globalisation

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					   THE IMPACT OF
 GLOBALISATION AND
   TRADE UNIONS
Main Challenges for the Labour Movement
GLOBALISATION AND A
LABOUR AGENDA
• Major dimension of globalisation:defining
  the concept
• Globalisation and polarisation
• Impact of globalisation on Workers’
  Organisations
• The challenge:govern or fight globalisation
• The ILO agenda: Decent Work
GLOBALISATION:
HISTORICAL
DEVELOPMENTS
• Continuity or radical changes in:

  – Technology

  – Evolution of means of transportation

  – Political changes
      GLOBALISATION OF:
• Trade
• Production
• Finance

• Cultures
• Politics
GLOBALISATION OF TRADE
• MNEs develop:
  – World market
  – Regional markets
• Production still based in few industrialised
  countries:
  – Fordism/Taylorism
  – Standardisation of products
      GLOBALISATION OF
       PRODUCTION (1)
• Transition to post-Fordism / Toyotism
• Decentralisation of production units /
  outsourcing
• Flexibility in production lines
• Reduction of workers
• New job profiles (skilled workers)
• Diversification of products
  – MNEs operating on a global scale
      GLOBALISATION OF
       PRODUCTION (2)
• 40,000 MNEs
• First 100 MNEs control 1/3 of FDI
• First 200 MNEs produce 1/3 of world GNP
  with around 20 million workers
• Around a 1/3 of world GNP produced by
  less than 1% of the total world labour force
  (2.5 billion workers)
       GLOBALISATION OF
          FINANCE (1)
• Political decisions to liberalise capital’s
  circulation

• Creation of a global financial network

• Daily transactions: more than 2000 billion
  US $ (50 times the volume of world trade)
        GLOBALISATION OF
           FINANCE (2)
• Where does this money come from?
  –   Productivity (transition to post-Fordism)
  –   Reduction of salaries and welfare
  –   Pension funds
  –   Financial resources allocated for speculation
  –   Low investments (saturated traditional markets)
GLOBALISATION OF
CULTURES
• Development of the media via satellites
• Global media concentration
• Advertising
• 6000 world languages (95% of world
  population speak around 100 languages)
• One world language for business
GLOBALISATION OF
POLITICAL SYSTEMS
• New geopolitical system

• Development of democratic principles

• Human rights and core labour standards as
  universal values
      OTHER FACTORS OF
      GLOBALISATION (1)
• Neo-liberal policies
• Structural Adjustment Programmes
  (S.A.P.’s) and the new policies of the IMF
  on Poverty Reduction (P.R.S.P.)
• Privatisation of public enterprises
• Privatisation of welfare/social protection
      OTHER FACTORS OF
      GLOBALISATION (2)
• Fiscal crises if national states
• Reduction of tariffs & trade barriers (GATT
  and WTO)
• Concentration of capital (mergers)
• Development of new products (New
  Economy): services and information
• Digital divide
THE DIGITAL DIVIDE (3)
• 60 billion web pages
• Between 300-400 million of web-sites
• 200 million users
• 95% of users in the north hemisphere
• 60% of users visit 4 major web-sites: AOL-
  Time Warner, Yahoo, MSF, Napster
• 52% of web sites in English
      GLOBALISATION OR
      POLARISATION? (1)
• Foreign Direct Investments (FDI)
  – 47 LDC receive 0.7% of FDI


• Percentage in World Trade
  – Africa 1%
      GLOBALISATION OR
      POLARISATION? (2)

• Income distribution
  – 1/5 of world population controls 80% of
    world’s resources
  – 1% of world GNP generated by 20% of world
    population
GLOBALISATION OR
POLARISATION? (3)
• 250 million children at work
• 1/3 of the world labour force is
  underemployed or unemployed
• Number of “official”unemployed is of 160
  million workers with an increase of 20
  millions after the Asian crises.
    Impact of Globalisation on
    Workers’ Organisations (1)
• Decrease of trade union density
• From national agreements/negotiations to
  enterprise/individual agreements
• Abolition of check off systems
• Weak tripartite machineries
• Increase of the informal sector
    Impact of Globalisation on
    Workers’ Organisations (2)
• Increases of atypical forms of labour
  (contract labour)

• Increase of EPZs

• Global attack against core workers’ rights
Impact of Globalisation on
Workers’ Rights (3)

• 80 of 113 governments restrict the right to
  strike
• 3000 trade unionists arrested
• 140 trade unionists assassinated
• 12.000 unionists unfairly dismissed
 THE CHALLENGE:GOVERN
        OR FIGHT
   GLOBALISATION?(1)
• Organising / Global unions
• Extension of the European Works Councils
  (Global representation of workers/global
  agreements)
• Framework Agreements (Codes of Conduct)
 THE CHALLENGE:GOVERN
        OR FIGHT
   GLOBALISATION?(2)
• Trade union networking and global
  solidarity
• Globalisation of workers’ rights: ILO
  Declaration
• Social Clauses
 THE CHALLENGE:GOVERN
        OR FIGHT
   GLOBALISATION?(3)
• Co-ordination of economic, trade, and
  social policies

• Social dimension of globalisation and the
  role of the ILO in the world agenda (G8 and
  relationships with IMF/WB/WTO
          THE ILO AGENDA:
           DECENT WORK
• Decent Work and the role of the ILO to
  enhance:
  –   Workers’ rights
  –   Employment
  –   Social protection
  –   Social Dialogue
WORKERS’RIGHTS
• Ratification and implementation of core
  labour standards (eight core conventions)
• Ratification and implementation of
  international labour standards
• Participation to the ILS supervisory system
  and to the follow-up of the Declaration
EMPLOYMENT

• Employment policies

• Development of SME
SOCIAL PROTECTION
•   Development of social security systems
•   Pension and retirement schemes
•   Other welfare benefits
•   Safety nets for the informal sector
•   O.S.H. and the Environment
SOCIAL DIALOGUE
• Development of tripartism
• Strengthening workers’ and employers’
  organisations
• Strengthening tripartite machineries
• Strengthening negotiations between social
  patners at national/enterprise/national level
PROGRAMME FOR
WORKERS’ ACTIVITIES OF
THE ILO TURIN CENTRE
(ACTRAV)
       • THANK YOU!

				
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posted:7/27/2012
language:English
pages:29