Gender Sensitive BDS Guide

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					                                                                             2009



               Gender Sensitive BDS Guide
Business Development Services for PSNP PLUS Beneficiaries




PSNP PLUS Project



                                                                             Publisher: CARE Ethiopia
                                                                             Author: Afework Yohannes
                                                                             BCaD-Consulting Management




This manual was prepared under the USAID funded project PSNP Plus, RFA – 663-A-08-15. The views and
recommendations expressed in this report are those of the authors and do not necessarily represent those of USAID.
                                            TABLE OF CONTENT
Acronyms ........................................................................................................ 3
1 Background .............................................................................................. 5
2 Introduction .............................................................................................. 5
3 Business Development Services (BDS) ................................................... 6
4 Special Features of the BDS Guide ......................................................... 7
  4.1 Gender Sensitization .......................................................................... 7
  4.2 Business Analysis .............................................................................. 8
  4.3 Goal Orientation ................................................................................. 9
5 Who should be a Facilitator? .................................................................... 9
6 STEPS in the BDS Facilitation ............................................................... 11
  Step 1: Preparatory Activities .................................................................... 11
  Step 2: Visits .............................................................................................. 12
  Step 3: Mapping......................................................................................... 13
  Step 4: Selecting operators ....................................................................... 14
  Step 5: Informing operator and Close relatives .......................................... 14
  Step 6: Situation Analysis .......................................................................... 15
    Day 1-Goal Setting ................................................................................. 15
    Day 2-Task Identification ........................................................................ 15
    Day 3-SWOT Analysis First Part (Internal Analysis) .............................. 16
    Day 3-SWOT Analysis second part (External Analysis) ......................... 16
    Day-4 Situation Analysis Mapping.......................................................... 16
    Day 5-Confirm Situation Matrix with Operator ........................................ 16
    Day 5-Distinguishing Roles .................................................................... 17
  Step 7: Elaborate Action Plan .................................................................... 17
    Agreement on the Action Plan................................................................ 17
  Step 8: Implementation .............................................................................. 17
  Step 9: Monitoring and Evaluation: ............................................................ 18
  Step 10: Report Writing ............................................................................. 18
Annexes ........................................................................................................ 19
  Annex-1: Steps for Strategy formulation: ................................................... 19
  Annex-2: Situation analysis summary table: .............................................. 20
  Annex-3: SWOT Analysis Framework: ...................................................... 21
  Annex-4: Action Plan Form: ....................................................................... 25
  Annex 5: Monitoring & evaluation Reporting Format ................................. 26
  Annex 6: Simple Business Plan ................................................................. 27
  Annex 7: Trainer Guide for BDS Training of Experts (ToE) ....................... 32
  Annex 8: Training schedule for BDS .......................................................... 35




                                                                                                                      2
Acronyms
BDS – Business Development Service

IGA – Income Generating Activities

LDCs – Least developed countries.

MSE – Micro and Small Enterprises

SWOT – Strength, Weakness, Opportunity and Threat

WE – Women Entrepreneurs

PSNP-Productive Safety Net Program




                                                    3
Prelude

Consortium lead by CARE Ethiopia which include Save-UK, CRS, REST, SNV
and Tuft university initiate PSNP PLUS project to facilitate graduation of PSNP
beneficiaries through linking PSNP-Plus beneficiaries to micro finance and
market. A preliminary work is planned to provide livelihood skills training,
business skill training and business development service to beneficiaries in the
selected target area.

Those beneficiaries are expected to benefit from increased self-reliance, self-
confidence, and their enhanced status in the family and community and it is assumed
that through the program the livelihood and thus the poverty situation of PSNP PLUS
beneficiaries and their households are improved and their vulnerability reduced. It is
also expected that the capacity to plan, participate or undertake and manage
development interventions at community levels will be strengthened.

The PSNP-PLUS program primarily aims at developing and testing a new integrated
approach for sustainable livelihood of beneficiaries as well as for adult education at
national level. Thus the emphasis is on developing models of good practice or
appropriate well working solutions for one of the most striking problems in Ethiopia.




                                                                                        4
1 Background
From various surveys, it is learnt that the opportunities for on-farm and/or off-farm
income generation schemes are limited and the demand in various skill training areas
is wide. However, being a literate and trained in certain skills do not guarantee
success, unless and otherwise one knows how to make a business. Under PSNP
PLUS skills training is considered as part of enhance quick graduation through
engaging in various income generation activities. Experience shows that many adults
have been trained in community skill training centres in different skill areas and few of
the trainees engaged in income generation activities and improved their life. Actually,
those trainees who participate in such skill training courses may not be in a position to
create self employment businesses because they lack a skill on how to run a business.
Another point is also business skill training will not be enough by itself as Business
Development Service (BDS) need to be provided to them to ensure that they have
practiced their business skills to run their business and become profitable.

In line with this, PSNP Plus consortium has planned to provide training on business
skills and BDS within its skills training component.


2 Introduction
This BDS Facilitation approach is reinforced with concerns of gender sensitization and
goal orientation. This Guide underlines that IGA operators should be far sighted i.e.
think beyond their short term sales and profits and formulate a plan to expand their
businesses with a long term perspective of satisfying the customer and staking out a
reliable market by building competitiveness. Hence, supporting IGAs operated by
PSNP-PLUS beneficiaries to formulate VISION, MISSION and GOAL will be
necessary.

