Infancy and Childhood by Xy5ibUm0

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									Infancy and Childhood
        Your Life Span
 1. First Year of Life (0-1)
 2. Second Year of Life (1-2)
 3. Pre-school Years (2-5)
 4.Grade school Years (5-12)
 5. Adolescence (puberty-19)
 6. Young Adulthood (20s)
 7. Middle Adulthood (30s-50s)
 8. Late Adulthood (60s and beyond)
    Infancy and Childhood
 Basic Developmental Questions
 The Unborn Child
 The Remarkable Newborn
 The Infant and Growing Child
Thoughts About Infancy &
       Childhood
   A child is a curly, dimpled lunatic.
    – Ralph Waldo Emerson
   If only we could know what was going in a baby’s
    mind while observing him in action, we could
    certainly understand everything there is to
    psychology.
    – Jean Piaget
   I would prefer to turn child-raising over to a
    specialist. I just can’t believe that an ordinary
    parent can do a good job.
    – B. F. Skinner
Basic Developmental
     Questions

The Nature-Nurture Debate
 Developmental-Research
        Strategies
The Nature-Nurture Debate
The debate over the extent to which
 behavior is determined by genetics and
 the environment
Measuring Nature and Nurture
Developmental Research Strategies
The Unborn Child

Genetic Building Blocks
Prenatal Development
 Drugs and the Fetus
 The Birth Experience
    Genetic Building Blocks




   Chromosomes contain genes, which specify
    how various proteins are built.
    Genetic Building Blocks
   Chromosomes: Rod-like structures, found in
    all biological cells, that contain DNA
    molecules in the form of genes.
   DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid): The complex
    molecular structure of a chromosome that
    carries genetic information.
   Genes: The biochemical units of heredity
    that govern the development of an individual
    life.
Human Reproduction - I
Human Reproduction - II
        Prenatal development

Conception                     30 Hours




  6 weeks                      4 months
Neurobehavioral Development
    Fetal actocardiograph
     used to take several
     measures between 20 -
     39 weeks gestation
    Heart rate and physical
     activity decreased
    REM sleep and
     responsiveness to
     stimulation increased
Hazards to Embryos & Fetuses
    Alcohol
    Cigarettes
    Cocaine
    Aspirin
    Marijuana
    AIDS
    Rubella (German measles)
    X-rays
The Remarkable Newborn

           Reflexes
     Sensory Capacities
    Sensitivity to Number
“The baby, assailed by eyes, ears,
nose, skin, and entrails at once,
feels that all is one great blooming,
buzzing confusion…”
                                     William James
                The Principles of Psychology, 1890
       Visual Preferences in
            Newborns
   Infants spend more
    time looking at
    patterns than solids
   Infants spend the
    most time looking at
    a drawing of a
    human face
   Is this just
    preference for
    complexity?
Newborns and Human Faces
   Infants were shown
    blank shape, a proper
    face, or scrambled facial
    features
    – proper face and
      scrambled face have
      same complexity
   Infants looked more
    intensely at the proper
    face
        Newborn Imitation
   Babies sometimes mimic
    gestures made by others
    who are within sight
    – Sticking tongue out of
      mouth
    – Moving head side to side
Can infants add and subtract?
    Show the baby the
     same array many
     times
    Show the array with
     an element missing
     (shown)
     – or one added
    Surprise indicates
     that her or his
     expectations were
     violated
The Infant and Growing Child

      Biological Development
      Cognitive Development
        Social Development
      The Developing Brain



         At Birth    During First Year   Next Few Years

   At birth, neurons are in place, but few
    connections
   During first year, axons grow, dendrites
    multiply, connections form
   Over next few years, active connections
    strengthen
Milestones in Motor
   Development
    Piaget’s Theory of Mind

   Stages of Development
    – Each stage is qualitatively different from
      others
    – Ages for stage transitions are approximate
 Cognitive Structures
 Adaptation
    – Assimilation - filtering experience to fit
      thought
    – Accommodation - changing thought to fit
Changing Schemas of the
         Earth
   From preschool          5th grade

    through about the 5th
    grade, children
    gradually assimilate
    and then
    accommodate the
    spherical-earth
    concept into their
    thinking                preschool
        Separation Anxiety
   Separation anxiety is
    a fear reaction when
    the primary
    caregiver is absent
   Seen in all cultures
   Corresponds with
    development of
    object permanence
      Piaget’s Stages of
        Development
 Sensorimotor
 Preoperational
 Concrete Operational
 Formal Operational
“Conservation of Liquid” Task




  The critical question is always: “Why do you think so?”
Conservation of Substance & Number
    Conservation of
     Substance
     – Two identical balls of clay
     – One is deformed
     – “Do the two pieces have
       the same amount of
       clay?”
    Conservation of Number
     – Two identical rows of
       pennies
     – One row is rearranged
     – “Do the two rows have
       the same number of
     The Infant as Intuitive
           Physicist
   Infants look longer
    at objects that seem
    to violate physical
    laws than those that
    do not
    – Surprise indicates
      that their
      expectations were
      violated
    – They must know
      what is physically
      plausible for this to
      Speed of Information
          Processing
   Response times decrease
    from 7 - 12 years of age
    – Consistent across several
      different types of tasks
   This may be due to the
    biological maturation of
    the brain
    – Increased myelination of
      axons
    Social Development
 Attachment:  A deep emotional
 bond that an infant develops with
 its primary caretaker
       Styles of Attachment
   Strange Situation Test: A parent-infant
    “separation and reunion” procedure that is
    staged in a laboratory to test the security of a
    child’s attachment
   Secure Attachment: A parent-infant
    relationship in which the baby is secure when the
    parent is present, distressed by separation, and
    delighted by reunion
   Insecure Attachment: A parent-infant
    relationship in which the baby clings to the
    parent, cries at separation, and reacts with anger
     Gender Segregation at
           Playtime
   Four-year-olds
    spend three times as
    much time with
    same-sex playmates
    as opposite-sex
    playmates
   By age six, children
    spend 11 times as
    much time with
    same-sex playmates

								
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