Nationalism and Imperialism - Download as PowerPoint by smFF0Hn

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									 Nationalism
1800 to 1914
  Chapters 23-24
     Vocabulary Chap. 23 & 24
•   Chancellor       •   Home rule
•   Realpolitik      •   Provisional
•   Annex            •   Premier
•   Kaiser           •   Coalition
•   Reich            •   Libel
•   Social welfare   •   Expansionism
•   Anarchist        •   Abolitionist
•   Emigration       •   Isolationism
•   Emancipation
•   Electorate
•   Free trade
•   Repeal
       *Nationalism
a strong feeling of pride and
 devotion to one’s country
      Chapter 23
Nationalism triumphs in
         Europe
         Germany – Part 1
         Steps Toward Unity
• *Napoleon -1807-1812
  – Dissolved the Holy Roman Empire
  – Created the Rhine Confederation
     • freed serfs, made trade easier
     • abolished laws against Jews

• Some Germans excited about change
  – But many still wanted a united German State
     • Problem because there were so many small
       German States
   Looking for
    Solutions
• *Congress of Vienna
   – Created German
     Confederation –
      • Weak alliance connecting
        German States
   – Controlled by Austria

• Prussia Tariff Dismantles
  Trade in German States
   – Tried to unite at Frankfurt
     Assembly
      • To many opinions
  *Bismarck Unifies Germany

• Political Outlook
  -Realpolitik – realistic politics.
  – Power more important than Principle

• *Strengthening Army
  – Built up Prussian Army                Bismarck, Otto von 1862
     • With money for other purposes
  – Aligned with Austria
  – Annexed parts of Germany to control
    the German Confederation
        Germany At War
• Austria – lasted 7 weeks
  – Let them stay independent
• Denmark
• France 1870
  – Spurred German
    Nationalism
  – Revenge from Napoleon I –
    60 years earlier
1871 *Second Reich (Empire)
• New Government - William I King of Prussia
  – Constitution
  – Two- House Legislation
     • Bundesrat – Upper House
     • Reichstag – Lower House
  – Problems
     • Bundesrat could veto Reichstag
     • Real Power remain in hands of emperor
            and his close circle
 Looking to the Past and the
          Future!!!
 What was the 1st Reich??

   Holy Roman Empire

What was the 3rd Reich??

  WWII- Hitler’s 3rd Reich
               Summary
Use at least four sentences to summarize your
              notes up to this point.
                Germany –Part 2
               The Industrial Giant
•*Economic Progress                                •*Science, Government
  – Ample supply of Iron and
                                                   &Industry
    Coal                                           • Developed synthetic Chemical
  – Disciplined and educated                         and Dye
    work force                                     • University expansion to
  – Pop growth –                                     promote research
      •    41million in 1871 – 67 million
                                                   • Single Currency
          in 1917
  – Railroad, large factories                      • Coordinated Railroad



                     Karl Benz Patent Motorwagen - 1885
              The Iron
             Chancellor

• *Bismarck – Chancellor of the New
  German Empire
  – Sought to keep France weak
  – Known as the “Iron Chancellor”
    • Wanted to erase local loyalties, and all
      opposition
  – Targeted Catholic Church and Socialists
      *Campaign Against the
            Church
• Threat : Bismarck
   – Made up 1/3 of German Population
   – Loyal to Pope over German Leadership
• Action: Kulturkampf- “Battle for Civilization”
   – Demanded all citizens put loyalty to state first
   – Passed laws to supervise education and
     appointed Priests
• Result- Back fired, church rose up and
  Bismarck was forced to make peace
*Campaign Against Socialism
• Threat: German Marxists organized the
  Social Democratic Party
  – Called for improved conditions for working class
  – Bismarck feared revolution
• Action:
  – Dissolved the socialist group
     • Shutdown news paper, any gatherings were forbidden

• Result: Repression Backfired- Bismarck had
  to WOO workers
     - Health insurance, prompted social reform
          Kaiser William II
• *William II - 1888
  – Expanded social welfare
  – Transportation, electricity,
  – Public schools, etc.
  – Expanded the army and navy to win an overseas
    empire
  – Becomes Europe’s leading industrial giant


      What is William Promoting?
              Nationalism
             Summary
Use at least four sentences to summarize
         your notes up to this point.
                              Italy
• *Obstacles to Unify
  – Had been a battleground for foreign and local
    princes
  – Nationalists wanted to unite language & customs
  – City-states controlled by various empires
     • N W by Austria, NE by France
  – Nationalists - secret patriotic society

• *Giuseppe Mazzini
  – Nationalist leader – founded Young Italy
  – Lead Revolution,
     • Unsuccessful, though continued to unite Italy
                    Struggle for Italy
• 1848 Leadership of the Italian
  Nationalist Party handed over to
  Sardinia – located west of Italy.
    – Victor Emmanuel II
• *Giuseppe Garibaldi – Sicilian
  Nationalist
    – Ally to Mazzini, also wanted to create
      Italian Republic
    – *Red Shirts – 1000 Troops volunteers,
      went into battle with Garibaldi
“I offer hunger ,thirst, battles, and death. Let him who loves
    his country in his heart, and not with his lips only, follow
    me.” – Garibaldi
              Unity at Last
•Garibaldi- quickly took
         Sicily & Naples
  - Victor Emmanuel II-
  Crowned King over Italy

