Schedule/Announcements by F0zNb96v

VIEWS: 6 PAGES: 81

									                    Unit 4
                   PSY 4600



             Higher Education &
            Teaching Technology
Schedule:   T & R, Lecture
            T, 2/21, exam
                                  1
             U5 Announcement
• I will be away from campus from Wed., 2/22 -
  Friday, 2/24 attending the Behavior Analysis
  Association of Michigan conference
• Have no fear, however, Sarah will lecture on
  Thursday         , 2/23
• However, I will not be able to return your E4s
  on 2/23



                   25th Annual BAAM
             Convention
February 23-24, 2012
             Student Center
Eastern Michigan University
                                                          2
College Teaching and Teaching Technology:
         Evidence-Based Practices
 • Behavioral analysis of college teaching and
   student study behavior
 • Direct Instruction used primarily in elementary
   and secondary schools
 • Precision Teaching
 • Headsprout: web-based reading program for
   children created by behavior analysts



                                                3
               College Teaching
• Behavioral analysis of college teaching
  and student studying behavior
  – Article by Dr. Jack Michael, helps explain
     • Why PSY professors administer more exams
        and require more assignments than professors
        in other departments typically do
     • Why I structure PSY 4600 the way I do with
        study objectives, frequent essay examinations
        and grade sheets
     • Why, from a behavioral perspective, your study
        behavior may differ in this class vs. other
        classes
     • Why some (most of us) procrastinate - when
        studying for exams, writing papers, preparing
        conference presentations, etc.                  4
  Introduction/Overview to the Michael article
• The teaching technology discussed in the
  article is relevant for the “typical” college class
  with a course enrollment of 35-40 or more and
  a clear “factual content.”
• It is not relevant for fine arts (dance, sculpting,
  painting, writing) or other skill training such as
  public speaking, mechanics, etc.
• While this technology can be used with small
  classes (15 or fewer students), there are also
  methods that can be equally effective
• Most university classes at colleges and
  universities are the type discussed
   in the article
                                                        5
            Overview, cont.

 Begins by discussing student motivation to
  study. That is, what factors motivate students to
  study hard?
 He discusses a number of things that are often
  mentioned by individuals (intrinsic interest in
  the subject matter, approval/disapproval of
  others, short-term payoffs, long-range payoffs
  of learning the material, etc.)
 He argues against each one, concluding that
  the course grade is the only effective
  motivational variable and the only one over
  which the instructor has control.

                                                  6
                   Overview, cont.
• However, even the grade will not be an effective
  motivator if the grade is not important to the
  student
• He further states that if the grade is not important
  to the student, then there is nothing an instructor
  can do to motivate students to study




                                                    7
                 Overview, cont.

• Fortunately, grades are important to most
  students, thus, while
• Many say that grades should not be emphasized
  - Michael disagrees with that
• The grade is the only motivative factor that the
  instructor has under his/her control and thus
  should be emphasized




                                                8
                          How to structure a course
    • Next, he describes how to structure a course
      so that the course grade is an effective
      motivator
    • Three features that must be present in order
      for students to study hard (SO 11, but stated
      positively):
       – The grade must be important to the student
       – Studying must be closely (and explicitly)
         linked to the exam/assignment grades
       – The exam/assignment grades must be
         closely (and explicitly) linked to the course
         grade
(how many I didn’t study at all, aced the test; I studied very hard and didn’t have a clue? 2 exams - chapter 4 -
graduate course - didn’t know passed/failed; how many, assignment/quiz, have no idea how it relates to final grade -
                                                                                                                  9
10%, 20%, maybe checkmark)
           SO1: Creativity?
 This type of course structure is very
  controversial and has been criticized for a
  number of reasons
 The first criticism: This type of course does not
  teach creativity or new knowledge, but only
  teaches students how to parrot back old
  knowledge.
 Michael’s response?



                                               10
                                   SO1: Creativity?
• Creativity requires an extensive familiarity with
  what is already known - an extensive
  knowledge base about which one can be
  creative.

    For example, If you don’t understand reinforcement,
    punishment, shaping, etc., you cannot create an
    effective instructional system or develop an effective
    training program for individuals with developmental
    disabilities.




                                                                                    11
(need to know the basics so you can effectively use them to create something new)
SO2: What are two main problems with intrinsic
interest in the subject as a motivational factor?