Moreover, sensitising the BDS approach to:

   1. Gender,

   2. Business analysis, and

   3. Goal orientation

would enhance its quality in that it becomes more customer-oriented and eventually
marketable as a product apart from its leverage effect on economic development. This


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further requires the facilitator to periodically assess the BDS market and customise
the approach accordingly. Thus, including a training session on Gender Sensitisation,
Analysis of the needs of           customers vs. the business definition of PSNP+
beneficiaries and Goal setting as part of the BDS facilitation training would help the
facilitator to prepare for a more challenging but fruitful task. Therefore, this Gender
Sensitive BDS Guide has three dimensions of situation analysis. The first dimension
deals with gender sensitisation, the second deals with business analysis whereas the
third deals with formulation of a Customised BDS in the light of business vision,
mission and goal. It is believed that the Demand Driven BDS should focus more on
the real needs than the felt needs. This assessment could further lead to the design
of a simple action plan for intervention with the aim of attaining the stated goal on the
business plan of the IGA operating woman.

In this context felt needs are those which the operator speaks out from the top of her
mind as an immediate problem to be solved whereas the real need is objectives
oriented and focuses on strategic issues i.e. needs for long-term business
perspective.


3 Business Development Services (BDS)
Businesses flourish when properly nurtured with different development services as
needed. Especially, women operated IGAs badly need these services on demand
basis. When we say on demand, it means that BDS would be more effective when
there is a specific problem within an IGA which could be mitigated with such
intervention. Generic services can be wastage of resources and time. Hence, the
services need to be tailored to the specific needs of a single enterprise. Generic and
readymade BDS can be accessed when it is appropriate and demanded.

BDS can be a range of services at macro, meso and micro levels which are crucial to
upgrade a business enterprise to a better position from its current status.

Many literatures take BDS to be non-financial service. However, intermediary
organisations in Ethiopia provide both financial and non financial BDS Facilitation as
part of their intervention when it comes to the facilitation of BDS.




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There are two important things to understand at this juncture viz. BDS Provision and
BDS Facilitation. BDS Provision is a business of delivering any of the various services
needed to upgrade a business whereas BDS Facilitation is the business of analysing
the situation of a single IGA, identifying its BDS needs together with the promoter,
distinguishing between needs that can be fulfilled internally from those which need
external supports and linking the promoter with appropriate BDS Providers.

BDS providers can be either commercial or non-commercial. In emerging economies
BDS is provided on a non-commercial basis most of the time especially to Micro and
Small Enterprises (MSEs). However, sustainability can be ensured when BDS is
commercialised step by step.


4 Special Features of the BDS Guide
This BDS Facilitation Guide has characteristics peculiar to women entrepreneurs with
well established businesses, women entrepreneurs with weak businesses and would
be women entrepreneurs. The fact that all have common situation from point of view
of leading cumbersome life style emanating from cultural, social and political burdens
calls for a special attention.

4.1 Gender Sensitization
The issue of gender is often neglected in business development endeavours including
BDS facilitation.    BDS facilitation needs to be gender inclusive since women’s
involvement in MSEs is very significant and in most cases above average. Women
have their own special needs which can’t be visibly addressed by a generic BDS
package. Especially in Least Developed Countries (LDCs) women are loaded with
multiple responsibilities which are termed as “THE TRIPLE BURDEN” (UNCDF 2002).
The triple Burden consists of the following responsibilities discharged by women in
most low-income households:

       • Reproductive work: unpaid functions of childbearing, child care, and
       household management that enable household members to accomplish
       productive work;

       • Productive work: activities in the formal or informal sectors for monetary or
       in-kind earnings; and


                                                                                         7
       • Integrative or community management work: unpaid maintenance of
       community networks and the provision of scarce resources that are collectively
       consumed, such as water, housing, and health care.

The productive, reproductive, and community roles can limit a woman’s physical
mobility and the time she has available to invest in remunerative activities. This in turn,
has important consequences on the size and scope of the enterprises she can
undertake, the how and what types of BDS she gets, the kinds of loans she can
obtain, and the way she repays these loans or saves her money. These constraints
also have important implications in determining the market sectors in which women
are concentrated and the information available to them.

Given the aforementioned responsibilities the time window for supports with BDS
including the approach need to be flexible unlike the fixed pre-planned and rigid
timing. Moreover, the limited exposure to useful information about any important
facility coupled with the lack of knowledge about formalities and procedures to access
those facilities deprive their right to benefit.

Neglecting women is neglecting 50% of the economically active population and 70% of
the poor who could make a difference in economic development apart from allowing
them to make use of their human rights if given the right kind of services. Hence,
making the BDS gender sensitive is crucial. Therefore, the simplest way to do so is to
include gender related queries in the situation analysis and incorporating these issues
into action plan.

