD format. This is reflected by an increased FPA (focal
plane array) resolution, enabling detection of temperature differences of 25
mK. Lock-in technology can boost the resolution to 1 mK.57 Special infrared
line cameras are used for temperature monitoring of belts or moving
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materials. For applications in harsh environments, such as steel plants,
protective housings with air flushing are available to keep the lenses dust-
free.58 Besides such high-end products, a broad selection of hand-held
devices used to monitor switch cabinets for hotspots or for locating water
damage or thermal bridges in buildings can be seen in Nürnberg.

Resistance Thermometer
Many resistance thermometers for mechanical and plant engineering come
from China. The measuring ranges of the transmitters in a stainless-steel
housing are between 50 °C and 400 °C. A variety of connections are
available.59 Alongside these temperature sensors are complete temper-
ature measuring instruments, such as a laboratory device with a Pt100
probe in accuracy class 1/10B according to DIN EN 60751. An absolute
measuring accuracy of 0.01% is attained at temperatures from -50 °C to
+400 °C.60

Climatic Parameters
This section deals primarily with air quality and moisture in gases. Sensors
for particle density, smoke detection, barometric air pressure, or solar
radiation can all be viewed at the SENSOR+TEST.

The air quality in buildings, offices, or school classes cannot be controlled
via the carbon dioxide content alone. To measure the concentration of
volatile organic compounds (VOC), control modules are available now with
a remote sensor element that can be mounted directly in the ducts of air-
conditioning systems.61 A combined module measures the concentration of
carbon dioxide as well as the selected VOC markers, controlling the airflow
in heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) of offices or living
quarters. This not only ensures a high air quality, but also the energy
efficiency of HVAC systems.62 Another supplier offers a special two-
channel DNIR module to measure carbon dioxide in buildings. The stability
over a period of ten years is better than 5% FS. A function for regular
autocalibration is integrated.63

Besides air-quality monitoring, the measurement of humidity is one of the
major topics in the area of climatic parameters at the SENSOR+TEST. An
extremely small digital combination sensor for temperature and humidity
was considerably optimized for temperature compensation and now
operates in a range of 5 °C to 60 °C with a measuring accuracy of ±0,3 K.64
Also from Korea are completely compensated humidity sensors with
threshold monitoring.65 Dew-point mirrors are used for particularly precise
measurement of humidity. These are available as laboratory devices with
controlled sampling and flow measurement or plug-in modules for climatic
chambers – with calibration certificates if required.66 A patented measuring
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principle for precision measurement of capacities, in the range of fF to µF,
can be used to highly dynamically evaluate capacitive humidity sensors up
to 0,05% RH. In conjunction with reliable temperature sensors, RISC
controllers, and polynomial linearization, very precise measurements of
relative humidity and computation of the dew point or absolute humidity
can be attained.67

Chemical Sensors
The SENSOR+TEST always has a broad spectrum of sensors for
determining gas concentrations. Also, numerous wet chemical sensors are
being offered for measuring pH values or conductivity, for example. Many
advanced announcements for the SENSOR+TEST point to spectrometric
measuring processes. Microsystem technology has made small, inex-
pensive, and flexibly designed spectrometers possible.

A Dutch supplier is offering a choice between higher throughput or higher
resolution.68 With the aid of a USB converter, 16 spectrometers can be
linked via Ethernet. Configuration and signal evaluation is performed by
browser software. A product family of pyroelectric detectors works with
Fabri-Pérot filters. Infrared wavelengths between 3 µm and 10 µm can be
attained with three different models. This high spectral resolution ensures
good signal-to-noise ratios.69 A standardized measuring cell for photo-
acoustic spectrometry can be custom tuned for a wide variety of gases and
applications.70 Multichannel gas sensors, equipped with PbSe detectors
and filters with an FWHM (full width half maximum) of 140 nm, designed
for hydrocarbons, carbon dioxide, and carbon monoxide are also available
– cooled if necessary.71 An analyzer module for nitrogen-dioxide, with its
global warming potential as occurs in vehicle exhaust emissions, uses a
quantum cascade laser with an extremely narrow-bandwidth emission to
achieve a high selectivity.72 Tuneable DFB lasers can be utilized for
detection of various gases in the infrared range between 3.0 µm and
3.6 µm. Narrow bandwidths and good side-lobe suppression provide high
selectivity here.73 Specialized for carbon dioxide, NDIR measuring cells
make use of the two-beam principle. The standard measuring ranges are
at concentrations of 2% to 30%.74