  1.While the subject matter may indeed
    be interesting to students, it is usually
    not sufficiently interesting to maintain
    the amount of study required to
    master the material
     A student may be passionate about behavior
     analysis, love 4600, but that is not likely to
     maintain 8 or more hours of studying each
     week




                                                      12
                                       SO2, cont.

2. Competing
   activities that can’t
   be postponed
  Friend stops by – Waldos!
  Basketball game, play
  Baby/child gets sick

  You can always study
  tomorrow, but sometimes,
  tomorrow never comes…
    (in general, 2nd reason, include not postponable)   13
SO3: Why is it that short-term advantages from the
newly acquired material do not motivate studying?

  • 3A: Unlike some courses, like automobile
    mechanics, many           courses do not
    have many short-term advantages; rather
  • 3B: They are important for further learning
     – You can’t run before you can walk
     – You can’t master the material in 4600 until
       you have mastered the material in 3600
     – You can’t master algebra unless you
       master arithmetic
                                                14
SO4: Describe the weakness of long-range
payoffs related to the details of the study
assignment.
Note: Delay is not the main issue
 • It is easy to believe that you can contribute
   to the human condition - that is, be a
   successful behavior analyst - without
   understanding the specific details of the
   study assignment
    – It is easy to believe that you can be an effective
      human service worker, OBM practitioner, clinical
      psychologist, etc. without knowing SOs 5, 14, 20
      and 26 from Unit 4 in Dickinson’s PSY 4600.

                                                       15
SO 5 NFE: So why are grades the best motivational
          factor to motivate student studying?
 • It is the one motivational factor over which the instructor
   has control - the only one (we can’t control intrinsic
   interest, we can’t control whether others in the
   environment support scholarly performance, etc.)
 • It can be easily related to the details of the study
   assignment (we can make SOs 3, 14, & 20 from U4
   important by relating them to the exam/assignment)
 • It is a factor of considerable strength - that is, it is
   important to most students as evidenced by the intensity
   of study/work right before an exam or right before an
   assignment is due


                                                           16
    (Three points)
SO 6: Vicious vs. Friendly Competition and their
      relationship to norm-referenced vs. criterion-
      referenced grading practices.
• Many criticize emphasizing grades because it generates
  “competition” and competition is bad.
• Michael distinguishes between “vicious” and “friendly”
  competition, and agrees that “vicious” competition is,
  indeed, bad, but “friendly” competition is not.
• He then describes grading practices that produce “vicious”
  competition and those that produce “friendly” competition.
• Norm-referenced grading practices produce vicious
  competition and hence should not be adopted, while
  criterion-referenced grading practices produce “friendly”
  competition which is OK.

                                                        17
SO 6A: Norm-referenced grading produces vicious competition



   • Why?

        The grade you receive depends not only on your
        grade but the grades of other students in the
        class; if one student does well, it decreases the
        opportunity for another student to do well




                                                        18
 (learn the name - next slide as well)
                SO 6A, cont.

  •    Grading on a curve: 10% of the students get As, 20% get
       Bs, 50% or so get Cs, etc.
  •    If one student gets an A, it decreases the opportunity for
       another student to get an A
  •    This produces vicious competition between students; you
       are likely to be happy when someone doesn’t get an A or
       a B; you are not as likely to help someone - if you do, that
       person may get an A, which decreases your chances to
       get an A
  •    In fact, some students may actually engage in behaviors
       that will harm another’s student chance to get an A (steal
       relevant books from the library)


                                                              19
(physio course, comp exams)
SO 6B:Criterion-referenced grading does not produce vicious
      competition although it may produce friendly competition


• Why?

   The grade you get depends only on your grade,
   not on the grades other students get; thus when
   one student performs well it does not decrease the
   opportunity for another student to do well




                                                         20
  (Learn the name)
SO 6B: Criterion-referenced grading


      – Dickinson’s PSY 4600 grading practices; any student
        who gets 92% of the points, gets an A.
      – Friendly competition: Student wants to have the highest
        point score in the class or a student wants to “beat out”
        another student.
      – But this does not produce the type of competition that
        makes a student rejoice in the misfortune of other
        students or refuse to help another student because it
        might decrease his/her own grade.




