CART and Broadcast Captioning by z63FXgp

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									CART (Communication Access
   Realtime Translation)
   A New Way to Hear the World


 [Insert title and name]
 [Insert city, state]
             What is CART?
• An instant translation of the spoken word into
  English text using a stenotype machine,
  notebook computer and realtime software.

• The text appears on a computer monitor or
  other display.

• The Americans with Disabilities Act
  specifically recognizes CART as an assistive
  technology which affords "effective
  communication access."
        Who provides CART?

• Highly trained realtime writers

• Who can type at 200+ words per minute

• With at least 97% accuracy
             Goals of CART
• Consumer centered
• Confidential
• Culturally and linguistically appropriate
  services
• Client conscious
             How Does it Work?
• Like playing piano and typing at the same time
• Same skills and equipment used in captioning
• Special stenotype keyboard
  – Machine Shorthand
  – Phonetic
  – 23 keys
     •   Initial consonants
     •   Vowels
     •   Final consonants
     •   Numbers
           Who Uses CART?
• CART services are preferred by:
  – People whose first language is English
  – Late-deafened people
  – Hard-of-hearing people
  – People with hearing loss who do not sign
  – People with cochlear implants who do not sign
  – People who are deaf-blind/low vision who do not sign
  – People who use cued speech or pidgin/signed exact
    English
  – People who use oral interpreters
             Who Uses CART?
• CART is also used by:
  – Interpreters transmitting tactile signs
  – Certified Deaf Interpreters with good English
    skills when ASL interpreters are not available
  – Some culturally deaf people when ASL
    interpreters are not available
              CART Wannabes
• Some entities will attempt to provide
  services that are not CART
• Compare CART vs. notetakers
  –   CART is word for word – 200+ wpm
  –   CART is 97% accurate
  –   CART lets you decide what is important
  –   Other services are excellent for notetaking but
      are not communication access. If that is not the
      service you need, beware.
    How is CART Different?
• CART differs from other notetaking
  options because it:
  – Creates a word-for-word document
  – Allows the consumer to decide what is
    important
  – Captures environmental cues like laughing or
    witty banter
  – Offers full participation in events
  – Provides full and effective communication
    access
              CART Environments
• A CART provider uses a steno machine, notebook
  computer and realtime software to render instant speech-to-
  text translation on a computer monitor or other display for
  the benefit of an individual consumer or larger group in a
  number of settings:
   –   Classrooms
   –   Courtrooms
   –   Religious services
   –   Senior citizen meetings
   –   Conventions and conferences
   –   Doctor appointments
   –   Weddings, funerals and other personal events
   –   Civic events, such as town council meetings
   –   Cultural presentations, such as Broadway shows
   –   Recreation or entertainment events
   –   Anywhere communication access is needed
          The Benefits of CART
• Equal communication access – in your professional and
  personal life or that of a loved one
• Independence – to decide what is important in the
  material provided
• Freedom – of choice regarding setting, display options
  and seating
• Confidence – to join in conversations, knowing all
  words and environmental cues are captured
• Ability – to fully participate in life
• Flexibility – to make future use of printed record given
  to the consumer at the end of the event
What’s the Difference? Court, CART, Captioning
  • Realtime – legal document – verbatim
    – Transcript prepared after actual event
    – Not for communication access
    – Code of Ethics
  • Captioning – communication access
    – Provider remote from consumers (TV/Theater)
    – Almost verbatim
        • Live Captioning
        • Prescripted captioning
  • Theater Captioning
    – Prescripted
What’s the Difference? Court, CART, Captioning
            CART in the Courtroom
 • The National Court Reporters Foundation and the American Judges
   Foundation have developed model guidelines for the use of CART in
   the courtroom. The guidelines:
    – Define CART and explain the duties of the CART provider;
    – Set forth standards of ethics and professional responsibility;
    – Explain how citizens can request the services of a CART provider;
    – Establish procedures and protocol for the interaction of CART provider
      with the hard-of-hearing or deaf citizen and court personnel; and
    – Describe appropriate procedure for providing CART service not only in
      the courtroom during the trial, but also in other judicial environments
      where communication access is necessary.
    – For a copy of the guidelines, visit:
      http://www.ncraonline.org/foundation/research/CARTguidelines.shtml
What’s the Difference? Court, CART, Captioning
       CART – Communication Access
  • Provider and consumer together
  • Almost verbatim
  • Provides environmental cues and
    nonauditory communication
  • Usually not a legal record
  • Code of Ethics
What’s the Difference? Court, CART, Captioning