Solids & Nanowire
Based on the current-limiting principle, zirconium-oxide sensors using a
solid-state electrolyte are integrated in oxygen measuring cells with a long
service life. The low operating temperature of 400 °C provides a low
energy requirement. For application in medical, food, and refrigeration
technologies, devices with measuring ranges from 25% to 95% are
available.75 Numerous suppliers of catalytic gas sensors for combustible or
toxic gases can also be found at the SENSOR+TEST. A Russian supplier,
for instance, offers sensors on a membrane platform using MEMS. They
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come in a TO-8 housing and have a low power consumption.76 Sensors
from China for toxic gases, such as sulphur-dioxide, chlorine, or ammonia,
are also being presented.77 Indeed, the first results of a European project
for the application of semiconductor nanowires for gas detection can be
viewed at the SENSOR+TEST. This is all about multidimensional evalu-
ation of a sensor signal in relation to field effects, ion emissions, and
catalytic/thermal conductivity changes upon heat pulses. Steps, such as
sampling, filtration, and concentration using nanostructures will be demon-
strated at the fair.78

Wet Chemistry, Conductivity and More
Sensors for more down-to-earth applications, such as determination of pH
values, redox potential, and conductivity will be shown in Nürnberg. A
measuring system for all common pH/redox probes with their various plug-
in heads provides impedance conversion in the power chord for the high-
impedance output signals. The data of linearization characteristics are
stored in the connector, allowing easy configuration of a multichannel
measuring system with different sensors – for instance for lab
applications.79 Coming from Russia is a device for analyzing water
samples consisting of up to 20 substances, including metals, nitrates, oils,
etc.80 An inductive conductivity sensor with an integrated, rapid-response
PT1000 temperature sensor is supplied with the usual process connections
and meets the most stringent hygienic standards, for example for
monitoring cleaning procedures in the food industry.81 A final example in
this area of application is an oil condition sensor that can be used to
optimize oil-change intervals. It simultaneously monitors six condition para-
meters: operating period, temperature, turbidity, relative humidity, conducti-
vity, and dielectric conductivity up to 15 bar.82

Measuring and Testing Technology
Measuring and testing technology at the SENSOR+TEST is presented in
its own hall. Here one can find anything from lab instruments to test-rig
equipment, from handhelds to 100-channel measuring systems. Of course,
mobile measuring technology, primarily for application in vehicles, is also
be found here. Visitors can even enjoy live test drives demonstrating this

Modules & Devices
A CE approved transmitter module from the U.S.A. transforms signals from
strain gauges into standard industrial signals. DIP switches are set to
adjust specific configurations. This supplier also offers a USB module that
can feed a strain-gauge signal directly into a PC. Power is supplied via the
USB interface itself. Up to 1,000 measurements/s can be made at a 24-bit
resolution.83 A measuring unit, used as a data logger and laboratory
reference device provides threshold monitoring, probe adjustment and a
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dual display for two sensor inputs can do more than just measure. It is a
universal measuring device in the true sense of the word.84 Similarly
versatile are today’s oscillographs: 2 or 4 channels, bandwidths of
100 MHz to 500 MHz, memory, signal waveform analysis, diverse trigger
and bus decoding functions, as well as a LAN connection for network
integration – not only for the lab, but for mobile applications as well. 85 A
broadband power-measuring device of apparent and active energy,
including harmonic component, is offered for measurements on high-
voltage frequency converters, as used in electric vehicles. Energy
efficiency can thus be optimized.86

