Drafting and Revising

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					Drafting and Revising
              Drafting and Revising
•Introduction
•Writing your first draft
•Revising your draft
•Proofreading and correcting your draft
•Talk About It
•Your Turn

•Tech Tools in this presentation
• Wikis
• Storyboards
• Using Find to help in revision
                          Introduction
   •Drafting your research paper is like
   creating a painting from an initial sketch.
A rough sketch provides
an overall plan for the
painting.




Then, an artist uses
paint to add color and
detail.
                       Introduction
    •You have already sketched out your ideas
    in an early organizational plan, which you
    developed into a formal outline.
Now you will add
details and
transitions to build
your outline into a
first draft.
                   Writing your first draft
Your introduction is your chance to capture your reader’s attention and state
your thesis.

 Pique your audience’s       “Into the furnace let me go
 curiosity with a striking   alone” (McKay 15). In this line,
 detail or quotation.        poet Claude McKay describes the
                             anguish of facing discrimination.
                             He wrote the line in response to
 Provide necessary
                             the racial conflicts he witnessed
 background information.
                             after moving to New York City.
                             McKay’s early poetry collections
 Transition smoothly to      reflect how his life changed
 your thesis statement.      after he immigrated to the United
                             States from Jamaica.
        Writing your first draft
•As you write the body of your paper, each
main section (I, II, III level) will become the
topic of one or more paragraphs.


            Claude McKay was born and raised
            in Sunny Ville, Jamaica.
              Writing your first draft
Each subtopic in your outline (A, B, C level) will become the main idea of one
or more paragraphs in your paper.




                    Claude McKay was born and raised
                    in Sunny Ville, Jamaica. McKay’s
                    education in Jamaica came from
                    both formal and informal sources.
               Writing your first draft
Each supporting detail (1, 2, 3 level) in your outline will provide facts, reasons,
and examples to support your main ideas.




           Claude McKay was born and raised in Sunny
           Ville, Jamaica. McKay’s education in
           Jamaica came from both formal and informal
           sources. McKay had nine older siblings. One
           of his older brothers, a teacher, took on
           the responsibility of providing his early
           schooling.
                 Writing your first draft
As you develop your body paragraphs, you must elaborate on the material in
your outline.


 Support main points with facts,
 statistics, reasons, examples, or
 quotations from your notes.


 Clarify connections between
 concepts by synthesizing information
 and using transition words and
 phrases.
                  Writing your first draft
Use transitions to integrate summaries, paraphrases, and quotations smoothly
into your writing.


 McKay published the collection Songs of Jamaica
 McKay published the collection Songs of Jamaica
 in 1912. In these poems, McKay uses dialect to
 in 1912. “McKay is able to capture the musical
 “capture the musical voices of his homeland”
 voices of his homeland” (Rashad 44).
 (Rashad 44).

The quotation in this example disrupts the flow of ideas by introducing a new
idea without proper connection.

Adding a transition before the quotation clarifies the connection between the
author’s ideas.
                  Writing your first draft
Remember to cite the source of any quotation, fact, or idea from a source
other than you. Use parenthetical citations to credit sources within your paper.



 A parenthetical citation lists the author’s last name and the page
 number that contains the information.

 In these poems, McKay uses dialect to “capture the
 musical voices of his homeland” (Rashad 44).

 Your readers can refer to a citation to locate the appropriate entry in
 your Works Cited list.

 Rashad, Harim. Claude McKay’s Dialect Poems. New
    York: Literary Press, 2005.
                  Writing your first draft
An effective conclusion provides a final assessment of your ideas without
repeating your introduction.

 Leave a strong impression     McKay’s early poems reflect his
 by restating the thesis.      move from Jamaica to the United
                               States. By contrasting McKay’s
                               works created in Jamaica with
 Review the purpose of your
                               those written in New York,
 research and draw final
 conclusions about your topic.
                               readers learn how facing
                               discrimination changed McKay’s
                               purpose for writing poetry.
 Close your paper by leaving McKay inspired further
 the reader with a new         generations to use poetry as a
 thought or insight.           form of social protest.
                  Tech Tool: Wikis
If you have access to a wiki for your research project, consider using it to
compose drafts of your paper.




