330_L09_Periodic_Puzzle by fB7N0g


									Date:                                                              Name:
Historical Background:
    In 1817, Johann Dobereiner (1780-1849) was one of the first scientists to make an attempt at
classifying the elements. He discovered groups of three elements that shared similar properties and
behavior and called these triads. The order that he assigned to each of the elements in a triad was based
on their properties and behavior, and also on their relative atomic masses. He found that the element
within the triad that was intermediate in properties and behavior to the two other elements also had an
atomic mass that was approximately equal to the average of the other two elements within the triad.
Examples of Dobereiner’s triads include: Calcium, Strontium and Barium; Chlorine, Bromine, and
Iodine; and Sulfur, Selenium, and Tellurium. In each triad the middle elements atomic mass is
approximately equal to an average of the other two elements.

     By 1863 49 elements had been identified. The noble gases had not yet been discovered. John
Newlands attempted a classification system of the elements based on their atomic masses. When he
arranged the elements in order of increasing atomic mass he recognized that the eighth element had
similar properties and behavior to the first element, the ninth element had similarities to the second and so
on. He arranged the elements into groups of seven with similarities every eighth element. He referred to
this pattern as the law of octaves, as in music.

     A Russian chemist, teacher, and author of several textbooks Dimitri Mendeleev agreed with
Newland’s basic idea except he felt that the reoccurrence of similar properties repeated after periods of
varying length. While he arranged the first two periods with seven elements each, the next two periods of
his table had seventeen each. Mendeleev was so confident of his arrangement that he left blank spots to
represent elements that had not yet been discovered. In fact, he was able to make predictions about the
properties and behavior for those elements based on the trends that his periodic table revealed. He felt
strongly that the properties and behavior of the elements were periodic functions of their atomic masses
and his table demonstrated this to be true. Other scientists agreed and were working on the same concept
but, Mendeleev was the first to get his table published and one of the very few to make bold predictions
about not yet discovered elements. However, there were a few inconsistencies in Mendeleev’s table.
When the elements were arranged in order of increasing atomic mass several of the elements seemed to
be out of position with regard to their properties and behavior. He accounted for these inconsistencies as
a problem with atomic masses that were poorly measured. When better measurements were made they
did not support Mendeleev’s explanation for these inconsistencies.

    In 1913 Henry Moseley demonstrated that the nucleus of every element has an integral positive
charge. These positive charges are due to the charge of the protons. It was concluded that each element
has a unique number of protons called the atomic number. The rearrangement of the elements on
Mendeleev’s table according to increasing atomic number instead of atomic mass explained the
inconsistencies that Mendeleev could not. It placed the elements in the correct arrangement with respect
to properties and behavior, as well as order of increasing atomic number.

The Modern Periodic Table and Modern Periodic Law:
     The modern periodic table has over one hundred elements arranged by group and period in order of
increasing atomic number. The modern periodic law states that when the elements are arranged in order
of increasing atomic number, similarities in properties and behavior occur at definite intervals. Elements
show their greatest similarity to one another within the vertical columns or groups on the periodic table.
This is because of the similar arrangement of the electrons in the elements outer shell or valence shell.
From an understanding of the arrangement of the elements on the periodic table one can recognize certain
CHEM                                                                LAB: PERIODIC PUZZLE

general trends and tendencies. Knowledge of these trends and tendencies is helpful in making predictions
about the properties and behavior of elements with which we may not be familiar.

Your Task:
A local high school is being renovated. However, in the process of moving chemicals from the old
chemistry storage room to a temporary storage location, the labels from the containers of the elements
came off. A group of students has arbitrarily labeled the containers by number and have determined some
useful information for each of the elements in the containers. Your teacher asks you to use the list of
information along with any other sources available to you (including your textbook and the internet) to
identify the elements in each of the containers.

Pages 3-14 give a list of the unknown elements in no particular order. Identify each element and the
requested information in the table.
 CHEM                                                         LAB: PERIODIC PUZZLE                                                                                      P.3

                  Actual Name of

                                                        Matter @ R.T.

