waseda teaching ph303 fall 2011 libya student ppt

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Civil War & Transition 2011
• Historical Background
• Key Event
• Action of Intl’ Community
• Characteristics of Libya Case
• RtoP Criteria
• Conclusion
    Historical Background
            Basic Factors of Libya
•   North African country

•   Capital: Tripoli

•   Language: Arabic

•   Population: 5.7

•   Religion: 97% Muslim

•   Economy: Mainly
    depends on oil sector
    Historical Background
                History of Libya
•   1911-1943 Occupied by Italians.
•   1943-1951 Occupied by British (Tripolitania &
    Cyrenaica) & French (Fezzan)
•   1951 Declared independence as United Kingdom
    of Libya
•   1951-1969 Kingdom of Libya (King Idris)
•   1969-2011 Under Gaddafi’s administration
•   2011-present National Transitional Council
 Historical Background
Libya Under Gaddafi Administration
                  •   In office: 1969-2011

                  •   Official leader of Libya
                      Arab Republic 1969-

                  •   “Brother leader” of
                      Libyan Arab Jamahiriya

                  •   Killed by NLA fighters
                      on Oct 20, 2011(age
     Historical Background
The Arab Spring (aka. Arab Awakening)
•   Began on Dec 18,
                     Key Events
        Libyan Revolution (Feb-Oct, 2011)

                            Feb 26
                            UNSCR 1970
                                           Feb 27
Feb 15                                     Establishment of NTC
Demonstration in
                   Indiscriminate Attack
                   against Civilians
                 Key Events
    Libyan Revolution (Feb-Oct, 2011)

                                               Oct 30
                                               Ending of NATO
                      Oct 17
                      Capture and
                      Death of Gaddafi
                                     Oct 23
Mar 17                               Ending of Conflict
UNSCR 1973                           declared by NTC
             Aug 23
             Fall of Tripoli
      Action of the Intl’
• UNSCR 1970
  (Feb 26, 2011)
• Recognition of
• UNSCR 1973
  (Mar 17, 2011)
      Action of the Intl’
             UNSCR 1970
• Unanimously adopted on 26 Feb
• Demanded immediate cessation of
• Non-violent sanctions (arms embargo,
  travel ban, asset freeze)
• Referred the case to ICC
       Action of the Intl’
           Recognition of NTC
• France (Mar 1)
 “legitimate representative of the Libyan people”

• Qatar, Maldives, Italy, Gambia, UK,
  Senegal, Jordan, Malta, Spain, Australia,
  UAE, Germany, Canada…..
• UN recognition (Sep 16)
• Arab League (Sep 20)
      Action of the Intl’
               UNSCR 1973
               Bosnia and Herzegovina, Columbia,
Approve   10    France, Gabon, Lebanon, Nigeria,
                  Portugal, South Africa, UK, US

                  Russia, China, Brazil, India,
Abstain   5

Opposed   0
         Action of the Intl’
                  UNSCR 1973
•   Proposed by France, UK and Lebanon
•   Adopted on 17 March
•   Immediate ceasefire
•   Establishment of no-fly zone
•   Use all necessary measures for protecting
    civilians and civilian populated areas (without the
    consent of Libya)
•   No ground operation, in the limited duration
          Action of the Intl’
               Situation of the UN

• 2001 Report (ICISS)
• 2005 World Summit
•   “right” of intervention →“responsibility” to protect
•   “whether to act” →“how to act”
•   It became harder for states to stay aside
        Action of the Intl’
•          Situation of
    “Leading from behind”   the US
•   Domestic and international cost of actions in
    Iraq and Afghanistan →reluctant to
•   “America cannot use our military wherever
    repression occurs. And given the costs and
    risks of intervention, we must always measure
    our interests against the need for action.”
•   A lead role in the initial air strikes was
    assumed by France, and the entire operation
    was later handed over to NATO
Characteristics of Libyan

• Extraordinary clarity of threat of mass
  atrocity crime
• Role played by regional organizations
• Taking one side (partiality)
Characteristics of Libyan
• “Officers haveof Mass Atrocity all tribes
        Clarity been deployed in
  and regions so that they can purify all
  decisions from cockroaches” (like
• “All Libyan who takes army against Libya
  will be executed”
• In the face of Gaddafi’s record and his
  public utterances, states couldn’t plausibly
  argue that the threat of mass atrocities
  was not real.
• Benghazi’s imminent collapse showed the
  threat was imminent
Characteristics of Libyan
          Regional Organizations
•   The role of regional organizations had important
•   Arab League, GCC, OIC supported no-fly zone
•   All African states in the Council supported UN
    Resolution 1973

•   China and Russia abstained (instead of using
    veto )
•   It changed US attitude from skepticism about
    intervention in Libya to forcible advocacy.
Characteristics of Libyan
•   One of genuine (impartiality)→ one of taking
             Taking One Side
•   Resolution 1973 was adopted not only for the
    protection of civilians, but also for the
    protection of “civilian populated areas”

•   It’s clear that international community took
    “one side” and restricted the movement of
•   With Libyan case, the Council is reasserting its
    right to point its finger at the “wrongdoer.”
         RtoP Criteria
• Just Cause ◎
• Right Intention ◎/△
• Last Resort ◎
• Proportional Means △
• Reasonable Prospect
• Legitimate Authority
           RtoP Criteria
• Libyan government employed various
                Just Cause
    war tools against demonstrations and
    funeral processions.
• Security forces targeted paramedics.
• Injured demonstrators were refused
    access to hospitals and ambulance
•   etc. Apprehended large scale loss of
           RtoP Criteria
              Right Intention
• Responsibility to protect Libyan civilian
• Arab Spring - demand of democracy
  and social reform
• Supporting NLA
      to halt or avert humanitarian
      suffering supported by regional
      opinion and victims.

• *Political interests
          RtoP Criteria
               Last Resort
• Statements denouncing Gaddafi’s
• UNSCR 1970
• International Criminal Court
• Arrest warrant by Interpol
       Absence of viable alternative
       non-military option
          RtoP Criteria
          Proportional Means

• Non-fly zone (Mar 17)
• Regular Strike Mission
• Duration: Feb 15 ~ Oct 23, 2011 (8
  months and 8 days)
• Casualties: 25,000 ~ 30,000 killed, 4,000
  missing ( from both side)
         RtoP Criteria
        Reasonable Prospect
• Gaddafi’s unpopularity
• Regional support
• Foreseeable massacre in Benghazi
• Imminent collapse of Benghazi
       Viable military intervention and
       effective reduce of humanitarian
          RtoP Criteria
          Legitimate Authority

• UNSC adopted UNSCR 1973 with 10
  approval, 5 abstention and 0 opposition.
• Responsibility to Protect.
       Failure of Intl’ Community

• Murder of Gaddafi
• Accidental Injury of Civilian
      Current Situation of Libya

• Run by NTC
• Recognition of NTC by UN General
  Assembly with 114 approval, 17
  opposition and 15 abstention.
• Recovering
Thank you!!!!

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