                                                             21
  (Learn the name)
         SO 7: Study procrastination scallop
• Many people maintain that an exam or assignment is an
  example of a FI schedule of reinforcement, which produces
  the typical response “scallop.” (not much behavior in the
  beginning of the interval, more and more behavior as the
  interval progresses and reinforcement gets close).
• Not so! And the reasons are the same as the reasons we
  examined last unit with respect to why a paycheck is not an
  example of a FI schedule.
• So how do we explain the scallop in studying/working that
  occurs right before the exam?
• How is that scallop behavior related to the exam grade and
  the course grade?


                                                        22
     SO 7 Continued: Procrastination Scallop
• To understand this, it helps to know that the analysis
  Michael presents is a molecular analysis.
• Underlying position that if a consequence follows a
  behavior by more than 5 to 60 seconds, it is not a direct-
  acting contingency; that is, that consequence cannot
  directly affect the behavior as reinforcement, punishment,
  etc.
• Rather the effect that the consequence has is due to other
  variables, such as verbal behavior.
• Michael is a molecular behavior analyst (as most others in
  the department) and thus explains the procrastination
  scallop using a molecular analysis where the consequence
  of studying must occur within 5 to 60 seconds after the
  behavior of studying
                                                        23
SO 7: Procrastination Scallop, A molecular behavioral analysis


 • 7A: The relationship between two factors affects
   studying (Note carefully, not just one or the other!)
     – Task completion: how much of the task the student has
       completed
     – Time passage: the time left before the exam or
       assignment




  (be careful not to put this in your own words)
                                                          24
SO 7B: Procrastination Scallop

• Task completion and time passage together
  determine the aversiveness of the situation at any
  point in time before the exam or the assignment is
  due
   – To have a good deal of time left is “safe” or
     “nonaversive”
   – But to have completed very little of the task and
     have very little time left is a condition that is
     dangerous or “aversive”
   – It is the aversiveness that generates escape
     behavior
  (closer the exam gets with no or little work done, the more aversive it becomes; I don’t have to explain that –
   I would bet most of you have experienced this at one time or another)
                                                                                                                    25
                                    SO 7B Continued

• Usually, the only relevant form of escape (that is,
  the only way to reduce the aversiveness) is to
  study
   – Studying immediately decreases the existing
     aversiveness
   – The decrease in the aversiveness negatively
     reinforces studying
• Escape contingency




(diagram next, then I will explain why studying increases as the exam gets closer)   26
         SO 7C: Diagram of the Escape Contingency



MO (aversiveness):R (studying)-->Sr- (decrease in aversiveness)


      1. Pre-existing aversiveness is an MO
      2. Studying is the escape behavior
      3. Reinforcement is the decrease in the pre-existing
         aversiveness which negatively reinforces studying

       *Note that the term is “aversive,” not “adversive”


                                                            27
SO 7B: So, what produces the scallop in studying behavior?
That is, why do (most) students study more and more as the
exam gets closer?
• Because the aversiveness increases as the exam
  gets closer and you have not completed the study
  assignment
• That is, the pre-existing aversiveness, the MO
  becomes stronger and stronger the closer the
  exam if you have not completed the assignment
• Just like the colder you are, the more “motivated”
  you will be to emit behaviors that will make you
  warmer (i.e., put on a coat, turn up the heat in the
  car, etc.)
 (Note carefully, the studying does not become aversive, the situation becomes aversive;
                                                                                      28
 or the hungrier you are, or the more tired you are)
                 SO 7D: Again, what reinforces studying?

  • To repeat: The reinforcement for studying is the
    decrease in the pre-existing aversive condition;
    immediate negative reinforcement (escape)
     – As soon as you study, there is a decrease in the
       aversiveness
     – The more you study, the greater the decrease
  • The reinforcement for studying is NOT the avoidance
    of a bad grade on the exam/assignment
        – The grade is too delayed, it does not occur within 5 - 60
          seconds after studying




                                                                      29
(many students get this wrong; last slide on this topic)
               SO 8: End-of-Course Activity
 Why does an end-of-course activity (like a final exam or
 paper worth 50%-75% of the student’s grade) weaken the
 relation between the exam grades and the course grades?

Students can quite correctly believe that a low score on an
earlier exam or assignment can be compensated for by a
high score on the final exam or paper.

But what often happens? You run out of time because all of
your courses “kick in at the end.”