  • Captioned CART
    – Conference setting
    – Text merged with video picture

  • Remote CART
    – Provider in different location from consumer
    – Need two phone lines or one phone, one cable or
      DSL
    – Need computer with appropriate software at
      consumer location
    – Need microphone
What’s the Difference? Court, CART, Captioning
                   Remote CART
 • Pluses
   – More providers
 • Minuses
   –   Special telephone lines
   –   Only hear whoever has microphone
   –   Can’t see what is written on the blackboard
   –   Can’t see what is on overheads or slides
   –   More responsibility on user to set up and connect
             Writing for CART

• Write by sound, not spelling
  – KAT = cat
• How many syllables?
  –   One syllable = one stroke
  –   Multiple syllables = one stroke for each sound
  –   4-5 strokes per second
  –   240-300 strokes per minute
  –   14,400 – 18,000 strokes per hour!
            Writing for CART
• Phrases
  – Frequently used grouping of words – one stroke
     • Correct me if I’m wrong = KRONG
• Abbreviations
  – Frequently used words – one stroke
     • Gentleman = JE
 Why Can’t I Read Some Things?
• Untranslates
  – The word isn’t defined in the dictionary and the
    program tries to find the best phonetic match
     • GRAD - TKPWRAD
• CART providers are constantly building
  their computer dictionary
• Mistranslates – word boundary problems
  – The translation program inaccurately chooses
    which combination of strokes to find a match
     • Forest TOR AIGS – for restoration
 Why Can’t I Read Some Things?
• Overstroking or stacking
  – The keys on the steno machine do not release
    quickly enough and a second stroke is written
    in the same electronic space as the first
• Fat Finger Days
  – One too many keys or one too few keys
    stroked in an entry and doesn’t produce a
    dictionary match
  – Program tries to find best phonetic match
      Role of the CART Provider
• Before the assignment:
  – Contact client for relevant information
  – Confirms rates and cancellation policy
  – State rates/ freelance rates
  – Brings in and sets up equipment (including
    projection)
  – Builds job dictionary
      • Adds names and special words
      • Creates speaker identifications
      • Reviews reading assignments (educational)
    Role of the CART Provider
• During the assignment:
  – Selects appropriate location with input from
    consumer
  – Adjusts font size and colors to user preference
  – Writes what is said and adds nonoral
    communication
  – Makes online defines if possible
    Role of the CART Provider
• After the assignment:
  – Confidentiality
  – Reviews text for untranslates, mistranslates, and
    word boundary problems and creates new
    dictionary entries
  – May or may not provide client with ASCII disk
  – Deletes the text to safeguard confidentiality
    unless required or requested to save
  – Packs up equipment and takes it away
           Role of the Client
• Chooses whether consumer or provider describes
  CART (brochures)
• Advocates for breaks for CART provider
• In classroom settings, student is responsible for
  what the instructor/presenter writes on the board or
  overhead or shows on a slide.
• Communicates with CART provider
   – Lets them know whether you have a problem
   – Gives input on seating preferences
   – Gives input on font size and screen colors
          Who to Ask for CART
• Every entity covered by the ADA must have a contact
  person – your first point of contact
   – Consumer must ask for the accommodation
   – If they don’t know who to call, give them assistance
• Courts – if you are called as a juror, witness or
  participant, each court has an ADA coordinator
• Postsecondary education – contact ADA coordinator,
  Disability Services Office or similar organization
• Employment – your employer or human resources
  department
• Public events – registration material should have a
  notice about accommodations and a contact
 Why Educate Decision Makers?
• Some decision makers, such as local school
  systems or universities, don’t understand the
  benefits of CART
• NCRA is working to educate legislators,
  school and university disability services
  coordinators, and other appropriate
  individuals about the benefits of CART and
  how important this methodology is to the
  communication needs of people with
  hearing loss
How Do You Locate the Decision Maker?