Drafting your work in a wiki allows you to:

 save and review all versions of your paper easily

 receive feedback on your work throughout the process

 access your work from any Internet-ready computer
                      Tech Tool: Wikis
•The Edit page mode of a wiki offers the
same features as most word-processing
programs. atto
   Use the toolbar the
   top of the screen
  format your text.




  Remember to save your
  work often!
                 Tech Tool: Wikis
   •The wiki toolbar also includes buttons to
   add multimedia components to your draft.


  Hyperlink text             Insert images   Attach files

Some wikis also allow you to insert
plug-ins such as video clips,
calendars, or picture slideshows.
            Tech Tool: Storyboards
•You may be drafting a multimodal
presentation, a format that combines text
with images and sound.
   You can use a storyboard to
   describe how text, images,
  and sound go together in
  your multimodal
  presentation.




  Your storyboard can be accompanied by a script that presents any narration
  that you will use.
            Tech Tool: Storyboards
•Here is an example of a student’s
storyboard for a multimodal presentation
        the sketches of
about simplepoetry on Claude McKay.
    The
   the left represent images
   used in the project.



   The notations on the right
   explain audio, video, and
   animation components.
                   Revising your draft
   •Once your initial draft is complete, you are
   ready to begin revising your draft. Ask
   yourself the following questions about your
1. Does my introduction grab the reader’s attention, provide an
   draft: of the topic, and state my thesis?
   overview


2. Does my thesis include a clear controlling idea?


3. Have I supported my ideas with factual information?
                   Revising your draft
4. Have I used paraphrases, summaries, and direct quotations
   effectively?


5. Have I credited sources when necessary?


6. Have I used correct MLA or APA format in my citations?


7. Have I presented my ideas in a logical order?


8. Does my conclusion restate my thesis?
    Tech Tool: Using Find to help in
              revision
You can use the Find feature of your word-processing program to help you
proofread your research paper.



To access this feature,
select Find from the Edit
menu.




You can search for
words you might
overuse.
    Tech Tool: Using Find to help in
              revision
The Find feature can also show you if you have overused a certain type of
sentence construction in your writing.



 Search for and, but, or, for, so to locate compound sentences.

 McKay portrayed the voices of the Jamaican people
 in these poems, and he idealized their way of life.

 Search for which or that to find complex sentences.

 McKay became an editor for The Liberator, which
 allowed him to reach a wider literary audience.
  Proofreading and correcting your
               draft
•Proofread and correct your work to polish
it for your audience. Regardless of your final
publishing format, your final product should
Even a single error can cause your audience
be legible and error-free.
to doubt the credibility of your information.




During the “Red Summer” of
2919,
1919, McKay established a
new purpose for his poetry.
       Proofreading and correcting your
                    draft
   • Ask yourself these questions to guide your
      proofreading:
 1. Have I used conventions of punctuation correctly, including
    italics, ellipses, and dashes?

 2. Have I placed and punctuated my citations according to MLA
    or APA format?

 3. Have I spelled all words correctly?

Online dictionaries such as YourDictionary.com and Dictionary.com can help
you check your spelling.
                      Talk About It
      • Discuss these questions with your
1.   In what order do you usually write the sections (introduction, body,
         classmates.
     conclusion) of a research paper? Why? What does this tell you about your
     writing?
2. Have you ever used a wiki to draft a paper? Would you try it in the future?
   Why or why not?
3. For what types of projects might you draft your work in a wiki? in a
   storyboard?
4. How could you use the Find feature in a word-processing program to edit
   your work? Think about words that you overuse or frequently misspell.
                         Your Turn
     •Brainstorm a topic with which you are
     familiar. Then, storyboard a multimodal
•
     presentation about the topic. Include the
    At least six slides
     following elements in your storyboard:
•   Descriptions or sketches of the content of each slide

•   Notations about audio and video components

•   Notes that show the audio narration that will accompany each slide
The End

				
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