So no final exam in Dickinson’s PSY 4600:
Each exam is worth the same number of points


                                                         30
SO 9: Reasons professors give for their unwillingness to
    clearly specify what is going to be on the exam
    Many professors are highly critical of study objectives on
    the grounds that we are “spoon feeding” students.
  • Professors often give two reasons for not wanting to specify
    what is going to be on the exam
     – You will only learn what the professor tells you to learn;
       without specification you will learn all of the other things
       you wouldn’t learn if you didn’t know what was going to
       be on the exam
         • Really - duh! If you are examined over 4-5 chapters, do you
           really learn everything in those 4-5 chapters?
     – Part of the scholar’s repertoire consists of bringing order
       out of chaos and dealing with the instructor’s vague
       assignments is a good opportunity to learn this skill
         • Duh again!!! (read material out of “interest”)
                                                                     31
SO 10: In large enrollment classes what controls
attendance and what does NOT control attendance?
• What does?
  How essential the lecture material is for doing well
  on the exam/assignments (note material in red!)
• What does NOT?
  How interesting or inspirational the lectures are
  Faculty do not have to do “dog and pony shows” to
  get students to attend class.
  Of course, all things being equal, interesting is
  better than boring!


  (shy)                                           32
SO 11: The three conditions under which the threat
    of a low grade will NOT motivate studying

 • If the grade is not important to the student
 • The relation between studying for the exam
   and the grade on the exam is not clear
 • The relation between the exam grade and the
   course grade is not clear




                                                33
SO 13: Exam frequency and motivation to study
Provide two reasons why exams that are given once every three
weeks (let alone two exams per semester) will not have the same
motivational effect as exams that are given weekly.
   1. The procrastination scallop: most students will wait to
      study until the week of the exam
      I require 6 or more hours of outside studying for each
      exam (for a C), if I gave an exam every three weeks
      instead of every 1 1/2 weeks, it would require 12 or more
      hours of study. If I gave just a mid-term and final, that
      would be about 7 weeks, which would require 27 hours
      or more of studying.

        It is absurd to think that students will spend 27 hours
        studying for the exam during that one week.
(one reason why professors use norm-referenced grading - no one does well)
                                                                             34
SO 13: Second reason why exams that are given
once every three weeks (let alone twice a semester)
will not have the same motivational effect as weekly exams.
 2. I have 1 1/2 hours for the exam, regardless of how often I
    give the exams. If I gave an exam only once every three
    weeks, I could not sample as much material from the
    study objectives - that is I could not ask questions over
    as many of the study objectives
    – Why and how does this affect student studying?
        Students know that I cannot test over all of the study
        objectives, hence they will begin to try to guess which
        ones I will ask and not study all of the objectives.
        They will “gamble” about which items I will have test
        questions over

 (faculty who give out 70 or more SOs for the exam and then only ask questions on very small
 proportion)                                                                      35
  SO 14: Why learning can’t be fun and easy*
Many argue that learning should be fun and easy.
Not so, says Michael. He says it can’t be fun and
easy for two reasons.
•Intensity: there is too much to learn in too little time
•Assessment: there is a chance that the student will
not get the grade he/she wants on the exams and
assignments
     Note carefully, it is NOT simply that the exams and
     assignments are given - if every student got an A on
     every exam/assignment, then assessment would not
     cause students a problem
      *Learn each factor and be able to explain them.
                                                            36
Not for exam but why should grades be emphasized?

    Grades are the primary motivative variable,
    which means that current standing in the
    class and progress toward the final grade
    should always be clear and frequently
    brought to the student’s attention.
    Hence, the grade sheet.




                                                  37
Questions on the Michael article?




                                    38
 Unit 4: Teaching Technology Introduction

 In this part of the unit we are going to be looking at three
 evidence-based instructional technologies for primary
 and secondary schools:

• Direct Instruction - Engelmann, Becker & Carnine
• Precision Teaching - Lindsley
• Headsprout – a web-based reading program
  developed by a team of behavior analysts (2002)
   – Greg Stikeleather, Dept. alumni award


