The Slave Trade - PowerPoint by cVeXWP

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									Slavery in Africa
European - African
Pre-Slavery Trade
  European Background
• Portuguese started African slave trade in
  1441
• First Africans in Hispanola in 1505
• 1450-1850 ~12 million Africans sent to
  Americas
               Why Africans?
• No written language , many languages
• Native Americans dying off Some degree of
  disease resistance
• No muskets and gunpowder
• Africans participated in trade by enslaving others,
  selling debtors and criminals, and kidnapping
• Skilled workers
  – Knew how to extract precious ore from mines
  – Familiar with soils and crops
• Not familiar with the land—making escape
  less likely
        How to Get Slaves?
• TRADE!
  – Africans traded slaves for manufactured goods
    like clothe, silk, guns, pots, and copper

• African Kingdoms (Asanti) gained wealth
  and power from the trade
  – States sold POW (method of deportation)
  – Participated to defend themselves
• African “entrepreneurs” Middle Men
  – Kidnapping
                          Capture
• The original capture of slaves was almost always violent.
• As European demand grew, African chieftains organized
  raiding parties to seize individuals from neighboring societies.
• Others launched wars specifically for the purpose of
  capturing slaves.
      March to the Coast




• What does this picture tell you?
   – Europeans did not penetrate the African interior
   – Guns
Slave Trade in the Congo
Cape Coast Castle, W. Africa
What role did geography play in the
        Triangle of Trade?
   Correcting Misconceptions
Africans sold their brothers and sisters into
 slavery




There was no one African identity
Africa is a BIG place—many different ethnic
  groups
       Portuguese Slave Trade

• The Portuguese
  population was too
  small to provide a
  large number of
  colonists.
• The sugar
  plantations required
  a large labor force.
• Slaves filled this
  demand.                Europeans and Africans
                             Meet to Trade
         Slave Trade and Sugar
• Portuguese crop
  growers extended
  the use of slave
  labor to South
  America.
• Because of this,
  Brazil would
  eventually become
  the wealthiest of the
  sugar-producing
  lands in the western
  hemisphere.
European Slave Trade
               Plantations
• After crossing the Atlantic, most African
  slaves went to plantations in the tropical or
  subtropical regions of the western
  hemisphere.
• The first was established by the Spanish on
  Hispaniola in 1516.
• Originally the predominant crop was sugar. In
  addition to sugar, plantations produced crops
  like tobacco, indigo, and cotton.
• In the 1530s Portuguese began organizing
  plantations in Brazil, and Brazil became the
  world’s leading supplier of sugar.
                      Plantations
• All were
  designed to
  export
  commercial
  crops for profit.
• Relied almost
  exclusively on
  large amounts of
  slave labor
  supervised by
  small numbers of
  European or
  Euro-American
                      Brazilian sugar mill in the 1830s
  managers.
As the major European powers of Portugal, Britain, France, and the
Netherlands looked for ways to exploit the fertile lands of the New
World, they looked to Africa for a steady supply of labor. Soon,
African slaves had become absolutely vital to the cultivation of sugar,
tobacco, cotton, and rice plantations.

As European demand for sugar began to increase, plantations began to
spring up throughout Brazil and the Caribbean. Sugar cultivation
created a huge demand for slave labor from Africa. Many plantations
produced additional crops such as indigo, rice, tobacco, and
coffee.
           Justification
• Slavery made development of the New
  World profitable
• Native American slaves died of diseases,
  escaped easily
• African tribes
  needed weapons
  and supplies
  from Europe
          Slavery Expands
• In 1518, the first shipment of slaves went
  directly from West Africa to the Caribbean
  where the slaves worked on sugar
  plantations.
• By the 1520s, the Spanish had introduced
  slaves to Mexico, Peru, and Central America
  where they worked as farmers and miners.
• By the early 17th century, the British had
  introduced slaves to North America.
“Black” Gold for Sale!
Triangular Trade
           Exportation
• Trip called the Middle
  Passage
• 5000 miles, 3 wks. to
  3 mos.
• 20-25% died
• Strip Africans’ self
  respect and self
  identity
    The Middle Passage




Unimaginable Suffering
Slave Master Brands
The Middle Passage
The Middle Passage
   Correcting Misconceptions
Africans sold their brothers and sisters into
 slavery




There was no one African identity
Africa is a BIG place—many different ethnic
  groups
Notice of a Slave Auction
Inspection and Sale
          First Slave Auction
New Amsterdam (Dutch New York City - 17c)
IMPACT ON WEST AFRICA

Europeans began the
Atlantic slave trade in
the 1500s. Their
colonies in the
Americas needed
labor to work on large
plantations. European
traders sold enslaved
Africans to colonists.
Families were split
up, and many people
died. By the time the
slave trade ended in
the 1800s, millions of
Africans had been
taken from their
homes.
    Impact of Slave Trade on the Americas


•Cultural Diffusion –
      --The slave trade spread ideas
      and goods between cultures (cultural diffusion).
      --Europeans brought new weapons to Africa.
      --Africans brought part of their culture (like music
      food, traditions, Language) to the Americas.

								
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