• Educational Setting
  – For university or college, contact the office of
    support services, office of disability services, or
    a department with a similar name.
  – For grade school through high school CART,
    follow the procedure set out in the Individuals
    with Disabilities Education Act.
           Ensuring Quality CART
• How can you determine if a provider is qualified? Ask the
  CART Provider if they are familiar with the CART
  Provider’s Manual and Guidelines for Professional
  Practice.
  Read through:

   – CART Provider’s Manual
      • http://cart.ncraonline.org/providers/manual.shtml
   – Guidelines for Professional Practice
      • http://cart.ncraonline.org/providers/guidelines.shtml
   – Questions to Ask a CART Provider
      • http://www.cart-info.org/questions.html
        Ensuring Quality CART
              New CART Certification

• In November 2003, the National Court Reporters
  Association (NCRA) implemented a new
  certification exam specifically for CART providers
  which includes a written knowledge test covering
  technology, deaf/HOH sensitivity and laws, plus a
  dictated skills test.
• The Certified CART Provider (CCP) certification
  verifies that a provider has the entry-level skills
  needed to provide quality realtime writing in
  CART environments.
   Ensuring Quality CART, con’t
• Confirm that the CART provider will test
  for hardware and software compatibility
  when there is a need to project the text.
• Arrange all service and payment details in
  advance.
• Always ask for references.
    Requesting CART Services
• Date, time and location of assignment
• Projected length of assignment
• Up to three hours may need one or two CART
  providers
• Over three hours, need two CART providers
• CART providers should have 5 minute breaks
  every hour when working alone
• Name and number of consumer(s)
• Type of assignment (wedding, class, etc.)
• Who else will be present, spelling of names
• Agendas, speakers’ names and bios
Requesting CART Services, con’t
•   Will CART be projected?
•   Who will provide the screen?
•   Table for projector, chair without arms
•   Pre-event contact to coordinate information,
    confirm rates and cancellation policy
•   Minimum fee – if any
•   Billing contact information
•   Assignment at third-party location
•   Directions to assignment location
                   ASCII Disks
• Stenotype software can create an ASCII disk of the
  session
   – Not a legal document – even if from a court setting
   – Complete notetaking – can be edited
   – There is a fee
• When is it appropriate?
   – Education setting with approval
   – Meetings – for notetaking with advanced warning and
     agreement of all participants
   – If speaker’s content is copyrighted, must get permission
     Choices – Display Options
• CART may be used for an individual
  consumer, displayed onto a computer screen

• CART can also be used for a larger
  audience, with text projected onto a bigger
  screen or even a wall
          Ethical Considerations
•   Confidentiality
•   Sensitivity
•   Staying in role
•   Impartiality
    – Similar to Code of Ethics of ASL interpreters
    – National Court Reporters Association Code of
      Professional Ethics
              Professional Standards
                   NCRA Guidelines – Section III
•    CART in the legal setting:
    A. Accept assignments using discretion with regard to
       skill, setting, and the consumers involved, and
       accurately represent the provider’s qualifications for
       CART
    B. Establish a clear understanding of:
       I. Who is hiring the CART provider;
       II. The role played by the provider in assisting with
            communication as opposed to the role of the Official Reporter
            of Proceedings in providing a verbatim record;
       III. The fact that no roughly edited electronic file will be
            produced; and
       IV. The need to preserve the unedited text file with disclaimer in
            accordance with statute or court order, or for a period of no
            less than five years
         Professional Standards
       NCRA Guidelines – Section III - continued

• CART in the legal setting:
  C. Refrain from working in the dual capacity of Official
    Reporter of Proceedings and CART Provider at the
    same time. When no other option exists, the role to be
    performed is that of the Official Reporter of
    Proceedings, and all present are entitled to read the
    display screen of the Official Reporter, which does
    not include the content and spirit of the speaker, as
    well as environmental sounds, that would normally be
    provided by the CART provider. Disclosure must be
    made to the court and all parties, including the person
    requiring interpretive services, of this limitation.
           Professional Standards
         NCRA Guidelines – Section III - continued
•    CART in the legal setting:
    D. Acquire, when possible, information or materials in
       advance to prepare a job dictionary
    E. Know the software and hardware system to be used
       and be able to do troubleshooting
    F. Strive to achieve, as nearly verbatim as possible, 100
       percent accuracy at all times
    G. Include in the realtime display the identification,
       content and spirit of the speaker, as well as
       environmental sounds (except under circumstances
       described in item C)
             Professional Standards
           NCRA Guidelines – Section III - continued

•        CART in the legal setting:
    H.     Refrain from counseling, advising, or interjecting
           personal opinions except as required to accomplish the
           task at hand
    I.     In a confidential setting (e.g., legal discussions, jury
           deliberations, attorney/client discussions), delete all
           files immediately after the assignment unless otherwise
           requested not to do so, or ordered by the Court
    J.     Cooperate with all parties to ensure that effective
           communication is taking place
        Professional Standards
      NCRA Guidelines – Section III - continued