(evidence-based, proven through research to be effective, Croyden schools?)
Engelmann, BA in education. Becker & Carnine - behavioral psychologists;
Oakland Academy, Arbor Academy, Forrest Academy - Foundation for behavioral
resources)                                                                    39
                Teaching Technology Intro
• Educational crisis in this country
• Our students rank about last in math/science of all
  industrialized countries in the world
• Reports indicate that this generation of children will be the
  first in the history of our country that will be less well
  educated than their parents
• 40% of our 4th-graders read below basic levels
• Yet schools and educators have been very slow to adopt
  empirically-validated instructional technology
• Probably the biggest disappointment of behavior
  analysts


                                                                          40
 (read some of the material in the course pack - not behavior analysts)
           Direct Instruction Basics
• Task analysis is completed for all instructional
  material
• Material is presented in small steps so students
  will be successful the first time
• Material is sequenced so if students master the
  prerequisite material they will be successful
• Scripts are used to insure correct implementation
  and student success - based on research
• Students are placed in small groups of 5 - 10
• Students respond aloud on cue
• Immediate feedback, both reinforcement and
  corrective is provided
                                                41
                Precision Teaching Basics
• Often use DI material/lessons
• Adds a fluency component - accuracy plus speed of
  responding is assessed (# corrects per minute). Based on
  rate of response used in behavioral research
• Timed practice, graph results - only 30% of time is spent
  on instruction, 70% on practice
• Students work with each other during practice sessions
• Students do not progress to the next lesson until fluency
  “aims” are met - all have the same aims which are based
  on research
• Often combined with a token economy system in which
  students earn points for results and appropriate
  instructional behaviors (feet on floor, eye contact, etc.)
• Often report cards are provided for parents daily

 (before SO16, show you some results of DI, PT: SOs a little out of order)   42
Ogden “Og” Lindsley:
 Precision Teaching




                       43
SO16: Introduction to Englemann’s early study
   (1970)
 • Some maintain that 60-80% of “intelligence” is genetic and
   only 20-40% is a function of learning; that is you have it or
   you don’t and if your parents and grandparents didn’t have
   it, you won’t either (Bell Curve, Murray & Herrnstein)
 • They also maintain that a person’s IQ cannot be changed
   much after the first couple of years
 • Therefore, early educational programs (such as Head
   Start) and social programs are a waste of tax payer dollars.




(What is intelligence? What is measured by IQ tests? Math, verbal, social situations
and sequences)                                                                         44
    SO16: Englemann’s early study (1970)
• Participants were all 4 years old:
   – 15 disadvantaged children exposed to traditional
     teaching methods
   – 15 disadvantaged children exposed to DI
   – 15 middle class children exposed to DI
• Independent variable:
   – DI for language concept, arithmetic, and reading
   – Three 20-min instructional sessions per day for two
     years
   – Total of 96 instructional hours
• Dependent variable:
   – Stanford-Binet IQ test scores
• Experimental design (Quasi-experimental design):
   – Between-group experimental design
                                                           45
        SO16: Summary of Results
• IQ scores after two years
   – Disadvantaged four-year olds exposed to DI
     increased their IQ scores by about 25 points:
     from 95.33 to 121.08
   – Disadvantaged four-year olds exposed to
     traditional education increased their IQ
     scores by only about 5 points: from 94.50 to
     99.61
   – Disadvantaged and advantaged four-year
     olds exposed to DI had similar IQ scores:
     121.08 and 123.43, respectively
                                               46
SO16: Results of Engelmann’s Study: IQ
Scores

   Group       Before     1 Year     2 Years

Disadv.
               95.33      112.47     121.08
DI
Disadv.
               94.50      102.57     99.61
Trad. Ed.
Middle-class
               --------   --------   123.43
DI



                                               47
              SO16: Implications
• IQ scores can be affected by instruction and
  changed after the very early stages of life
  (argues against heredity)
• DI can eliminate differences in the IQ scores of
  disadvantaged and advantaged children,
  differences that are not eliminated via traditional
  educational methods




                                                 48
   Snyder Article: Morningside Academy,
                Seattle, WA
• Morningside Academy
  – Private school (tuition): Dr. Kent Johnson
  – Combines Precision Teaching with Direct Instruction
  – Dr. Johnson offers 2-4 week practicum opportunities in
    the summer to graduate students (web site address is
    in the SOs)
        • While usually restricted to graduate students, our WMU
          undergraduates have been accepted, depending upon letters
          of support from us
        • Scholarships, but students must fund their own housing and
          meals



                                                                49
   (jack christensen, garrett warrilow)
Kent Johnson




               50
                  Morningside Academy, cont.
    • Money-back guarantee for tuition
         – If a student does not gain at least two years or more
           in all skill-deficit areas in one year, Morningside
           refunds 100% of the tuition
    • Success rate; years different than article
         – In the 30 years of its operations, Morningside has
           never refunded a student’s tuition
    • Serves primarily students diagnosed with
      learning disability problems and ADHD who
      have failed in the regular school system



(years different because the school started in 1980 and article was published in 1992)
                                                                                         51
           Morningside Academy, cont. again
• SO 19: Average gains in grade levels for reading,
  language arts, and math for the last two years reported
  in the article (89-90 and 90-91)?