Multichannel Systems
For signal acquisition via multiple channels, the question of synchron-
ization – the relationship of the individual measured values to each other in
time – is often central. At the SENSOR+TEST a system designed for de-
centralized measurement will be presented for the acquisition of data
pertaining to the effects of earthquakes at any number of locations world-
wide and to transfer the measured data via the internet. For limited ranges,
similar data acquisition systems can be implemented via WLAN. The
analysis and synchronization, relative to a defined real time is done by
software in a computer.87 This supplier can also provide a LAN measuring
system with a 16-bit resolution and a total sampling rate of 250 kHz. Up to
16 input channels with sampling rates of up to 1 MHz are stored by another
system on an internal 160 GByte drive. The voltage values are shown
directly on a 12-inch display. Optional modules for thermoelements, DC
bridges, and ICP transducers are available.88

Data Loggers
Every year, one of the main topics at the SENSOR+TEST are the latest
developments in data loggers of various kinds. An oscillographic recorder
for service applications brings together the functions of a transient
recorder, a measuring-value acquisition system, and a pen recorder. The
battery-operated device offers insulated inputs for voltages, thermo-
elements, and digital signals.89 Another product offers four inputs for
standard industrial signals for subsequent processing with a 12-bit reso-
lution. It can be custom-equipped with sensors for pressure, temperature,
humidity, or acceleration. The measuring intervals can be set from 1 s to
12 h for a maximum of two million measuring values. Software is included
for easier parameterization, data viewing, and data transfer to a laptop.90 A
measuring data recorder with 6 to 96 input channels can also synchronize
the measuring values with video and audio recordings. The standard frame
rate is 30 fps (frames per second), and in the high-speed version for
capturing transients the rate is 1,000 fps. Even during the data- writing
phase on the 1 TB drive, large quantities of data can be viewed without
interrupting the measurements.91 A completely different kind of data logger
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is used for inspections of building insulation and ventilation conditions. The
modules are already equipped with five sensors and offer connectors for
three additional external sensors. This provides a solution to a variety of
problems in today’s building diagnostics at temperatures from -40 °C to
+80 °C.92 A transient recorder continuously records data streams up 20
byte/s in FAMOS or DIAdem formats, which can then be analyzed by
standard software.93

Oscillation/Vibration Analysis
A combined data recorder and signal analyzer is designed for worldwide
service application. The handheld device offers 2 to 16 voltage inputs and
further inputs for IEPE/ICP sensors. A signal resolution of 24 bits is
provided for sampling rates of over 100 kHz. The functionality primarily
targets vibration, octave, and order analyses as well as sound and
oscillation level measurements and shock-response spectrum analyses –
as often required after detection of machine vibration.94 An oscillation
measuring system for test-bench monitoring is offered that detects
impermissible operating states, triggers alarms, or stops operation.
Piezoelectric oscillator sensors determine oscillation speed or acceleration
in three defined frequency bands. The frequency bands can be controlled
via a speed sensor.95 Another system is used for status analysis of rotating
machinery and equipment with fixed or variable speed. Areas of appli-
cation are diagnosis tests in development, status assessment during
operation or performance tests after servicing. Measurement periods can
take just a few seconds or weeks.96

Testing Technology
Magnet testing has become more important in recent years because a
magnetic counterpart or magnetic measure is required for Hall, AMR, or
GMR sensors in many applications to function properly. This is usually a
matter of homogenous magnetization and the accuracy of the magnet-
ization angle.

Magnetic Tests
A test system developed to this effect is able to measure the open
remanence of magnets with a magnetic moment from 0.01 and 3.0 Am²
with a tolerance of ±1% max. and a magnetization angle of ±1 % max. The
extent of the north/south effect is stored in a database. For the automatic
control of up to 600 magnets/h classification thresholds can be set. 97 Using
a magnetic-field imaging camera, another manufacturer examines the
magnetization of permanent magnets. Corresponding analysis software
was considerably improved. Scanned measuring data can now be
compared with theoretical models, allowing a number of magnet
properties, such as the remanence magnetization vector and its angular
deviation, to be determined. To scan big magnets, partial images are
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joined and the result can be analyzed as a single image. The UI (user
interface) was considerably simplified and add-on utilities were included.98
Another supplier enables digital imaging with a CCD camera for dispersion
analysis. For each image to be processed, the measuring results of the
polarity, homogeneity, distribution of the magnetic material, and the
magnetization characteristics as well as the real product image can be
synchronized, evaluated, and archived.99 Linear Hall sensors are also
capable of measuring the magnetic fields of permanent magnets three-
dimensionally. The results comprise the measured values and the mag-
netization vector.100