     •United Southern Italy 1861,
     Kingdom of two Sicily's,
     Papal state, Tuscany,
     Modena, Parma, &Lombardy
     – map pg. 579

     •Rome and Venetia added
     later

     •1870 a united Italy
                                    Turn to page 579
            Challenges- New Italy
                                      *Politics
  *Economy                  •   Victor Emmanuel –
                                Republic in name only
• Wealth                        – Constitutional Monarchy
  – North was rich              – Two House legislature
  – South poor and filled   •   Extended suffrage to
    with peasants               most men




    *Culture
 Roman Catholic
 Church – division              •Many emigrated to
 between church                 U.S., Canada, &
    and state                   Latin America
             Summary
Use at least four sentences to summarize
         your notes up to this point.
   Hapsburg Empire “Austria”
• Slowly declining
  – *Nationalistic feelings of
    Austria’s ethnic groups...
    Poles, Czechs, Slovaks,
    Ukrainians, Romanians,
    Serbs, Croats, Hungarians
    and German speaking
    Austrians
• 1866 defeat by Prussia
  caused a split
  – Creating Hungary-Austrian
    empire                       Coat of Arms of Austria-Hungary,
                                 adopted in 1915 to emphasize the
                                 unity of the Empire during WWI
               Ottoman Empire
• “Sick Old Man”
  ethnically diverse
• *Various groups
  revolted
  – Serbia 1817, Greece
    1830's, others followed
  – France, Britain, Austria
    began taking pieces of
    the Old Man
             Summary
Use at least four sentences to summarize
         your notes up to this point.
                          Russia
• *Conditions in Russia
  – Largest, most populous nation in Europe 1815
  – Economically underdeveloped - agricultural
  – Rigid social structure
     • Nobility - property, wealth, & power
     • Majority of population Serfs/peasants
  – Absolutism
     • Remained unaffected by Enlightenment & French Revolution
          Russia Absolutism
• Nicholas I – *Absolutism
  – Repression
     • Secret police to hunt liberators
     • Banned books from Western Europe
     • 150,000 exiled to Siberia
  – 3 Pillars of Russia
     • Orthodoxy – Russian Church and Government tied
     • Autocracy – absolute power state of the state
     • Nationalism – respect for tradition and suppression of
       non – Russian groups
                     * Alexander II
• Came to throne 1855 during Crimean War
  – Liberals & students wanted change and reform
• *Emancipation 1861 –
  • Serfs freed in name only – buy land/ no money
• Reforms:
  – Zemstvos- small local assemblies
  – Trial by Jury, Military reform
      • (25 yr. reduced to 15 yr.)
  – Liberate Women – education
• Radicals unhappy – terrorism began
• Assassination -1881
             *Alexander III
• Took Action:
  – Secret Police, Exiled critics
  – One language, one church
  – Persecuted Jews and Muslims


• Building Nationalism:
  – Rein in radicals, return order
  – Looking to united and move
    Russia forward into Industrial Age
  Russia enters the Industrial
             Age
• *Industrialization
  – Railroads connecting Iron
  – Coal mines with factories
  – Invested in foreign transportation and industry
• *Problems
  – Excessive growth in city, poor conditions, hours,
    pay, Peasant life did not change
                       Crisis
• Nicholas II – Alexander III son
  – Inherited throne & Problems
  – Not bright, but cared
• *“Peaceful March” 1905 – walking streets
  and singing hymns toward Winter Palace
  – Asking for justice and freedom
     • Constitution
     • Better working hours and wage
• Bloody Sunday
  – Palace feared crowd- sent troops out
  – Hundreds died and wounded
          *Revolution 1905
• Discontent – strikes ,take down
  Gov’t
• Nicholas II Presents :
  – *October Manifesto-
     • Freedom of thought,
       speech, assembly
     • Duma – elected national
       legislature
• Results: lasted 1 year
  – Prime Minister Peter Stolypin –issued
    conservative ideas, but also some
    reforms
             Summary
Use at least four sentences to summarize
         your notes up to this point.
Chapter 24- Growth of
 Western Democracies

(Happening During Industrial Revolution)
            Britain – *Parliament
• 1815 – Constitutional Monarchy w/
  parliament
  – 5% had right to vote – nobles, wealthy landowners
  – House of Lords – appointed, could veto
  – House of Commons – voted in members
    (wealthy country landowners &merchants)