                                                                           Noble-Gas /
                                                                                           Description of Properties, Behavior, Uses, and/or History

                                            Nonmet /



                                                        State of

                                                                                           Heaviest member of this group that is composed of only gases. It is
                                                                                           radioactive and is produced from the decay of uranium. Small amounts of
 1                                                                                         this gas are sometimes found in poorly ventilated basements of some

                                                                                           Very useful element. Obtained from the ore bauxite. Commonly used as a
                                                                                           foil for wrapping food.

                                                                                           Three common isotopes: protium, deuterium, & tritium. Lightest of all the
                                                                                           gases. Most abundant of all elements in the universe. Highly flammable
 3                                                                                         gas.

                                                                                           Used in semiconductor technology, as an alloy with lead in battery plates,
                                                                                           and in flame-proofing compounds. Latin name is stibium.

                                                                                           Highly radioactive synthetic rare earth element named for the west coast
                                                                                           state where it was discovered.

                                                                                           The most malleable and ductile element. Very good thermal and electrical
                                                                                           conductivity. Used as an international monetary currency. Once used in
 6                                                                                         coins but now only used in expensive jewelry. Latin name is aurum.

                                                                                           The largest member and only radioactive element of its group of most
                                                                                           active metals. Predicted by Mendeleev in the 1870’s but discovered in
 7                                                                                         1939 by Marguerite Perey at the Curie Institute in Paris and named for her
CHEM   LAB: PERIODIC PUZZLE                                                                               P.4
                              Element with the highest electronegativity value. Placed in public water
                              supplies to help fight dental cavities.

                              Radioactive element used in smoke detectors. Named for the country
                              considered to be the world leader.

                              Used in pyrotechnic devices to give a brilliant crimson color. Isotope –90 is
                              a radioactive product from nuclear fallout. It belongs to a group of active
10                            metals, but not as active as group IA.

                              One of only two liquid elements. This one is a reddish brown highly
                              volatile, highly reactive, and highly corrosive liquid. Used as an ingredient
11                            in anti-knocking compounds for gasoline, dyes, and as a fumigant.

                              The sulfate compound of this element is used as a contrasting medium in
                              medical X-rays. Gives a green color in the flame test. The carbonate is used
12                            as a rat poison. Name comes from the Greek word for heavy, barys.

                              An inert gas used with krypton in common light bulbs. Name comes from
                              the Greek word for inactive, argos.

                              A radioactive element. The heaviest member of its group of most active
                              nonmetals. Name comes from the Greek word for unstable, astatos. Similar
14                            to iodine it accumulates in the thyroid. Used as a medical tracer.

                              Plating thin layers of this element onto iron or steel is known as
                              galvanizing. Used with copper to make brass.

                              A soft bluish-white metal element used with nickel to make rechargeable
CHEM   LAB: PERIODIC PUZZLE                                                                                  P.5
                              An infamously poisonous element. Used in “doping” silicon for

                              Long ago this yellow element was referred to as “brimstone”. Used in
                              black gunpowder, and rubber vulcanization.

                              Obtained from the ores of hematite and magnetite. An essential element of
                              human blood.

                              The second most abundant element in the universe. Produced on the Sun by
                              nuclear fusion.

                              Formerly called “wolfram”, it is used as the filaments in electric light

                              It is the smallest member and has the highest first ionization energy of its
                              group. Similar, but not as reactive as the group IA metals. Its alloys are
22                            used in the aerospace industry as in parts for the space shuttles.

                              Radioactive element whose name comes from the Latin name for Paris, the
                              native city of its discoverer.

                              Colorless, non-reactive, monatomic element used mainly in brightly
                              colorful signs and lights.

                              Element that occurs in diamond look-alike gemstones. Very resistant to
CHEM   LAB: PERIODIC PUZZLE                                                                                 P.6
                              Name derived from the Greek word for odor, osme, because of the pungent
                              smell of its oxide compound. This element is used as a platinum hardener
26                            to make pen points and phonograph needles.