• CART in the legal setting:
  K. Preserve the privacy of a consumer’s personal
     information
  L. Familiarize oneself with the provisions of
     NCRA’s “The CART Provider’s Manual,”
     these Guidelines, the General Guidelines for
     Professional Practice, and any updates thereto
  M. Keep abreast of any current trends, laws,
     literature, and technological advances relating
     to CART
              Professional Standards
                NCRA Guidelines – Section IV
•    CART in the nonlegal setting:
    A. Accept assignments using discretion with regard to
       skill, setting, and the consumers involved, and
       accurately represent the provider’s qualifications for
       CART
    B. Establish a clear understanding of:
       I. Who is hiring the CART Provider;
       II. Whether an electronic file of the roughly edited text with
            disclaimer is to be preserved;
       III. If yes, whether all participants have been informed that an
            electronic file of the roughly edited text with disclaimer will
            be preserved; and
       IV. Who is entitled to receive a copy of the electronic file
           Professional Standards
         NCRA Guidelines – Section IV- continued

•    CART in a nonlegal setting:
    C. Acquire, when possible, information or materials in
       advance to prepare a job dictionary
    D. Know the software and hardware system to be used
       and be able to do troubleshooting
    E. Strive to achieve, as nearly verbatim as possible, 100
       percent accuracy at all times
    F. Include in the realtime display the identification,
       content and spirit of the speaker, as well as
       environmental sounds
            Professional Standards
           NCRA Guidelines – Section IV - continued

•        CART in the nonlegal setting:
    G.     Refrain from counseling, advising, or
           interjecting personal opinions except as
           required to accomplish the task at hand
    H.     Cooperate with all parties to ensure that
           effective communication is taking place
    I.     In a confidential setting (e.g., medical
           discussions, support groups), delete all files
           immediately after the assignment unless
           otherwise requested not to do so
        Professional Standards
      NCRA Guidelines – Section IV - continued

• CART in the nonlegal setting:
  J. Preserve the privacy of a consumer’s personal
     information
  K. Familiarize oneself with the provisions of
     NCRA’s “The CART Provider’s Manual,”
     these Guidelines, and any updates thereto
  L. Keep abreast of any current trends, laws,
     literature, and technological advances relating
     to CART
   Meeting the Demand for CART
             NCRA’s Federal Initiative

• Introduced legislation (H.R. 970 and S. 480) to
  obtain federal funding for training captioners and
  CART providers
• Need grassroots letters of support to Congress
  emphasizing the importance of this service to the
  deaf and hard-of-hearing community
• For help with letters, please visit:
  http://www.congressweb.com/cweb4/index.cfm?orgcode=ncra
     NCRA’s Federal Initiative
• Since 2000, NCRA has helped generate
  over $10 million in federal funding for a
  total of 18 realtime-training programs
  across the country.

• NCRA will continue to help guide schools
  through the earmark process until
  legislation passes, allowing for competitive
  grants.
What Does it Mean for Consumers?

• Potentially, an immediate increase in the
  current number of CART providers and
  broadcast captioners.

• In the long term, a qualified CART provider
  and broadcast captioner who can enter either
  field immediately upon graduation from a
  training program.
   What Laws Pertain to CART?
• This is for background information only