                     3.07 per academic year!!


          Note that these gains are primarily for at-risk kids.
          Those diagnosed as learning disabled or ADHD.




                                                                  52
(~3.0 is fine)
Morningside Academy’s Adult Literacy Program
                  (Not for the Exam)
 • Federally-funded literacy program through YMCA
 • Pilot program for adults, Precision Teaching
    – Did not know whether adults would like PT and thus
      attend instructional sessions
    – Did not know how well PT would work with these
      individuals, given their generally low skill levels
 • 32 participants
    – Some were homeless
    – Some were in and out of jail



                                                       53
           Representative Results:
    Morningside Adult Literacy Pilot Program
Person/                                            Grade
           Average    Expected        Actual
                                                    Level
Subject     Gain        Gain          Gain
                                                   Change
KR        1 month/   .5 month/      4 yr 2 mo/   6.9 to 11.1
Math      1 month    1 month        2 mo
WB        Same as    Same as        2 yr 7 mo/   8.1 to 10.8
Math      above      above          1 mo
DM        Same       Same           8 yr 4 mo/   3.6 to adult
Reading                             1 mo
JK        Same       Same           7 yr 3 mo/   5.8 to adult
Writing                             3 mo
1 month = 20 hours of instruction
                                                          54
What guarantee does Morningside make its
   adult clients based on the results?
                (Again Not for the Exam)

  Each adult learner will gain two years or more
  per month in reading, writing and math skills if
  those adults meet the requirement of
  attending for two hours per day, four days a
  week.
  Notice that is only 20 hours of instruction per
  month!

   (now back to SO 15)
                                                    55
SO15: Three reasons why traditional educators object
    to Direct Instruction & Precision Teaching

     If these methods are so good, why aren’t they being taught
     in schools of education and why don’t teachers like them?
    • They are not self-directed; that is the methods are too
      controlled by the teacher
    • They are not individualized; every child/learner is exposed to
      the same material in the same sequence and must meet the
      same goals
    • They do not focus on affective outcomes - that is, self-
      esteem or making students “feel good about themselves.




(philosophical reasons - educational philosophy child centered learning development; I used   56
to be critical of COE, dean- ABAI, associate dean, behavior analysis)
SO15 NFE: Another reason
  • Teachers feel the scripted lessons take away from their
    flexibility and creativity.
     – Why did I go to school and get a teaching degree if I am
        being told exactly what to say and when to say it?
  • Siefert Elementary School article at the end of the SOs
     – 3rd graders - Proficient or better (after one year of DI)
         • Reading: 22% to 57%
         • Math: 11% to 48%
         • Social studies: 13% to 61%
  • Some teachers still objected and asked to be transferred
  • Kelly Collin, a 1st grade teacher:
    “Teachers resent it because it is so scripted. But is it about
    me being happy or the students learning?”


                                                             57
SO20 NFE: What factors are often blamed for
           the educational crisis?
• Traditional educators tend to blame Johnny or Suzie, the
  culture at large, socio-economic reasons - Johnny can’t
  read because he comes from a bad neighborhood or bad
  home.
• Traditional educators often see the key(s) to be a longer
  school year, higher pay for teachers, right now no recess,
  etc.
• DI & PT advocates maintain that the key to solving the
  educational crisis in this country is better instructional
  material: If Johnny or Suzie is not learning the
  instructional material is the blame, not Johnny, Suzie or
  their home environment


                                                          58
         Blame everything but instruction
• Alessi (1988), a bit dated but I expect still relevant
  For about 5000 kids, school psychologists reported the
  cause of learning problems
  Percentages came out like this:
   – The curriculum caused 0% of the problems
   – The teaching practices caused 0% of the problems
   – The school administration caused 0% of the problems
   – The home environment caused 10-20% of the problems