                              Soft, dense element obtained from the ore galena. Its Latin name is

                              Used in high intensity lights. Named for the northwestern European
                              countries of Norway, Sweden, and Denmark where it was discovered.

                              Radioactive isotopes of this element are used in thyroid disease diagnosis
                              and therapy. Its compounds have been used as antiseptics. A deficiency of
29                            this element produces the condition known as goiter.

                              Used as a heat transfer medium in thermonuclear weapons. It has the
                              highest first ionization energy of its group of most active metals, also is the
30                            smallest member. Produces an alkali solution and hydrogen gas with water.

                              Has the highest density of all the elements. Its compounds are very
                              colorful. Its name is from the Latin word for rainbow (also the name of a
31                            flower).

                              An element capable of bonding with itself to form innumerable
                              biologically and commercially important compounds. The branch of
32                            chemistry called Organic chemistry is based primarily on compounds of
                              this element.

                              A ferromagnetic element used in the alloys for coins. Used with cadmium
                              to make rechargeable batteries. Alloys of this element make armor plates.

                              Used for electrical, nuclear, and surgical parts because it is especially
                              resistant to chemical attack. Named for the king in Greek mythology who
34                            was condemned to stand in water that receded when he tried to drink.
CHEM   LAB: PERIODIC PUZZLE                                                                                P.7
                              It has the highest neutron-absorption cross-section of all the rare earth
                              elements. Obtained from monazite and bastnaesite ores. Named for the
35                            famous Finnish chemist Johann Gadolin.

                              Most commonly found diatomic molecule. Used to manufacture ammonia,
                              TNT, and fertilizers.

                              Rare earth element used in alloys to make flints for lighters. Named for the
                              mythological Roman goddess of agriculture, Ceres.

                              Element found in limestone and gypsum. Major element in bone and

                              Stable rare earth element whose name is derived from the Latinized form
                              of Stockholm, Sweden.

                              The highly fissionable isotope of this element is used in nuclear reactors
                              and weapons. Named after the ninth and farthest planet from the Sun.

                              The first synthetically produced element discovered in 1937. Not a rare
                              earth element. Used as a medical imaging agent as in angiograms. Name
41                            comes from the Greek word for artificial.

                              Extracted from kernite and borax. Compounds used to make glass,
                              propellant mixtures, and mild antiseptics and cleaning powders.

                              The element is used in photocells and as a catalyst in the atomic clock. Can
                              be found in the mineral pollucite.
CHEM   LAB: PERIODIC PUZZLE                                                                               P.8
                              Used to make laser materials, headphones, certain glass, and in nuclear
                              reactors. It has the highest resistance to demagnetization known. Named
44                            for the Russian Colonel Samarski, for whom its mineral is named.

                              This element accounts for 27.7% of the Earth’s crust. It is found in
                              common sand. Used extensively in semiconductors.

                              Element named for the scientist who won a Nobel prize in physics for
                              explaining the photoelectric effect.

                              Soft metal reacts readily with water to produce hydrogen gas and lye. The
                              element is found in common table salt. Symbol comes from its Latin name
47                            Natrium.

                              Colorless gas thought to be nonreactive but recently found to form a few
                              compounds. Used in newer car headlights. Name comes from the Greek
48                            word xenos, which means stranger.

                              Very resistant to corrosion. Used as a catalyst and in expensive jewelry.
                              Name derived from the Spanish word for small silver dish or plate.

                              Naturally radioactive element named for the native country of, Marja
                              Sklodowska who discovered it with her husband Pierre Curie.

                              Named for the Greek word for color because its compounds are very
                              colorful. Used to produce stainless steel.

                              This element’s name is derived from the Latin word for Russia, the country
                              of its discoverer.
CHEM   LAB: PERIODIC PUZZLE                                                                                 P.9
                              Discovered at the University of California in Berkeley and consequently
                              named for the city.