• Consult your legal advisor for specific
  information

• Learn your rights so you can be
  knowledgeable when requesting services
   What Laws Pertain to CART?
• Rehabilitation Act of 1973, Section 504
  – (29 USC, section 794) requires colleges and
    universities which receive any federal assistance to
    provide interpreters to deaf students
• U.S. Department of Education has determined
  that these institutions must provide necessary
  auxiliary aids for sensory impaired students
  (34CFR 104.11(d))
  – Funding may be available from state rehabilitation
    organizations
   What Laws Pertain to CART?
• What is a “reasonable accommodation”?
  – Any effective device that allows for
    communication access
  – CART is considered a “reasonable
    accommodation”
  – However, final decision for type of service is
    up to the providing organization or school
  – Can cite “undue hardship,” meaning “an action
    requiring significant difficulty or expense,” if it
    chooses not to provide the requested service.
   What Laws Pertain to CART?
• Americans with Disabilities Act – 1990
  – 42 USC Section 12182, 12183 (Title III)
  – Auxiliary aids and services 28CFR 36.303(c)
     • A public accommodation shall furnish appropriate
       auxiliary aids and services where necessary to ensure
       effective communication with individuals with
       disabilities
     • All postsecondary educational institutions, regardless
       of whether or not they receive federal assistance,
       must provide communication access
       What Laws Pertain to CART?
• Auxiliary Aids and Services
   –   Qualified interpreters, notetakers
   –   Computer-aided transcription services (CART)
   –   Written materials, telephone handset amplifiers
   –   Assistive learning devices or systems
   –   Telephones compatible with hearing aids
   –   Closed caption decoders
   –   Open and closed captioning
   –   Telecommunication devices (TTYs)
   –   Or other effective methods of making aurally delivered
       materials available to individuals with hearing
       impairments
   What Laws Pertain to CART?
• Office for Civil Rights – three basic
  components of effective communication
  – Timeliness of delivery
  – Accuracy of translation
  – Provision of communication in a manner and
    medium appropriate to the significance of the
    message and the abilities of the individual with
    the disability
         Who Pays for CART?
– The Department of Justice does not permit a public
  accommodation to charge a person for the cost of
  the auxiliary aid provided. Title III 28CFR
  36.301(c)
– Office of Civil Rights – the (public) agency may not
  assess any additional charge for the provision of an
  auxiliary aid or service. 28CFR 35.130(f)
– Some students may be eligible for vocational
  rehabilitation assistance (Patrick, 7NDLR 470
  (1995))
– Many lawsuits – see NAD Web site
   • http://www.nad.org/infocenter/legal/pricollege.html
         Who Pays for CART?
• Department of Justice – 28CFR 36.309(a)
  – Any private entity that offers examinations or courses
    related to applications, licensing, or certification or
    credentialing for secondary or post-secondary education,
    professional or trade purposes shall offer such
    examinations in a place and manner accessible to
    persons with disabilities or offer alternative accessible
    arrangements for such individuals.
  – A private entity that offers a course covered by this
    section shall provide appropriate auxiliary aids and
    services for persons with impaired sensory ability.
         Who Pays for CART?
• Department of Justice – 28CFR 36.309(c)
  – The ADA applies to all activities of the
    institution, including extracurricular activities
    and activities that take place outside the
    classroom
  – Colleges and universities have duties to make
    physical accommodations to deaf students in
    dormitories, university buildings and other
    facilities, including flashing light alarms, visible
    doorbells, other signaling devices and access to
    captioned television and telecommunications
    equipment.
Who Pays for CART? Tax Credits
• The cost of interpreters and other auxiliary aids may
  entitle a business to an income tax credit as well as
  the usual business-related expense deduction.
• Internal Revenue code has been amended to provide
  tax incentives for removing barriers or increasing
  accessibility.
      • Disabled Access Tax Credit Title 26, IRC Section 44
      • For information, IRS, 800-829-1040 Voice ; 800-829-4059 TTY
                  More Laws
• Telecommunications Act of 1996
  – Captioning
  – 100 percent of all new non-exempt programming
    must be captioned by 2006 (1998 FCC decision)
     • 30 percent of a channel’s pre-rule programming had
       to have captions beginning January 2, 2003.
     • Requirements for Spanish language captioning
• FCC – August 29, 2000 – all television
  broadcasters are required to provide visual
  emergency announcements and closed
  captioning that do not block
                More Laws
• Individuals with Disabilities Education Act
  (IDEA)
  – Requires public school systems to provide a
    “free, appropriate public education” to children
    who need specialized services because of a
    disability
  – Establishes procedure for developing an
    individualized curriculum and identifying needed
    support services
                    More on IDEA
• How the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act
  Applies to Deaf and Hard-of-Hearing Students
  by Celeste D. Johnson
   – http://www.clerccenter2.gallaudet.edu/KidsWorldDeafNet/library
• IDEA – Individual Education Plan
   – Elementary schools
      • Reading ability
   – Secondary Schools
      • Classes
      • Extracurricular activities
  Individual Education Plan (IEP)
• Department of Education – Policy Guidance
  – 57 Federal Register 49274 – October 1992
     • In developing an IEP for a deaf or hard-of-hearing
       child, an entity must take into consideration:
        – Communication needs and the child’s preferred mode of
          communication
        – Linguistic needs
        – Severity of hearing loss and potential for using residual
          hearing
        – Academic level
        – Social, emotional and cultural needs, including
          opportunities for peer interaction and communication
      More information on CART
• National Court Reporters Association
  –   http://www.ncraonline.org
  –   http://www.cart-info.org
  –   http://cart.ncraonline.org
  –   (800) 272-6272 voice
  –   (703) 556-6289 TTY
  –   MSIC@NCRAonline.org

								
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