4.2 Business Analysis

Understanding the type of business women do is very crucial to develop BDS specific
to their needs. Most importantly analysing ‘what they produce to whom’ gives a clear
understanding of the context they are operating in apart from helping them to define
their business properly and be focussed. Businesses need to have resources and
competencies to operate. These resources and competencies are usually accessible
to men than women due to which the bargaining power/competitiveness of the
businesses of women IGA operators are limited compared to that of men’s on the




                                                                                         8
same level. This limits the growth of their business letting them subject to a life time
struggle for survival.

The analysis of who their competitors are and who their customers are and their ability
to serve customers well helps to assess the gap with the aim of developing a
customized BDS.

4.3 Goal Orientation
Be it micro or small any business at any scale needs to have vision, mission and
objective either in writing or in the mind of the entrepreneur. We call this formulating a
business strategy in a nutshell. Strategy formulation is stereotypically left to large scale
enterprises which are dominated by men. Helping MSE operators, who are
predominantly women, to formulate strategies, is essential so that they could see
beyond their short-term needs and think about the growth of their MSEs. A business
without a strategy is a ship without a compass. Goal orientation ensures that the BDS
is for concrete and realistic purpose and effective. Therefore, this guide emphasises
that the goal of the promoter is properly set during the situation analysis. This could
also give a basis for business plan preparation. See Annex 6: Simple Business Plan
Format


5 Who should be a Facilitator?
Facilitation as an occupation has got its own working atmosphere.

    Facilitation is a very interactive work and thus needs very goods skills such as
       relating with people and listening.

    It needs a very good networking ability with stakeholders, advocacy & lobbying
       skill and knowledge of people & entities which affect a particular business.

    Furthermore, readiness for possible extensive travelling is necessary including
       walking in the context of developing countries.

    Besides, facilitation in a developing country context needs patience and
       perseverance since the bureaucracy is tighter and decision makers in most
       cases are not systematic in handling problems to make quick decisions.



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    In addition, the specific situation of the women target groups of PSNP-PLUS
       who are illiterates and living in rural settings have a bearing on the challenges
       that a facilitator would face apart from the above general conditions. Thus,
       identifying appropriate facilitators who have good understanding of livelihood
       and rural economic activities is valuable.

When setting criteria for choosing incumbents for any particular position, it is
customary to consider a few general points like type & level of education; year & type
of work experience; age; language proficiency; physical, psychological and cultural
fitness of the incumbent. However, for a BDS facilitator of women entrepreneurs,
certain dimensions need to be further considered as elaborated below.

BDS facilitators have to be:

      Willingness to work in rural settings with multiples of challenges due to general
       infrastructural barriers plus visible dominance of men;

    Willing to travel extensively,

    Experience in working within bureaucratic environment,

    Balanced mix of gender to have a complete observation of situation. Women
       know more about women’s needs and are more open to one another than to the
       opposite sex especially in traditional societies where most of LDCs are part of.
       However, men facilitators can join in technical aspects of BDS facilitation for
       women entrepreneurs.

      Sector specific orientation about certain trades. This can be enriched via
       additional training if need be.

    Educational level not less than high school graduation with a minimum of two
       years experience in business promotional activities and a short – term training
       in BDS facilitation and business definition.

    Other criteria as situation demands.




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6 STEPS in the BDS Facilitation
The steps in the BDS facilitation proposed in this guide aren’t so complex. However,
the special treatments given to the varying aspects and specific situations of IGA
operators as well as inclusion of formulation of strategy entail few more additional
steps compared to other generic BDS Guides.




Step 1: Preparatory Activities

As is the case in any operation, planning is pre-requisite before taking any step. The
planning in the BDS Facilitation includes understanding of the overall socio-cultural,
economical and political context, gender relations and entrepreneurship environment
in a particular town, district and country with giving special focus to IGA operators.
This can be obtained from secondary data as well as discussions with respective
development organisations. Compiling such important documentation of facts is good
for future reference of facilitators. The other most important thing is the recruitment
and training of BDS facilitators. BDS Facilitators need to be trained on how to use this
guide, awareness about the context they are expected to operate in and BDS
Facilitation Cycle. Moreover, the training should also include other technical issues
such as business planning, record keeping and entrepreneurship so that they could be
able to deliver on the spot advice as well apart from facilitation.



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Once the context of operation is understood and facilitators are trained, it is good that
the supervisor and the facilitators sit to plan on how to launch the whole activity.

This planning entails:

    how many months should a cycle take,

    how many operators could be handled by one facilitator in one cycle,

    what needs to be provided for the facilitator to fulfil her/his task,

    where should the budget come for the intervention,

    what are the standard day to day activities of a facilitator,

    how often should consultative regular meetings take place

    how often should a facilitator report to the supervisor, and

    Other relevant issues should be tackled during planning.

Once the preliminary activities are completed, the first general visit to the operators
can start.

Step 2: Visits

It is customary to pay visits to IGA operators of PSNP-Plus beneficiaries around the
target market town where the facilitator is assigned. This visit shouldn’t be limited to
organised and demarcated regular market places but also informal places like road
sides and villages where IGA owners operate irregularly. Before the visit is launched, it
is good to build a consensus on expected attitudes of a facilitator who pays visits. The
first visit is a general observational visit and is not for a serious commitment. The visit
can also be limited within the target IGAs of PSNP PLUS .