Materials Testing
To be presented in Nürnberg is a material testing machine designed
according to current standards and requirements for rigidity, dynamics,
functionality and the state of the art in mechanical engineering. It meets
diverse national standards and provides interfaces for data acquisition and
control. The testing machine is to be used in the plastic, packaging, textile,
and automotive industries – but also in research and development.101

A new software program for non-destructive material testing with heat-flow
thermography evaluates the images made by an IR camera to detect
joining errors, cavities, cracks, or delamination of products. The items to be
tested are subjected to a thermal shock on the rear side. If there are no
defects in the interior, the front side produces a clear thermal image. Once
the evaluation algorithms have been applied to the material and geometry
of the objects to be tested and the type of defects to be detected have
been defined, minute defects can be detected reliably.102

Defects in packaging material are found by leakage testing devices. They
test the leak tightness of liquid or gas filled products – without applying
underpressure or force. The patented testing process uses a highly
sensitive gas sensor that can detect all reducible and oxidizable gases and
vapours of the packaged material. The process is well suited for inhaler
cartridges, aerosol cans, function parts filled with electrolyte, or gas shock
absorbers. Even empty packages can be tested with a nonhazardous
forming gas. The system is of modular design and can be flexibly adapted
to the applications at hand.103

Twist structures on cylindrical surfaces can be made visible with stray light
stripes. These structures emerge during machining and have considerably
affect for the wear and tear of seals. A twist depth as 200 nm and a period
length of 20 µm to 500 µm can be detected by handheld device during the
production process.104
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By means of impedance sensor technology, diverse material properties
can be examined, for instance coating with a thickness of a few nm, doping
of wafers for checking production processes or monitoring of cells under
the effect of toxic substances. A plethora of applications for this testing
process is to be presented at the SENSOR+TEST.105

Vibration & Sound
A measuring hardware platform for vibration and sound testing and
analysis stands for large number of applications with very diverse testing
requirements, for example in engine test rigs or highly sensitive testing in
the aerospace industry. In a single housing, up to 24 input channels with
24-bit A/D conversion and a sampling rate of approx. 100 kHz are
available. For a higher number of channels, the housings can be connect-
ed in series. Communication with the measuring computer is via a 1-Gbit/s
Ethernet interface. Control signals to vibration generators for vibration tests
and modal analysis are available.106

Climatic Chambers
The testing of lithium-ion batteries is a topic of special interest not only in
regard to the hazards of burning laptops, but rather in discussions on
electromobility. Battery testing on electric vehicles is defined by the
European Council for Automotive R&D into seven hazard levels that have
now been incorporated in a corresponding testing system. Not only can
temperature and humidity be changed, but rapid temperature changes,
vibration, corrosion effects, and air pollution can be reproducibly generat-
ed.107 Temperature changes at speeds of up to 25 K/min, freezing down to
-20 °C, salt spray tests, reproducible climatic tests in time-lapse mode, or
climatic cabinet dimensions for entire solar-panel arrays108 – the
SENSOR+ TEST offers all the equipment required for standards compliant
environmental testing.

Measuring and sensor technology can only provide reliable data if the
tolerances of the measured values are within specified limits. To ensure
this, the measuring values are compared to those of other measuring
devices and sensors that in turn have been compared with a more precise
measuring device. At the SENSOR+TEST, visitors will find a large number
of such calibration devices for the most diverse parameters. This applies to
the generation of low concentrations of toxic gases to the calibration of
corresponding sensors.109