• Punch line – next slide




                                                    59
                The Punch Line
• The child caused 100% of the problems
• Not one of 5000 problems was presumed to be
  caused by school practices




                                           60
               SO 23: What is fluency?
• The rationale behind fluency first
   – We usually measure only accuracy of performance - 100%, 90%,
     etc.
   – Rate of performance or fluency is also important
   – If one child scores 100% on a math test and completes it in one
     hour, but another scores 100% and completes it in one-half hour,
     is their performance equal or is the second child’s performance
     better?
• PT not only measures accuracy but also speed of
  performance
• Only 30% of classroom time is taken by the delivery of
  instruction; 70% is spent practicing using work sheets.
• Students take several 1-minute timings and chart their
  performance on a graph for the timings
• So, back to the question, what is fluency? (next slide)

                                                                 61
                 SO23: Fluency
So, SO23, what is fluency?

         “Fluency” is a measure of accuracy plus
         speed.



 NFE, but how is fluency specifically measured?


              The number of correct answers
              per minute during timed practice.



                                                   62
  Not for the exam: Fluency Aims (standards/goals)
  Fluency aims are based on research to:

• Insure retention/maintenance over time
• Enable the skill to generalize to settings other than
  the one in which it was taught
   – If you teach basic math, you want kids to be able to
     buy things and count correct change
• Enable correct responding in spite of distractions in
  the environment and in spite of being “tired.”

Because aims are empirically developed to achieve
the above results, aims are not individualized. Every
child must meet the same aims before proceeding to
the next lesson/material.
                                                        63
  SO24: Rationale for scripted lessons
• In DI, every lesson is scripted and the teacher
  is to follow the script exactly
• Why?
The particular wording, examples and
sequences have been pre-tested to insure the
success of the students.

 Not for the exam, but teachers do not have the time,
 nor is it their job, to conduct research on instructional
 material. They are practitioners not researchers They
 already have a very difficult, time-consuming job (and
 class sizes are getting larger all the time).
                                                        64
SO24: Examples of scripted lessons
SOs 25-29: Introduction to Watkins’ article:
           Project Follow-Through

                • Largest study that has evaluated
                  the effectiveness of different
                  instructional systems
                • Government-funded study
Kathy Watkins
                • Conducted over 30 years ago
                • The study began in 1968 and we
                  have had the results since 1977



 Carl Binder                                         66
 SOs 25-29: Project Follow-Through, cont.
• Three major conceptual categories of
  educational systems
   – Basic Skills
   – Cognitive-Conceptual
   – Affective-Cognitive
• Examined 20 different instructional methods
  that fell into one of the three categories above
  in 15 different school districts




                                                67
SOs 25&26: Primary areas of emphasis for each major
        conceptual category and the category for DI

    • Basic Skills (DI)
         – “Basic skills”: reading, arithmetic, spelling, etc.
    • Cognitive-Conceptual
         – Learning to learn
         – Problem solving skills
    • Affective-Cognitive
         – Development of good self-concept
         – Learning to learn



   (only need to learn the primary, although I have also indicated secondary)
                                                                                68
       SO27: Results I have asked you to learn
To be fair to each model, the researchers also measured
the childrens’ basic skills, cognitive skills, and affect

• DI was the only model to produce gains in all three
  areas measured: basic skills, cognitive skills, and
  affect
• DI ranked first in basic skills, cognitive skills and affect
• Educational models, other than those that fell into
  the Basic Skills category, (that is, all those in the
  cognitive-conceptual and affective-cognitive
  categories) had poorer results than the traditional
  educational systems currently being used



                                                           69
SO28: DI & PT ranked first and second in affective
     skills even though neither targets or emphasizes
     them
 What theory of self-concept isn’t supported by these results?
 In order to learn, you must first have a good self-concept and a positive
 attitude toward learning. That is, a good self-concept is a prerequisite for
 learning.

 Suzie & Johnny must feel good about themselves before they can learn.

  What theory of self-concept is supported by the results?
 Success in learning produces a good self concept.

 Suzy & Johnny will feel good about themselves if they are successful in
 learning.