When doing a general observation ask the following questions after saluting and
informing who you are, where you are from and your objective. To be inclusive of all
target groups, it will be good to do the visit together with relevant associations like
Women Entrepreneurs Association; women focussed development programs, women
business groups, etc.


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Consider the following aspect:

            Name of operator

            What are the major sectors of business? (agriculture,                            primary
                processing, service)

            Type of product/service? (textile/garment, leather, food processing ,
                construction, etc.)

            What is the situation of the place and status? (Nearness to buyers,
                sheltered vs. unsheltered, formal vs. informal, clean vs. unclean, etc.)

            The capital estimation.

            The marital status and family size,

            The types and scope of responsibilities in addition to running the
                enterprise.

            Income level.

Step 3: Mapping
After completing the visit, the following step is to sit in the office and logically arrange
the data into a table so as to simplify for the next steps.

The following table can be used as a standard generic form:

Name      Secto    Product/servic      Capital        Size          Place     Family      Types and
  of        r            e            Estimatio    (Micro/Small   (good/bad   situatio     Scope of
operato                               n in local        )             )          n           other
   r                                  currency                                           responsibilitie
                                        (birr)                                                 s




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Step 4: Selecting operators

Once the findings of the first general visits have been tabulated, the selection of
operators to be included in the immediately following BDS cycle follows. The selection
of operators should be done in a team situation where all relevant stakeholders are
represented in a given locality since the subsequent facilitation process is hardly
possible without their involvement. There must be a set of criteria among which the
following should be considered. It is always necessary to keep in mind the pro-poor
growth objective as a basic criterion among others.

Criteria:

             Sectors/sub sectors/enterprises with potential for success

             Relatively low income

             High family size

             Relatively low capital,

             Willingness of woman IGA operator, operator’s spouse or close and
               influential relative to be part of the programme,

             Balance of formal/informal businesses

             Cost sharing (where applicable)

             Any other additional criteria based on the operational context.

Step 5: Informing operator and Close relatives

Once the potential operators for the consequent BDS cycle are selected, a second
visit will have to be made to them. All important details of the intervention have to be
comprehended before paying the visit to be able to clearly explain to the potential
operators.

This step is a simple step of paying a visit to selected operators and asking their
willingness to be included in that specific cycle of BDS facilitation. Ask also if the




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spouse and other close relatives are willing where applicable to support this
intervention. Take appointment for a situation analysis of willing operators.

Step 6: Situation Analysis

Based on the day appointed by the operator, the facilitator goes to conduct the
situation analysis. The facilitator needs to prepare so that to be fluent while
interviewing. One should always take care not to dictate but listen to the operator most
of the time during the situation analysis.

This is a profound situation analysis unlike the one in step 1 which dealt with most
general situations. This step has several aspects and is in depth which could take 1-2
hours or even classified in different days to avoid boredom. This deals with goal
setting, task identification, SWOT Analysis, Filling the situation analysis matrix and
distinguishing roles.

Day 1-Goal Setting

The Facilitator needs to start with asking the business operator whether she has
already formulated a goal for the business; if not help with the formulation of vision,
mission and objectives with following the given guideline. If the operator has a goal,
take it as it is or with some amendment made by the operator with the facilitator’s
guidance. It is important to note that goals can be beyond economic i.e. for instance
some women might have the intention of fulfilling other goals like supporting orphans
with the money earned from the business.

This is BDS provision by itself. (See Annex-1: Steps for Strategy formulation:)

Day 2-Task Identification

Identify what tasks and sub-tasks help attaining the desired goal.

The facilitator needs to guide the operator to identify specific and time bound activities
or tasks that are needed to reach the desired goal. This is part of the strategy
formulation in essence since it should answer the how question of achieving the
desired objectives. There are two types of tasks namely maintenance tasks and
progress tasks. A maintenance task is one that doesn’t change the situation of the
doer whereas progress tasks help in changing the position to a better one compared to


                                                                                       15
the past. Operators should be supported to identify tasks which are meaningful in
attaining their goals.

Day 3-SWOT Analysis First Part (Internal Analysis)

Ask what resources are needed to accomplish the tasks (information, network,
material, financial, tools and skill)

Tasks couldn’t be performed without resources. The popular 4Ms (man/woman skill,
material, machine/method and money) are the basic resources needed to operate a
business. Therefore, the facilitator will have to support the operator to identify the 4Ms
required to accomplish the desired tasks.

After having identified the 4Ms the operator should be helped to distinguish between
those which are available in her/his hand and those which aren’t. This can be done via
a SWOT analysis. See Annex-3: SWOT Analysis Framework:

Day 3-SWOT Analysis second part (External Analysis)

Ask how this goal is affected by external factors or actors (government policy,
business environment, political situation, social environment, economic environment
and change of technology) with distinguishing the favourable ones from the threats.

