Articles of Confederation - Download as DOC

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					                                 Articles of Confederation
•Approved November 15, 1777
•Est. “a firm league of friendship” between the states
•Needed the ratification of the 13 states
•March 1, 1781 Second Continental Congress declared the Articles effective
                                 Articles of Confederation
• Powers of Congress:
    – Make war and peace
    – Send and receive ambassadors
    – Make treaties
    – Borrow money
    – Set up a money system
    – Est. post offices
    – Build a navy
    – Raise an army by asking the states for troops
    – Fix uniform standards of weights and measures
    – Settle disputes amoung the states
                                 Articles of Confederation
• States Obligations:
    –   Pledge to obey the Articles and Acts of the Congress
    –   Provide the funds and troops requested by the congress
    –   Treat citizens of other states fairly and equally
    –   Give full faith and credit to public acts, records, and judicial proceedings
    –   Submit disputes to congress for settlement
    –   Allow open travel and trade b/w and among states
    –   Primarily responsible for protecting life and property
    –   Accountable for promoting the general welfare of the people

                               Weaknesses of the Articles
                               Critical Period, the 1780’s
•   Revolutionary War ended on October 19, 1781
•   Signed the Treaty of Paris
•   With Peace comes hardships
     – Economic problems
     – Political problems
    – Problems a result of the weaknesses of A of C
                                 Critical Period, the 1780’s
• Problems included
   – ________________________________ who could not act
   – States entering into treaties
   – States taxing on ________________ and _____________________________
   – Debts, public and private were unpaid
• ______________________________
   – Farmers were losing their land
   – Shut down courts
   – Led and attack on Federal arsenal
   – Mass. State legislature eases the burden of debtors

                          NEED for a Strong Central Government
•Two states meet to discuss Trade issues
  – Maryland and Virginia
  – Meet at Mount Vernon
•The meeting was so successful that the __________________________________
    requested a meeting of all thirteen States, which eventually became the Constitutional
    Convention in Philadelphia.

                                 A meeting in Philadelphia
•   Mid-February of 1787
•   Seven states name delegates
     – Delaware, Georgia, New Hampshire, New Jersey, North Carolina, Pennsylvania,
       and Virginia
•   A meeting: Constitutional Convention

                               Framers of the Convention
                        Leaders of the Philadelphia Convention
•   _______________________ was the co-author of the Articles of Confederation.
•   Gouverneur Morris was a lawyer who helped develop the U.S. system of money.
•   Alexander Hamilton was a lawyer who favored a strong central government.
•   _______________________ was the successful leader of the Continental Army.

          Some famous leaders who were NOT at the Philadelphia Convention
•   Patrick Henry said he _______________________________and refused to attend.
•   Samuel Adams and John Hancock were not selected as delegates by their states.
•   Thomas Jefferson and Thomas Paine were in ____________________
•   ___________________________ was on diplomatic missions to England and Holland.
                               Organization and Procedures
•   Meet summer of 1787 in Philadelphia
•   Elected George Washington as president of the convention
•   Majority of States needed to conduct business
•   _____________________________ per State on all matters
•   Majority of votes needed to pass proposals
•   Worked in S_________________________

• James Madison:
   – Kept detail records of the convention
   – Conventions Floor leader
   – Contributed more to the constitution than any other
• Full body settled all questions
                  The Virginia Plan: Called for a NEW Government

• T___________________________________________ of government
   • Legislature, Executive, and Judicial
• Bicameral legislature
   • Based on population or money given to support the central government
   • Members of House of Reps = _________________________________
   • Senate = chosen by House from a list from the State Legislature
   • Congress would be given powers it had under the A of C
   • ____________________any State law that conflicted with National Law
   • “____________________________ and _____________________________”
      • Council of Revision
      • Veto acts passed by Congress (but can be overridden by Congress)
   • State officers should take an Oath to a Union
   • Admit new States to the Union
                                   The New Jersey Plan
•   _________________________________Congress of the Confederation
     – Each state equally represented
•   Add closely limited powers
     – Tax and regulate trade
•   Federal Executive
     – More than ___________________________
     – Chosen by Congress/could be removed with maj. Vote
•   Federal Judiciary
     – Single “supreme Tribunal”
     – Selected by Executive

                             Differences between the plans
•   How should the states be represented in Congress?
     – Based on population?
     – Financial contribution?
     – State equality?
•   4 weeks they deliberated
     – Heated debate
     – Lines drawn in the sand
                                     The Compromises
•   _______________________________________________
     – Two houses
     – Senate – equal representation
     – House – proportional representation
•   Combination of Virginia and New Jersey plans
•   AKA: The Great Compromise

•   ___________________________________________________
     – Should Slaves be counted?
     – Split North v South
     – All “free person’s” will be counted; 3/5 of all other persons
     – Southerners could count slaves but had to pay taxes on them

•   __________________________________________________
     – Congress = power to regulate foreign and interstate trade
     – Scared southerners
     – Congress: forbidden the power to tax the export of goods from any state
     – Could not act on the slave trade for 20 years
                                     Influences on
                                 the New Constitution
• The Framers were familiar with the political writings of their time
   – Jean Jacques Rousseau (________________________________________)
   – ___________________________________ (Two Treaties of Government).
• They also were seasoned by
   – The Second Continental Congress,
   – The Articles of Confederation and
   – Experiences with their own State governments.

                                       Reactions to
                                   the New Constitution
• When the Constitution was complete, the Framers’ opinions of their work varied.
  Some were disappointed, like George Mason of Virginia, who opposed the
  Constitution until his death in 1792.
• Most agreed with Ben Franklin’s thoughts when he said,
   “From such an assembly [of fallible men] can a perfect production be expected?
  It…astonishes me, Sir, to find this system approaching so near to perfection as it

                                  Ratifying the Constitution
•   __________________________________
     – Articles of Confederation were weak
     – argued for the ratification of the Constitution.
     – James Madison
     – Alexander Hamilton
•   __________________________________________
     – objected to the Constitution for including the strong central government
     – the lack of a _____________________________________
     – Patrick Henry, John Hancock, Samuel Adams
                                The Constitution is Ratified
• _____________________________ ratified the Constitution by June 21, 1788, but the
    new government needed the ratification of the large States of New York and Virginia.
• Great debates were held in both States, with Virginia ratifying the Constitution June
    25, 1788.
• New York’s ratification was hard fought. Supporters of the Constitution published a
    series of essays known as The Federalist.

                               Inaugurating the Government
•   The new Congress met for the first time on March 4, 1789.
•   Congress finally attained a __________________________ (majority) on April 6 and
    counted the electoral votes. Congress found that George Washington had been
    unanimously elected ____________________________. He was inaugurated on April

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