(pretty interesting given that the affective-cognitive models targeted affect directly.
Also interesting because traditional educators still object to DI& PT on that ground)     70
    SO29: Behavioral diagram of the relation
         between learning and a good self-concept

                                    Sr


    R                   ----> Sc
    Academic activities       Signs of success
                                         CS      CR
                                                 Good self-concept




                                                           71
(self-concept emotional response)
 Project Follow-Through Wrap Up (not for the exam)

  • DI was shown to be the most effective instructional
    system
  • In spite of that, the governmental agency responsible for
    disseminating effective instructional systems to school
    districts around the country, endorsed 22 as effective and
    packaged them for distribution
  • Among those disseminated were those that had failed to
    improve academic achievement (out of “fairness”)
  • Funding guidelines were changed so that the programs
    that were the least successful were given more funding
    than those that were the most successful (on the grounds
    that $ would help the least successful)

(problem is not just the teachers, school districts)
                                                         72
SOs 30-35: Headsprout, a web-based reading program
         designed by behavioral psychologists
 • Headsprout founders and team includes:
      – Dr. Kent Johnson, founder of Morningside
      – Greg Stikeleather, BA in psychology from WMU
            • Developed and ran Apple Computer’s first usability testing laboratory
            • Started two software companies; one was acquired by Microsoft, one was
              acquired by Netscape
      –   Dr. Joe Layng, Head of Morningside’s Malcolm X program
      –   Dr. Janet Twyman, past President of ABA
      –   Kelly Hobbins, BA in psychology from WMU
      –   Melinda Sota, MA in psychology from WMU
 • Put on the web in 2002
 • Cost $6 million to develop the first 40 lessons (the initial
   program put on the web)


 (SOs are very straightforward, but I just wanted to introduce you to this
  - it’s terrific, web page, now have a reading comprehension program as well)    73
                       Greg Stikeleather




Melinda Sota, WMU MA
Janet Twyman
Jennifer Clayton


                                           74
 SOs 30 & 32: Why is Headsprout important?
• How many children have literacy problems in our country?
   – 40%
• Over what percentage of our nation’s fourth graders score
  below basic reading levels?
   – 40%
• What is the probability that a child will remain a poor reader
  at the end of fourth grade if the child is a poor reader at
  the end of first grade?
   – 90%

     We need to get to children when they are young and
     teach them the basics

                                                          75
SO 31, NFE: Headsprout stresses phonics - why?
• Research has shown that phonics is essential in order to
  teach children to read.
   – This is in direct conflict with reading approaches based
     on “whole word” teaching/learning.
• Research has also shown that the absence of explicit
  phonics instruction can cause learning problems that put
  learners at a permanent educational disadvantage
  unless corrected by the end of third grade.




                                                         76
          About Headsprout: Not for the exam
• Incorporates PT concepts of fluency and charting/graphing
  performance of each component skill
• On the surface, the program appears to children as
   – As in interactive cartoon
   – Learn reading skills interacting with cartoon-based
     episodes in Space World, Dinosaur World, Undersea
     World, and Jungle World
• They have the same type of refund program as
  Morningside Academy
   – For school systems: Full refund to schools for the price
     of the product for each Kindergarten or 1st grade
     student who is not at or above grade level upon
     completion
   – Full refund to individual parents who buy it as well

                                                        77
                 About Headsprout, cont.
• They first did lab testing - before they put the program on
  the internet. (not for the exam)
  Standard for most activities was that 90% of learners
  would get 90% of the items correct the first time
• SO34A: Once the developmental work in their lab was
  completed, they tested it on the internet. How many
  learners participated in the internet testing?
   – Over 1,000
• SO34B: What were the results of that testing?
   – Over 90% of the learners got over 90% of the items
     correct



                                                         78
             About Headsprout, cont. again
                  (Not for the Exam)
• What is their goal for the entire 80-lesson Headsprout
  Early Reading Program?
   – Learners who consistently score at or above grade
     level, and
   – Kindergarten children with reading skills typical of a
     mid-second grade learner
• Standardized test outcome data from 16 initial children
  who completed the program suggest they have
  accomplished that goal (testing is on-going)
• Individual parents can purchase the Headsprout reading
  program for $99.00



                                                        79
         Headsprout Web Site

• www.headsprout.com/




                               80
                       The End

•   Questions?
•   Instructional assistance hours: Monday, 2/20
•   5-6:30 pm
•   Scotty is “on tap” this time




                                                   81

								
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