Day-4 Situation Analysis Mapping

At this stage the facilitator should sit in the office and formulate the situation on the
situation analysis matrix. Situation Analysis becomes more meaningful when it is done
in the light of formulated strategies. A situation analysis could be more of a (SWOT)
analysis at enterprise or operator level based on the vision, mission and goal of the
same. The SWOT Analysis also gives the facilitator the chance to examine whether
the gender and physical situations of the operator have some kind of influence on the
set goals. (See Annex-2: Situation analysis summary table:)

Day 5-Confirm Situation Matrix with Operator

On this day’s visit agree with operator about the situation she is in with reading what is
written. Go through each cell of the situation matrix and correct what needs to be
corrected and include what was missing.




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Day 5-Distinguishing Roles

Before designing action plan, it is important to distinguish roles for the operator and
facilitator. This is done during the amendment of the situation analysis.

Distinguish between the needed external assistance and what could be done with the
help of a facilitator. Those within the hands of the operator are controllable and don’t
need external assistance, but those out of the control of the operator are the missing
resources. Eventually, the facilitator will be required to give guidance and direction to
the operator into obtaining these missing resources as part of the planed BDS
facilitation.

Step 7: Elaborate Action Plan
Ask the operator for time bound action plan to work on these issues both with the help
of a facilitator and by oneself.

An action plan should be prepared for these tasks and monitored along set time line
which the facilitator should make a follow-up to. The action plan should also describe
activities for fulfilling missing resources in addition to utilizing available resources to
reach the goal. See Annex-4: Action Plan Form:

Agreement on the Action Plan

Sign agreement on the action plan among the facilitator, the operator and her husband
so as to create a sense of ownership for the tasks to be performed by each party for a
definite period of time.

Step 8: Implementation
This step is done in pursuit of the action plan. The action plan should be binding but
also flexible to adjust to the time situation of the woman IGA operator as the case may
be. The duration of the cycle can be agreed depending on budget and the situation of
the operator and facilitator. In some places one BDS Cycle is commonly about five
months with one facilitator taking 15 operators per cycle. Eventually, this gives two
cycles in a year with the remaining two months taken as preparatory periods with one
month of preparation allotted for each cycle.




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Moreover, the facilitators should always keep in mind that this BDS is especially for
Women IGA operators. This helps to always update themselves on issues of gender to
equip themselves for any challenges they might encounter during their operation.

Step 9: Monitoring and Evaluation:
It is a usual practice to monitor the progress regularly and evaluate at the end of each
cycle based on objective and action plan. During monitoring it is worth asking the
following questions regularly.

   1. What was planned for this period (week/fortnight/month)?

   2. Have all the activities for this period been performed?

   3. What was missing? Why?

   4. Did the performed activities bring the desired result?

   5. If so to what degree?

   6. If not, why?

   7. What corrective measures need to be taken next?

   8. Implement the following action and take corrective measures.




Step 10: Report Writing
Writing report is a necessary step for documentation of past performances,
challenges, success stories and best practices for future reference as well as to
disclose what intervention is going on as regards to BDS for IGAs operated by women.
The report is suggested to be on semi-annual basis unless the implementation
organisation finds it necessary to do differently. See Annex 5: Monitoring & evaluation
Reporting Format Annex 5: Monitoring & evaluation Reporting Format to be used as a
standard reporting format with narratives description after the tabulated facts. It is
always necessary to keep in mind the gender sensitisation in relation to what was
performed when writing the report.




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Annexes

       Annex-1: Steps for Strategy formulation:
1. Write Vision statement.

This is describing “where we are going” in the next five year and beyond as a
business entity. A good example could be “Become the best dry food processing and
packing enterprise in Bahirdar town in a matter of five years.”

2. Write Mission statement.

This is describing “who we are” and “what we are doing” at present.

Good examples could be:

           We are producers and sellers of packed dry food.

           We buy grains, clean them, split or grind them and pack them in
               polythene bag with care by using candle.

           We sell these products to our customers in our shop at the open market.

3. Clarify strategic objectives:

This is the conversion of strategic vision and business mission into specific
performance targets (outcomes, results) that the business wants to achieve. The
performance yardsticks could be related to both financial performance and strategic
performance.

Good examples could be:

               To be able to process 1,200 quintals of packed dry food a year and build
               a storage capacity of 100 quintals of grain.

               To increase the rate of profit from 20-25% by reducing the
       aggregate cost with 2%.




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         Annex-2: Situation analysis summary table:
Name of Operator (enterprise)   Address   Type of Business   Major inputs (4Ms)   capital   Vision   Mission         Objective                    SWOT Analysis Summary
                                                                                                               Strategic Financial   Strengths   Weaknesses Opportunities   Threats




N.B.
1. The 4 Ms are Wo/man Skill, Material, Machine and Money required to run the business effectively.

2. If the physical situation of the entrepreneurs is normal, live the respective space blank.




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      Annex-3: SWOT Analysis Framework:


                     SWOT Analysis Framework

      Positive factors                                        Negative
factors



 to be capitalised                                           to be eliminated

STRENGTHS                                              WEAKNESSES




           OPPORTUNITIES                               THREATS
To make use of them                                                  to avoid
them

Note to the Facilitator:

  Enumerate strengths and weaknesses related to your specific enterprise

            which can be controlled by the entrepreneur such as:

      Technical factors, financial, promotional, networking, knowledge,
                           competencies, and so on.
         Enumerate opportunities and threats beyond the control of

        the entrepreneur related to your specific enterprise such as:

 Sociological, political, demographic, economic, trade-specific, social stigma,
    harassment, expensive medication, lack of own work place, lack of
                 appropriate financing mechanism, and so on.