A typical multifunction calibrator comprises the measuring device itself for
various parameters, but it may also simulate corresponding sensor signals.
This is often the case for basic electrical parameters such as voltage,
current, resistance, and frequency, but also for temperature or pressure –
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the accuracy being considerably better than that of standard sensors. For
the calibration of the test lead, the calibrator can precisely simulate the
signal and test the HART communication. Various pressure measuring
ranges are usually implemented via modules. Pressure is generated by
hand pumps or autarkic pressure generators.110 111 The more simple
versions concentrate on common voltages and currents at resistance
thermometers or thermo-elements. Optional are data logger or transient
recorder functionality. 112       Especially designed for calibrating of
temperature probes of various kinds, a plethora of calibration baths or dry-
block calibrators are presented at the SENSOR+TEST. Dry-block
calibrators can generate temperatures between -55 °C and +200 °C.113
Hand-held and laboratory device designed for pressure calibration are
being offered by various suppliers in Nürnberg. Air, water, or oil is often
used as a pressure medium, depending on the application of the test
piece. Hand pumps can be used to generate pressures up to 60 bar and
vacuums up to 50 mbar.114 Very professional is the calibration at DakkS
(Deutsche Akkreditierungsstelle GmbH) accredited calibration laboratories.
National standards compliant calibrators for pressure, temperature, flow,
etc. are located in climatized rooms with qualified staff.115 116

Other Parameters
Devices that defy the conventional division of product groups are also
presented at the SENSOR+TEST, demonstrating its diversity.

The status of refrigerants in refrigeration plants can be determined by a
low-cost opto-electronic multi-parameter system that continuously
measures humidity, blistering, temperature, and fill level of refrigerants.117

A new modular measuring, control, and automation systems with fully
tuned components, universal I/O modules, and comprehensive communi-
cation, evaluation, and automation software can be used in very diverse
applications. High measuring accuracy and control quality are very
advantageous for implementation in the food industry, furnace construc-
tion, or mechanical engineering.118

Microtechnology almost seems outdated when reading about nano-
positioning and nano-measuring devices. It is all about three-dimensional
manipulation of objects with an accuracy in the nanometre range. New
questions on metrology, design, and material engineering arise, and new
approaches are being developed.119 Other nano-positioning systems can
move payloads of up to 1 kg within 0.1 mrad of roll, pitch, and yaw via
traverse paths of up to 50 mm and in steps of up to 50 nm.120

A new adapter is supposed to connect practically any analog or digital
sensor signal via the microphone input of a smartphone with any web
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portal. Energy-harvesting components make the sensors self-sufficient. A
prototype for temperature and humidity measuring will be presented at the
SENSOR+TEST.121 The use of acoustic surface waves can sensitize
surfaces to touch or contact with water. This will be demonstrated at the
fair in Nürnberg.122

Low-noise universal lab amplifiers with a bandwidth of up to 720 kHz are
used to transform low currents into manageable voltages for pulse
amplifiers, lock-in preamplifiers, or automatic measuring.123 A handheld
with a digital display can be connected to various sensors, such as load
cells, rotary encoders, or pressure sensors. Besides a display, analogue
outputs and limit relays are available. The device supports the transducer
electronic data sheet (TEDS) and thus automatically adjusts to the
connected sensors.124

Eight sensors at a time can be powered and queried by parameterized
sensor islands via fibre optics in EMC loaded or hazardous areas. The
sensor island converts the acquired measuring data for further processing
in field-bus formats and enables integration in super-ordinate automation

To evaluate the odour of the passenger compartment of new cars or the
perspiration odour of shoes or socks, a portable electronic nose is
presented in Nürnberg. The object is to optimize the materials used. 126
Quick detection of alpha radiation in the vicinity of other radioactive
radiation can be performed by a measuring device from Russia.127

AMR sensors are used for highly dynamic electronic measurements of DC,
AC or pulsed currents with integrated galvanic isolation. Integrated in a
signal-conditioning ASIC, the measuring range is adjusted via the
geometry of an external current conductor. End-of-line sensitivity and offset
trimming are customer programmable. Intended is high-volume application
in electric vehicles, for instance.128 A Russian enterprise is presenting a
chip designed for wireless sensor networking in the 2.4 GHz band.129

Service Providers
Specific services can be obtained from many universities, research
institutes, and associations as well as from engineering consultants and
enterprises at the SENSOR+TEST. For example, Baden-Württemberg is
represented by the leading-edge cluster MicroTEC Südwest and Bavaria
by the Strategic Partnership Sensor Technology. Suppliers can be found
for the development, production, and sale of electronic and mechatronic
products130 as well as for the development for microsystems.131 And to
ensure that all important dates can always be called up, a special web-
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based project-management software is presented at the SENSOR+

A central meeting point in Nürnberg for all involved in sensor, measuring,
and testing technology: SENSOR+TEST – The Measurement Fair. A trade
fair with about 550 exhibitors, two forums for company presentations, an
action area for live demonstrations, various conferences – short
communication paths, quick information.