• Problems
  – Population shift to from country to cities
  – Parliament only representing wealthy
      *Reforming Parliament
• The Great Reform Act 1832
  – Non-Protestant right to vote
  – Gave seats in House of Commons to city
     • Didn’t help rural or city poor
• Chartist Movement –Nationalism
  rise
  – Demanded universal male
    suffrage….Secret ballot
• New Era
  – 1867- extended suffrage all men
  – 1911- Lords could no longer veto House of
    Commons
“ Now mind you, - if I kill you, its nothing,
   If you kill me, by jingo its murder.”
              *Victorian Movement
• *Queen Victoria – (1837-1901)
  – Longest reign
  – Values:
     • Duty, thrift, honesty, hard work,
     • most important respectability
     • Wife was to be dutiful
  – Upper and Middle-class way of life
  – Working class could not match
Social & Economic Reforms
          (only write bold points)
• Tariff on international trade
  – Repealed Corn laws – tariff on grain
  – free trade – laissez faire
• *Campaign Against Slavery
  – 1807 abolished slave trade – first European
    Nation
  – 1833 banished slave use in Britain
• *Crime and punishment
  – 1800’s- 200 crimes punishable by death
  – 1850 – limited murder convictions
     • Murder, piracy, treason, arson
                  Working Class
• *4 Ghosts of the Poor:
   – Accident -Sickness
   - Old-Age - Unemployment


• *Working Class Reforms :
   –   1842- 10yrs. to work
   –   1847- 10hr. Day/ min wage
   –   Labor Union
   –   Free Education
   –   Civil Testing
   –   Social Programs
   –   Women suffrage 1918
     Ireland

• Peasants:             • *1845 Potato
  – Made up most of       Famine
    population            – ¾ Irish crops sent to
  – Paid high rent to       England
    English nobles        – 1845- disease his
  – High tithe to the       crops
    church                – 4years – 1 million
  – Under Britain's         died from famine
    control               – Nationalism Grew
Independence 1921 –
     after WWI




  Population Change in Ireland from
             1845-1851
          Summary

 Use at least four sentences to
summarize your notes up to this
             point.
France- *Napoleon III
• 1848-* 2nd Empire
  – Appealed to mass because of name and lines in
    classes
  – Government- Constitutional Monarchy
     • Actual dictatorship
  – Economic Growth – promoting Nationalism
     •   Prospered during mid 1800s
     •   Industrialized – industry, railroad, &urban renewal in Paris
     •    Labor Unions
     •   Public education, Social Programs
             Napoleon III Fall
• Foreign Failures
   – Helped Austrian Hapsburg empire gain Mexico, but
     backfired
   – Helped Italy Nationalist, but after Italy united, became
     rival on Frances border
• War with Prussia
   – Lured by Bismarck into war 1870
   – Captured in Sedan
   – Germany moved on Paris
            *Third Republic
• Republicans set up Provisional
  Government
  – Third Republic – with an elected
    National Assembly
• Harsh peace with Germany
  – Had to give up Alsace and Lorraine   US silver dollar sized
                                         5 franc coin from the
    states, along with large fine        Third Republic
  – Many opposed way of government
• Suppressed all opposing groups
  – Killed 20,000
• *Structure – Lasted 70 Years
  – Two House legislature
    • Lower legislature – elected by
      universal male suffrage
    • Senate – elected president of
      the senate, but had little power
  – Prime Minister – Most
    powerful
    • Coalition – alliance with one
      party
    • First 10 years – 50 different
      coalition governments were
      formed and fell
*Dreyfus Affair
          France – Reforms

• *Early 1900’s Reforms
  – Wages
  – Hours
  – Safety conditions
• *Separation of Church
                             • *Women's Rights
  and State
                               – 1896 – married women
  – End church involvement
                                 could control earnings
    in politics
                               – 1909 suffrage fight rises
  – 1905 passed law
                               – Did not win right to vote
                                 till after WWII
           Summary

 Use at least four sentences to
summarize your notes up to this.
          United States-
       *Territorial Expansion
Expansionism- extending a nations
  boundaries
• *Manifest Destiny – 1803-1898
   – Louisiana Territory Doubled U.S.
   – Florida, Oregon, Texas, California,
     Alaska, & Hawaiian Islands
• Settling the West - 4,000,000 between
  1820-1850
   – Gold, missionary work, homesteads
*Expanding Democracy
 • 1830’s- white men could vote
 • Calls for Abolition – end of
   slavery
   – As states/ territories joined union-
     division over pro/antislavery
 • *Women’s rights movements:
   – Women worked had about anti-
     slavery
   – 1848 –First organized women’s
     rights rally for voting rights
   – Did not win right to vote till 1918
                     Civil War
• Prelude:
   – *Division over Culture & Government – North &
     South
      • South – states should decide about slavery
      • North – Federal Gov’t decide about slavery
• *War 1861-1865
   – Southern states withdrew from Union
      • Formed Confederate States of America
      • Fewer people, resources, industry
   – North – unified, more resources
• 600,000 Americans Died – most in any American War
            Growth and Reform
• *Became the worlds
  leading industrial giant
  – Rapid urbanization
  – Immigrates – Irish, German,
    Chinese, Japanese, Jews,
    Italians, etc.
• *Had a tradition of
  isolationism – Limited
  involvement in world affairs
          Summary

 Use at least four sentences to
summarize your notes up to this
             point.
Next Imperialism
 Chapter 25&26

								
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