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Components of SWOT Analysis

Strengths
Strengths are within the control of the entrepreneur and they occur at present!

Strengths should be capitalised and harnessed to make weaknesses
redundant.
 technical expertise             new improvements of product
 good network with               packaging
customers
 managerial experience           superior technology

 distribution system               product features (utility, durability, etc.)

 comparatively cheap price          Health status

Weaknesses
    Weaknesses are within the control of the entrepreneur; they occur at
present.
They are "lack of...", "missing...", or weak points. As far as possible,
weaknesses should be eliminated!

 no control over raw material              lack of promotion experience
 limited product life                      technological obsolescence
 poor design of product                    inexperienced managers/owners
 weak selling effort                       lack of working capital
 comparatively high price                  low level of stocks in times of
peak                                                    sales
 no technical expertise of owner         Lack of adequate health or
                                         physical ability to work hard

Opportunities
Opportunities are positive or favourable factors in the environment which the
entrepreneur should make use of or which make her enterprise potentially
viable. They are, however, mostly beyond the control of the entrepreneur.
They are different from strengths in the sense that strengths are positive
internal factors of the business.
 few and weak competitors                           no such products in the
                                            market
 rising income of target locality      scarcity of product in the market
 growing demand                                     favourable government
                                            policy
 similar products making profit          favourable government
                                         programs for supporting women
                                         entrepreneurs, IGA operators with
                                         disabilities and HIV/AIDS
 technical assistance available           low interest on loans


                                                                               22
Components of SWOT Analysis
 Cheap health care facilities and        Awareness of the community
medication                               about HIV/AIDS and physically
                                         disabled women
 access to cheap raw material          adequate training opportunities

Threats
Threats are negative or unfavourable external factors in the environment and
normally beyond the control of the entrepreneur. They adversely affect the
business, if not eliminated or overcome.

Threats differ from weaknesses in as much as they are beyond the control of
the entrepreneur. Both have a negative impact on the business. The purpose
of analysing threats is to look for ways of hedging against them, i.e., trying to
avoid them or lessening their negative impact by making counterbalancing
actions.
 Negative attitude of community and  Lack of equal treatment with men
stigmatisation on women with              for the acquisition of resources for
HIV/AIDS and with physical                operating a business such as finance
disabilities                              and workplace
 rising raw materials costs               too much competition
 government bureaucracy and               restive labour force
lack of affirmative measures for
provision of such factors as financing
and workplace for women
entrepreneurs , IGA operators with
disabilities and HIV/AIDS
 raw materials shortages                  piracy of skilled labour
 natural disasters                        insufficient power
 graft and corruption                     poor infrastructure
 changing government regulations  smuggling




                                                                              23
Coverage

Generally speaking, you should cover the following aspects, while making a
SWOT analysis for your business:

    Financial Aspects                         Physical Resources
   Capital of owner                      Buildings
   Cash flow                             Plant & machinery
   Access to additional resources        Technology / incubator parks
   Investment requirement                Location
   Profitability                         Transport facilities
   Risk                                  Infrastructure & utilities
                                          Industrial flats/estates
    Management, Supervisory              Market
and Operator Capabilities
 Management competence                     Profile of target market
 Age/experience                            Competitors' marketing
Strategy
 Skills availability                     Market share
 Technological know-how                  Product features/quality
 Management contacts/network            Expanding/contracting/stagnant
                                         market
 Salesmanship of owner/staff             Market niche for new/existing
                                         product

 Personnel management                      Demand /supply situations
(past, pre sent, future)
    Management Information                     Supply of Raw Materials
 Is the necessary information            Are the sources adequate in
    available?                           terms of quantity, quality & price?

 Is it available in time to aid in     Are new materials becoming
decision making and in taking          available which would be useful to the
corrective actions?                    company?

                                          Will they continue to be
                                         adequate?
     Social Environment                          Production Process
 How is the small business             Is the product going to be mass
getting adjusted to the markets?       produced?
 Are people accepting the              Is it labour intensive?
product?
 Is there any particular prejudice,      Is it a job order or a continuous
likes or dislikes for the product?       operation?

    Any prejudice toward women,            Is it based on product or process
IGA operators with disabilities and             technology?
HIV/AIDS?



                                                                               24
       Annex-4: Action Plan Form:

Objectives      Progress      Required      To be performed by       Dead
                  Tasks        Input        Operator Facilitator     Line
1.            1.1
              1.2
2.            2.1
              2.2
              2.3
3.            3.1
              3.2
4.            4.1
              4.2
              4.3
5.            5.1
              5.2
6.            6.1
              6.2


This action plan is signed by both parties on this day______________ in
_______(name of town)

Signed for the operator                        ___________________

Signed by the operator’s husband (if applicable) ___________________

Signed for the facilitator:                    ___________________




                                                                          25
      Annex 5: Monitoring & evaluation Reporting Format
Period: From __________ to ____________


S/N      Name            of Expected      Planned    Implemented Achieved   Challenges   Reasons   Recommendation
         Enterprise/Promoter Result       Activity   Activity    Results                 for       for future action
                                                                                         missing
                                                                                         results


1.