Press Contact:
AMA Service GmbH
Von-Münchhausen-Str. 49, 31515 Wunstorf, Germany
Brita Pape
Tel +49 5033 9639-14, Fax +49 5033 1056,

Press information on the SENSOR+TEST 2012 can be downloaded free of
charge for journalists at
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 Willow Technologies Ltd., Copthorne, Großbritannien
 PEWATRON AG, Zürich, Schweiz
 Sensofoil GmbH, Buchen
 HY-LINE Sensor-Tec Vertriebs GmbH, Unterhaching
 austriamicrosystems AG, Unterpremstätten, Österreich
 PEWATRON, Zürich, Schweiz
 ThetaMetrisis SA, Athen, Griechenland
 TETRA Gesellschaft für Sensorik, Robotik und Automation, Ilmenau
 attocube Systems AG, München
  PiL Sensoren GmbH, Erlensee
  arteos GmbH, Seligenstadt
  First Sensor Technology, Berlin
  EBE Elektro-Bau-Elemente GmbH, Leinfelden-Echterdingen
  Hochschule Mittweida, Forschungsgruppe Optronik, Mittweida
  Nanjing Gaohua Technology Co. Ltd., Nanjing, China
  AMSYS GmbH & Co. KG, Mainz
  Synotech Sensor und Meßtechnik GmbH, Hückelhoven
  Metrodyne Microsystem Corp., Hsin-Chu, Taiwan
  PEWATRON AG, Zürich, Schweiz
  Sensirion AG, Stäfa, Schweiz
  Hunan Firstrate Sensor Co. Ltd., Changsha City, Hunan Province, China
  Nanjing Gaohua Technology Co. Ltd., Nanjing, China
  Smartec B.V., Breda, Niederlande
  HYB d.o.o., Sentjernej, Slowenien
  Micro Sensor Co., Ltd., Baoji, Shaanxi Province, China
  Nanjing Wotian Technology Co. Ltd., Nanjing, China
  Synotech Sensor und Meßtechnik GmbH, Hückelhoven
  Driesen+Kern GmbH, Bad Bramstedt
  JUMO GmbH & Co. KG, Fulda
  Kavlico GmbH, Minden
  Sensor-Technik Wiedemann GmbH, Kaufbeuren
  SIKA Dr. Siebert & Kühn GmbH & Co. KG, Kaufungen
  ZEMIC Europe B.V., EN Etten-Leur, Niederlande
  mpk-LUDWIG UG, Nordhorn
  Manner Sensortelemetrie GmbH, Spaichingen
  Sensor-Technik Wiedemann, Kaufbeuren
  Willow Technologies Ltd., Copthorne, Großbritannien
  HY-LINE Sensor-Tec Vertriebs GmbH, Unterhaching
  Synotech Sensor und Meßtechnik GmbH, Hückelhoven
  Polytec GmbH, Waldbronn
  Microtech Gefell GmbH, Gefell
  Teramess GmbH, München
  Bronkhorst High-Tech B.V., Ruurlo, Niederlande
  Wagner Mess- und Regeltechnik GmbH, Offenbach
  Sensirion SG, Stäfa, Schweiz
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  Sensirion SG, Stäfa, Schweiz
  SENSeOR SAS, Mougins, Frankreich
  LIOS Technology GmbH, Köln
  FiberSensing – Sistemas Avancados de Monitorizacao, Maia, Portugal
  DIAS Infrared GmbH, Dresden
  LumaSense Technologies GmbH, Frankfurt am Main
  DIAS Infrared GmbH, Dresden
  FLIR Commercial Vision Systems BV, Breda, Niederlande
  DIAS Infrared GmbH, Dresden
  Nanjing Gaohua Technology Co. Ltd., Nanjing, China
  Ahlborn Mess- und Regelungstechnik GmbH, Holzkirchen
  AppliedSensor GmbH, Reutlingen
  UST Umweltsensortechnik GmbH, Geschwenda
  Willow Technologies Ltd., Copthorne, Großbritannien
  Sensirion AG, Stäfa, Schweiz
  SAMYOUNG S&C Co. Ltd., Sungnam-City, Kyoungki-do, Korea
