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									Birds and Mammals

Table of Contents
Birds


The Physics of Flight


Mammals
Birds and Mammals - Birds

                 Characteristics of Birds
   The bodies of most birds have adaptations for flight.
Birds and Mammals - Birds

                 Characteristics of Birds
   Air sacs and a four-chambered heart help birds obtain
   oxygen and move it to their cells.
Birds and Mammals - Birds

               Characteristics of Birds
                Birds have four-chambered hearts and
                double-loop circulatory systems that efficiently
                move oxygen to their cells.
Birds and Mammals - Birds

                 Characteristics of Birds
   Some birds like this hawk have a crop and a gizzard. The
   crop stores food, and the gizzard crushes food.
Birds and Mammals - Birds


                        Previewing Visuals
   When you preview, you look ahead at the material to be
   read. Preview Figure 1. Then write two questions you have
   about the diagram in a graphic organizer like the one below.
   As you read, answer your questions.

                          Adaptations for Flight
      Q. How are birds adapted for flight?

      A. They have lightweight bones, wings, and contour feathers.

      Q. What is the function of contour feathers?

      A. They give shape to the body and help the bird balance and steer
         during flight.
Birds and Mammals




         End of Section:
             Birds
Birds and Mammals - The Physics of Flight

                      Staying in the Air
    The difference in pressure above and below the wings as a
    bird moves through the air produces an upward force, called
    lift, that causes the bird to rise.
Birds and Mammals - The Physics of Flight


                      Relating Cause and Effect
    A cause makes something happen. An effect is what
    happens. As you read, identify the physical properties of a
    bird’s wing that cause lift. Write them down in a graphic
    organizer like the one below.
                 Cause
    Air flows around the wing.
                                              Effect
    The shape of the wing causes
    a difference in air pressure that            Lift
    produces an upward force.


    Contour feathers give the wings
    a smooth shape.
Birds and Mammals - The Physics of Flight

               More on Bird Adaptations




           Click the PHSchool.com button for an activity
                      about bird adaptations.
Birds and Mammals




         End of Section:
         The Physics of
             Flight
Birds and Mammals - Mammals


                 Mammal Diversity
                              This circle graph shows the
                              percentages of species of some
                              groups of mammals.
Birds and Mammals - Mammals


                 Mammal Diversity
                              Reading Graphs:

                                What percentage of species
                                are bats?




                                21.8 %
Birds and Mammals - Mammals


                 Mammal Diversity
                              Calculating:

                                What percentage of species
                                are not bats?




                                78.2 %
Birds and Mammals - Mammals


                 Mammal Diversity
                              Graphing:

                                Suppose you used the data
                                shown in the circle graph to
                                make a bar graph. Which bar
                                would be tallest?


                                The group with the greatest
                                number of species, rodents,
                                would be the tallest.
Birds and Mammals - Mammals


                 Mammal Diversity
                              Predicting:

                                What total should all the
                                percentages in the pie chart
                                add up to? Do you have to
                                add the percentages to obtain
                                your answer? Explain.
                                100; no, you do not have to
                                add them because it is a
                                circle chart—the entire chart
                                stands for 100 percent of the
                                items counted— in this case,
                                mammal species.
Birds and Mammals - Mammals


                      Building Vocabulary
   A definition states the meaning of a word or phrase by telling
   about its most important feature or function. After you read
   the section, reread the paragraphs that contain definitions of
   Key Terms. Use all the information you have learned to write
   a definition of each Key Term in your own words.
   Key Terms:          Examples:
   monotreme
   mammal mammal
   placental           The yak is a memberor a marsupial, a placental called
                       Unlike a monotreme of the group of vertebrates
                       Egg-laying mammals are called monotremes.
                       mammal develops insides its mother’s body until its
                       mammals.
   marsupial           Marsupials are mammals whose young are born at an
                       body systems can function independently.
   mammary gland       Everystage ofmammal is fedand usually continue to
                       early young development with milk produced by
   placenta            organs in its pouch on body. mother’sthe placenta, an
                       The name of mother’s their These organs are called
                       develop in a this group comes from body.
                       mammary glands.
                       organ in pregnant female mammals that passes
   gestation period
   diaphragm           materials between very short gestation the combined
                       Marsupials have a in and out because ofperiod, the
                       Mammals breathe the mother and the developing
                       embryo. time between fertilization and birth.
                       action of
                       length of rib muscles and a large muscle called the
                       diaphragm.
Birds and Mammals - Mammals

                   Links on Mammals




         Click the SciLinks button for links on mammals.
Birds and Mammals - Mammals

                    Data Sharing Lab




           Click the PHSchool.com button for an activity
     about sharing data for the Consumer Lab Keeping Warm.
Birds and Mammals




         End of Section:
           Mammals
Birds and Mammals

                      Graphic Organizer

Characteristic     Monotremes           Marsupials          Placental
                                                            Mammals

                                      Born live, crawl
How Young Begin
                Hatch from egg        into mother’s      Born live
Life
                                      pouch
                 Milk from pores or   Milk produced by
How Young                                                Milk produced by
                 slits on mother’s    mother in her
Are Fed                               pouch              mother
                 skin
                 Spiny anteater or                       Human, giraffe,
Example                               Koala, kangaroo,
                 duck-billed                             bear, rabbit,
                                      or opossum
                 platypus                                whale, etc.
Birds and Mammals




       End of Section:
      Graphic Organizer

								
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