2.


3.


4.


5.


6.




                                                                                                                   26
Annex 6: Simple Business Plan
Introduction

   A business plan is a written document carefully prepared by an entrepreneur or

   a business development service provider that describes the objective of the

   business, the proposed action with the necessary steps to enable the business to

   reach those objectives.

   Whether you want to start a small business or big or you want to expand your

   existing business, planning is indispensable. To minimize the chance of failure

   you have to plan.

   Running a business or starting it with our careful planning is like travelling to a

   new place without having the proper information about the weather, the road, the

   root, the connection, the type of transport means to be used (i.e. plane, car, foot)

   etc. Again, without knowing how to get there, where to hire a car, where to get

   fuel etc. and or without knowing if the trip is taking long time or short. If the type

   of food you can eat is available or not, if you may need to take food & drink along

   with you. Whether the trip is tiresome or enjoyable or if it may be a trip which will

   lead you to trouble & you may not be able to reach your destination.

   In most of the cases, especially in underdeveloped world, businesspersons

   operate their business without planning. That is why many of them do not reach

   their objectives & goals.

   When information about the business is well-organized & systematically

   prepared, steps or aspects well narrated, different actors of the business can

   have good decision on issues and can also easily implement & monitor their

   business. Unorganized business information creates a problem not only on

   implementing & monitoring, but also confuse outsiders like banks & potential

   partners.




                                                                                      27
Thus, planning will show you, your destination and also the best road to take there. A

well-done business plan is your road map, which increase your chance of success in

business.

What is business planning?

Planning is thinking & working out what to do, how to do & when to do relevant

activities about your business in a proactive manner before it happens uncontrollably

in undesirable way.

When you forecast your business, you work out what you think your sales, profit,

cash flow, are likely to be in a given time in the future. Thus, preparing a business

plan is one of the most important & useful duty of an entrepreneur.

Your duty is to obtain and provide various information about your enterprise (IGA),

the industry and the market, through research. The first phase of the business plan

preparation is referred as to data collection and analysis phase.

The purpose of the first phase is to help the entrepreneur to gather necessary

information to make decision whether to inter into a certain business or to expand an

existing business. To provide the entrepreneur with sufficient information to decide

how best to operate her business.


The other purpose is to compile information, which will help others to understand

your business plan better. For example, if you want a partner or to get a bank loan,

etc. you include brief history of your business, description of your service/ product,

etc.

“Planning will help you to know where you want to go and how & when to go.”

What are the contents of the business plan?

       There is no all-purpose & general business plan because each & every business

       has its own unique condition & aspect. The start up of a new business plan

       varies from that of expansion. Similarly, a production and processing business

       plan defers from that of a service giving one. A business plan of one processing

       IGA differs from another processing IGA. Each one has its own unique feature.



                                                                                    28
A business plan is a profile of your business made up of partly words and partly

numbers.

        The word describe about your business, products and or service, customers,
          competitors, operations, sales, marketing, etc.

        The numbers estimate your cash flow, income & expenses, balance sheet,
          break-even analysis, etc.

       Though, the information & data collected, history of the company, description of

       goods & services, strategies of market, style of management, etc. are unique to

       each business, you refer to the following as a guideline to a micro level business

       plan to fit the targeted IGA operators who would like to apply for a loan from a

       micro finance institute (MFI) or their own saving and credit association.


Micro Enterprise Operator
Business Plan Format


1. Full Name of the business operator___________________________________

2. Address:
           Woreda____________________Town_________________________

               Kebele_____________________House No._____________________

3. Type of the planned work/business in which the operator is/to be/
   engaged_________________________________________________________

4. Year of the plan: From _________________To____________________

5. Equipments of production/service delivery/currently owned by the operator:


Ser.     Types of Equipments           Unit      Quantity   Unit     Total     Remark
No.                                                         Price    Price




         Grand Total Price



6. Production /service delivery/ equipments to be purchased by the operator


                                                                                      29
       Ser.    Type of equipments           Unit      Quantity    Unit     Total   Remark
       No.                                                        Price    Price




               Total Price

       7. Work premises at the disposal of the operator _____________________________




       Specify if there is any problem ___________________________________________
       ___________________________________________________________________

       8. Yearly production/service delivery/ plan:

Ser.       Type of product/service/         Unit       Quantity    Unit Cost   Total   Remark
No.        planned to be produced or                                           Cost
           rendered




           Total Cost



       9. Yearly raw material requirement:


Ser.       Type of raw material             Unit       Quantity    Unit        Total   Remark
No.                                                                Price       Price




           Total Yearly raw material cost



       Source of raw material
       ___________________________________________________________________

       ___________________________________________________________________

       10.Yearly Sales plan:


                                                                                            30
Ser.       Product/service to be              Unit      Quantity   Unit    Total     Remark
No.        sold/marketed in the year                               price   Price




           Total


         Months during which sales are expected to be high
         ___________________________________________________________________

         ___________________________________________________________________
         11. Other Yearly Operating Expenses (e.g. labour expense, sales expense,
         depreciation expense, tax expense, etc.):

  Ser.        Type of Expense                         Amount of             Remark
  No.                                                 Expense /in Birr/




              Total Expense


         12. Yearly profit and loss plan:

         Gross Profit = Yearly- raw material cost
                               + Depreciation expense
                               + Labour expense (both family and hired)
                               + Sales expense
                               + Interest expense
                               + Other yearly expense

         Net profit (Loss) = Gross Profit – Yearly Tax Expenses




                                                                                       31
Annex 7: Trainer Guide for BDS Training of Experts (ToE)
Introduction

This BDS trainer guide is prepared to help a trainer replicate the expertise in BDS
facilitation by transferring the BDS facilitation and provision know-how to other
experts in her respective woreda and kebeles.