  MBW Calibration AG, Wettingen, Schweiz
  HY-LINE Sensor-Tec Vertriebs GmbH, Unterhaching
  Avantes B.V., Apeldoorn, Niederlande
  InfraTec GmbH, Dresden
  PAS-Analytik GmbH, Hamburg
  KNESTEL Technologie & Elektronik GmbH, Hopferbach
  nanoplus Nanosystems and Technologies GmbH, Gerbrunn
  PEWATRON AG, Zürich, Schweiz
  PEWATRON AG, Zürich, Schweiz
  AnalitMephi LLC, Moskau
  Zhengzhou Winsen Electronics Technology Co., Ltd., Zhengzhou, China
  S3 EU-RF-Project, c/o CNR-IDASC, Brescia, Italien
  Ahlborn Mess- und Regelungstechnik GmbH, Holzkirchen
  Signal Mephi LLC, Moskau, Russland
  JUMO GmbH & Co. KG, Fulda
  gunytronic gasflow sensoric systems GmbH, St. Valentin, Österreich
  FUTEK Advanced Sensor Technology Inc., Irvine, CA, USA
  Ahlborn Mess- und Regelungstechnik GmbH, Holzkirchen
  Meilhaus Electronic GmbH, Puchheim
  ZES Zimmer Electronic Systems GmbH, Oberursel
  BMC Messsysteme GmbH, Maisach
  Astro-Med GmbH, Rodgau
  ADM Messtechnik GmbH & Co. KG, Langenselbold
  PEWATRON AG, Zürich, Schweiz
  Astro-Med GmbH, Rodgau
  Driesen+Kern GmbH, Bad Bramstedt
  LTT Labortechnik Tasler GmbH, Würzburg
  ADM Messtechnik GmbH & Co. KG, Langenselbold
  Synotech Sensor und Meßtechnik GmbH, Hückelhoven
  m+p International Mess- und Rechnertechnik GmbH, Hannover
  Matesy GmbH, Jena
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  MagCam NV, Leuven, Belgien
  Matesy GmbH, Jena
   ELSOMA Elektronik & Sondermaschinen GmbH, Schwerte
   mpk-LUDWIG UG, Nordhorn
   InfraTec GmbH, Dresden
   3S GmbH, Saarbrücken
   Matesy GmbH, Jena
   CiS Forschungsinstitut für Mikrosensorik und Photovoltaik GmbH, Erfurt
   m+p International Mess- und Rechnertechnik GmbH, Hannover
   Vötsch Industrietechnik GmbH, Balingen-Frommern
   Weiss Umwelttechnik GmbH, Reiskirchen-Lindenstruth
   AnalitMephi LLC, Moskau, Russland
   Teramess GmbH, München
   SIKA Dr. Siebert & Kühn GmbH & Co. KG, Kaufungen
   ADM Messtechnik GmbH & Co. KG, Langenselbold
   SIKA Dr. Siebert & Kühn GmbH & Co. KG, Kaufungen
   SIKA Dr. Siebert & Kühn GmbH & Co. KG, Kaufungen
   europascal GmbH, Hanau
   JUMO GmbH & Co.KG, Fulda
   CiS Forschungsinstitut für Mikrosensorik und Photovoltaik GmbH, Erfurt
   JUMO GmbH & Co.KG, Fulda
   Technische Universität Ilmenau, Ilmenau
   attocube Systems AG, München
   Hochschule München, Wirtschaftsingenieurwesen, München
   Hochschule Coburg, ISAT Institut für Sensor- und Aktortechnik, Coburg
   FUTEK Advanced Sensor Technology Inc., Irvine, Kalifornien, USA
   CiS Forschungsinstitut für Mikrosensorik und Photovoltaik GmbH, Erfurt
    3S GmbH, Saarbrücken
   AnalitMephi LLC, Moskau, Russland
   Sensitec GmbH, Lahnau
   Signal Mephi LLC, Moskau, Russland
   electronic service willms GmbH & Co. KG, Stolberg
   arteos GmbH, Seligenstadt
   Projektron GmbH, Berlin

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