                              Its name is derived from the Greek word for ray, aktinos.


                              This highly poisonous gas is used to make water safe to drink. Name is
                              derived from the Greek word for “pale green”.

                              Used as a nuclear reactor fuel and in weapons. Named after the seventh
                              major planet from the Sun.

                              Sulfate compound of this element is called Epsom salt, after the town of
                              Epsom, England where the salt was first discovered.

                              Essential element to life. Major gas used with acetylene torches. Derived
                              from Greek meaning “acid former”.

                              Named after the scientist who discovered dynamite and who’s will awards
                              prizes annually for chemistry, physics, medicine or physiology, literature,
59                            economics, and world peace.

                              Salts of this element impart a lilac color to a flame. Reacts explosively
                              with water to produce its hydroxide compound and hydrogen gas. Latin
60                            name for this element is kalium.

                              First prepared from urine it is a solid nonmetallic element. Used in safety
                              matches, pyrotechnics, and fertilizers. Found in the cleaning compound
61                            “TSP”. It has three allotropes: white (or yellow), red, and black.
CHEM   LAB: PERIODIC PUZZLE                                                                                P.10
                              Used to color welders goggles and to make very strong permanent
                              magnets. Named from the Greek words neos didymos, which means new
62                            twins because of the two new elemental components from which it was

                              Element named for a famous Italian physicist who died two years after the
                              element was discovered in 1952.

                              This “d” block element is as strong as steel, but much lighter and twice as
                              strong as aluminum. It is nearly as resistant to corrosion as platinum. It is a
64                            component of joint replacement parts, including hip ball and sockets.

                              Inert gas that got its name from the Greek word for hidden. Some people
                              confuse it with the fictitious mineral that drains Superman’s powers.

                              Named after the mythological Scandinavian god of thunder and battle.


                              Element predicted by Mendeleev. He called it ekasilicon.


                              Discovered in 1944 and named after a famous husband and wife scientific
                              team in France.

                              A member of the most active group of metals. It has “ruby red”
                              spectroscopic lines and is named accordingly after them.

                              A solid nonmetallic element. Used in photocells and semiconductors.
                              Named for the Greek word for moon, selene.
CHEM   LAB: PERIODIC PUZZLE                                                                              P.11
                              Element used in lasers and color television tubes.


                              Famous for its use in the hat industry, but very poisonous. Ancient
                              element. Name in Latin is hydrargyrum, where it gets its symbol.

                              Discovered in 1961, this element is named for the inventor of the cyclotron
                              or “atom smasher”.

                              Element found in moon rocks. Used as the “phosphor” to produce the red
                              color in television screens.

                              It can be evaporated onto glass to form a mirror better than silver because it
                              is more resistant to corrosion. Named for indigo - a line in its atomic
75                            spectrum.

                              Its name is derived from Greek meaning green twins. Used in carbon arc
                              lights in the movie industry.

                              Discovered in 1955, it is named for the Russian chemist who contributed
                              greatly to the development of the periodic table. No real use.

                              Discovered by a French chemist in 1875 but predicted by Mendeleev in
                              1871 and given the temporary name of ekaaluminum.

                              A Mexican mineralogist first discovered this element in 1801. Named for
                              the mythological Scandinavian goddess of beauty, Vanadis.
CHEM   LAB: PERIODIC PUZZLE                                                                               P.12
                              This element is named for the planet and the mythological Roman god of
                              the sea.

                              Alloys of this metal are used as magnets. The isotope –60, is a strong
                              gamma emitter used in radiation treatment for cancer. A particular shade of
81                            blue gets its name from the blue salts of this element.

                              The oxides of this element and yttrium are used as the red phosphor in
                              television screens. Named for the continent directly across the Atlantic
82                            ocean.

                              A tarnish-resistant element used as a catalyst in the hydrogenation of
                              vegetable oils to make them more solid. Named for the asteroid Pallas,
83                            which was discovered at the same time as the element.