Session 1: Overview of BDS

Time: 1.5 hours

Objective: By the end of this session, participants will be able to,

   1. Define business development services,

   2. List down possible business development service types in their area,

   3. Describe the importance of BDS

Steps:

   1. Introduce the session as an opportunity for improving their service delivery
         to women entrepreneur/IGA operators in their areas.

   2. Divide the participants in groups based on their locality (keble) to come
         up with answers to the following questions

            a. What does BDS mean?

            b. What type of BDS are relevant to women entrepreneurs in your
                areas

            c. Who should provide and or facilitate BDS?

            d. What are the steps in a BDS facilitation?

   3. Let each group present findings and discuss

   4. Generalize by adding few points from this document                 Business
         Development Services (BDS); Who should be a Facilitator?; STEPS in the
         BDS Facilitation

Session 2: Needs assessment

Time: 45 minutes hours

Objective: by the end of this session, participants will be able to



                                                                                32
   1. Describe the main points in a situation analysis,

   2. Conduct a situation analysis of women entrepreneurs

Steps:

   1. Ask participants why a needs assessment is required for a BDS operation.

   2. Let the participants brainstorm on a plenary what a situation analysis
         should comprise and what methods should be used,

   3. Generalise by displaying what a situation analysis looks like Step 6:
         Situation Analysis

   4. Create field assessment groups and send them to for fieldwork to conduct
         a situation analysis to be presented on the following day.

Session 3: Elaborating Action plan

Time: 45 minutes

Objectives: by the end of this session, participants will be able to elaborate action
plan for a BDS implementation program for women entrepreneurs.

Steps:

   1. Ask participants what should precede implementation

   2. Ask them what an action plan should contain

   3. Ask them to propose with ideal action planning format

   4. Generalise by building on the participants’ proposed ideas Step 7:
         Elaborate Action Plan

Session 4: BDS Implementation

Time: 1.5 hour

Objective: by the end of this session participants will be able to decide on their
implementation cycle for BDS for women entrepreneurs in their areas.

Steps

   1. Ask participants how long it will take to incubate a women entrepreneur in
         their kebele to promote her to a position whereby she is relatively strong
         enough to solve her future business problems.

   2. Let them decide how many women can be supported by one facilitator.


                                                                                  33
   3. Let them design implementation strategy as per the given framework or
         any other they propose to be more practical for their situation. Step 8:
         Implementation

   Session 4: Monitoring and Reporting

   Time: 1.5 hours

   Objectives: by the end of this session participants will be able to discuss what
   it takes to monitor and report a BDS facilitation result.

   Steps

   1. Ask the participants how a result of BDS facilitation could be measured

   2. Discuss on the proposed ideas

   3. Generalise based on the given explanation on this manual Step 9:
         Monitoring and Evaluation:; Step 10: Report Writing

Session 5: Overview of a business plan

Time: 1.5 hours

Objectives: by the end of this session participants will be able to write a simple
business plan for women entrepreneurs in their areas.

Steps;

   1. Ask participants about their understanding of a business plan and why it is
         important for women entrepreneurs

   2. Ask them what the major components of a typical business plan is,

   3. Let the participants propose a business plan format which is ideal for
         women entrepreneurs in their areas,

   4. Build on their proposal by discussing from this manual; Annex 6: Simple
         Business Plan

   5. Let them fill the format based on the one in this manual and based on their
         chosen business ideas,

   6. Let them present their business plans,

   7. Encourage them to do this for the success of women entrepreneurs in
         their areas and conclude.




                                                                                34
      Annex 8: Training schedule for BDS

I      Facilitation of            Needs              situation        Situation
       Business                   assessment,          analysis          analysis
       Development              action                fieldwork         fieldwork
       Services                   planning, and                          cont.
       Brief over view of      delivery                               Evaluation
         BDS                      (implementati
                                  on)
                                  methodology
II        Recap;                  Preparation       Situation        Action
          Compilation of          of the Action       analysis          plan
           the situation ana       plan                and Action        presentati
           Monitoring and                              plan              on Cont.
           Reporting lysis                             presentati       Evaluation
                                                       on
III       Recap;                 Monitoring         Business         Final
          Implementation          and                 planning          Evaluation
           cycle of BDS            Reporting           overview         Closing
                                                      Filling the
                                                       business
                                                       plan
                                                       format on
                                                       participant
                                                       ’s
                                                       preferred
                                                       business
                                                       idea




                                                                                35

				
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