                              A rare and highly toxic element similar to uranium. Its name is derived
                              from actinium, the element it disintegrates into by alpha decay.

                              Its symbol comes from its Latin name, cuprum. Widely used for electrical
                              wiring. It is also used as a coinage metal.

                              Used as an x-ray source in portable x-ray devices. Named for the Swedish
                              town of Ytterby, where it was discovered.

                              Element used in alloys of steel to make it harder. This alloy, along with
                              chromium, is often used in tools and is referred to as chrom-moly steel.

                              A strong beta emitter, this element gets its name from the mythological
                              Greek Titan Prometheus, who stole fire from Olympus and gave it to man.
CHEM   LAB: PERIODIC PUZZLE                                                                               P.13
                              Highly toxic metallic element used in rodent and ant poisons. Also used in
                              photocells, infrared detectors, and low-melting glass. Its name comes from
89                            the Latin thallus, meaning a green shoot, because of its spectral lines.

                              A rare luminescent radioactive element. It had been used as a luminescent
                              paint as in watch and clock faces. Discovered by Marja Sklodowska and
90                            her husband Pierre Curie who isolated it from pitchblend.

                              An element also discovered in Ytterby, Sweden. Used in alloys, nuclear
                              research, and to color glass.

                              This element is the best heat and electrical conductor of all the metals.
                              Used in jewelry and coins. Its symbol comes from its Latin name
92                            argentum.

                              A soft silvery gray metal used in nuclear research as a neutron absorber.


                              Used in lighter flints and in carbon-arc searchlights.


                              Formerly called columbium, it is used in superconductivity research. Name
                              comes from Niobe, the daughter of Tantalus of Greek mythology. Name
95                            has to do with tantalite, the mineral in which it is found.

                              Silvery metal favored for its resistance to corrosion. Often used to coat
                              other metals. Cans and foil used to be made of it. Its symbol comes from its
96                            Latin name stannum.

                              A rare metal that is used as with tungsten to make thermocouples for
                              measuring high temperatures. Its name comes from the Latin word Rhenus,
97                            for the Rhine river in Germany.
CHEM   LAB: PERIODIC PUZZLE                                                                               P.14
                              The isotope –170 is used in portable x-ray equipment because it is a strong
                              x-ray emitter. Its name comes from Thule, the most northerly region of the
98                            ancient world.

                              Combined with steel to give it strength and hardness. When combined with
                              other metals makes them ferromagnetic. The dioxide compound is a
99                            common catalyst for producing oxygen from hydrogen peroxide.

                              A brittle metallic element used in low melting point alloys as with fire
                              sprinklers. Compounds are used in cosmetics and medicine. Main
100                           ingredient in Pepto-bismol, an over-the-counter medicine for indigestion.

                              Used in the manufacturing of filaments for light bulbs and in nuclear
                              reactor control rods. Name is derived from the Latin word for Copenhagen,
101                           Denmark, Hafnia.

                              Alloys of this element improve the properties of stainless steel. Name
                              derived from the Latin word for earth, tellus.

                              A silvery white metal that is especially hard. Used to plate metals to make
                              them durable and corrosion resistant. Name comes from the Greek word
103                           for rose, the color of its compounds, as in a rhododendron’s red flowers.
CHEM                                            LAB: PERIODIC PUZZLE                                               P.15


                                         The Periodic Table of the Elements

       1                                                                                                      2

       3    4                                                                      5     6     7    8    9    10

       11   12                                                                    13    14    15    16   17   18

       19   20   21   22    23    24    25    26       27        28    29    30   31    32    33    34   35   36

       37   38   39   40    41    42    43    44       45        46    47    48   49    50    51    52   53   54

       55   56   57   72    73    74    75    76       77        78    79    80   81    82    83    84   85   86

       87   88   89   104   105   106   107   108     109       110    111

                 58   59    60    61    62    63       64        65    66    67   68    69    70

                 90   91    92    93    94    95       96        97    98    99   100   101   102

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