Tuesday Lecture � Fruits and Nuts of Temperate Regions

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					     Tuesday Lecture – Fruits and
      Nuts of Temperate Regions
Reading: Textbook, Chapter 3
Collect assignment – Origin of Foods
Quiz
1. What is a fruit? Give an example. Also
   give an example of a plant food that we eat
   that is not a fruit.


2. In what century, and in what part of our
   country did Johny Appleseed live?
Vegetable Fruits and Meaty Nuts
                  What is a Fruit?

Fruit = mature ovary (for a botanist)
                    Flowers to Fruits
                                    Fruit (with 1+ seeds)



Ovary (in flower)
With ovules
                      Fruit Types
Major Distinctions:             See Table 3.1, p. 54
- dry vs. fleshy                Also Fig. 3.1, 3.2, 3.3
                                pages 56-57
                      Fruit Types
Major Distinctions:             See Table 3.1, p. 54
- dry vs. fleshy                Also Fig. 3.1, 3.2, 3.3
                                pages 56-57
- dehiscent vs. indehiscent
                      Fruit Types
Major Distinctions:                   See Table 3.1, p. 54
- dry vs. fleshy                      Also Fig. 3.1, 3.2, 3.3
                                      pages 56-57
- dehiscent vs. indehiscent
- product of 1 ovary vs. 2+ ovaries
                      Fruit Types
Major Distinctions:                     See Table 3.1, p. 54
- dry vs. fleshy                        Also Fig. 3.1, 3.2, 3.3
                                        pages 56-57
- dehiscent vs. indehiscent
- product of 1 ovary vs. 2+ ovaries
- product of 1 flower vs. multiple flowers
                      Fruit Types
Major Distinctions:                     See Table 3.1, p. 54
- dry vs. fleshy                        Also Fig. 3.1, 3.2, 3.3
                                        pages 56-57
- dehiscent vs. indehiscent
- product of 1 ovary vs. 2+ ovaries
- product of 1 flower vs. multiple flowers


                                       Pericarp – fruit wall
                                       - endocarp (inside)
                                       - mesocarp (middle)
                                       - exocarp (outside)
Dry, Indehiscent Fruits – Achene, Grain
  Achene – 1-seeded, fruit and seed wall separate
Dry, Indehiscent Fruits – Achene, Grain
  Achene – 1-seeded, fruit and seed wall separate




  Grain – 1-seeded, fruit and seed wall fused Chapter 5
    Dry Indehiscent Fruits - Nut
Nut – 1 seeded, enclosed by hard pericarp, surrounded by “husk”




See Figs. 3.15, 3.16, pages 70-71
    Dry, Dehiscent Fruits – Follicle
Follicle – from simple ovary, splits along 1 seam only
    See Figs. 3.4, p. 58




         Spiraea Fruits
                                                         milkweed
    Dry, Dehiscent Fruits - Legume
Legume – from simple ovary, splits along 2 seams




Fruit of Fabaceae, only: beans, peas, lentils etc.   Chapter 6
   Dry, Dehiscent Fruits – Capsule
Capsule = from compound ovary, splits along >2 seams or pores
Dry, Dehiscent Fruits - Schizocarp
Schizocarp = from compound ovary, splits into 1-seeded units




Maple Schizocarp

                                         Carrot
 Fleshy Fruits from 1 Ovary - Berry
Berry – multiple seeds, embedded in fleshy pulp
 Fleshy Fruits from 1 Ovary - Berry
Berry – multiple seeds, embedded in fleshy pulp




                                        Seedless fruits – sterile,
                                        so no seeds develop,
                                        but still considered to
                                        be berries
     Fleshy Fruits from 1 Ovary - Berry
    Berry – multiple seeds, embedded in fleshy pulp




 Special types of Berries

Pepo – hard rind
     Fleshy Fruits from 1 Ovary - Berry
    Berry – multiple seeds, embedded in fleshy pulp




 Special types of Berries
                 Hesperidium – flesh = juice-
Pepo – hard rind filled hairs
     Fleshy Fruits from 1 Ovary - Berry
    Berry – multiple seeds, embedded in fleshy pulp




 Special types of Berries
                                                  Pome – most of
                 Hesperidium – flesh = juice-     flesh = hypanthium
Pepo – hard rind filled hairs
Fleshy Fruits from 1 Ovary - Drupe
                    See Fig. 3.4, page 59; also
                    Fig. 3.12, page 68
Fleshy Fruits from 1 Ovary - Drupe
                    See Fig. 3.4, page 59; also
                    Fig. 3.12, page 68
Fleshy Fruits from 1 Ovary - Drupe
                    See Fig. 3.4, page 59; also
                    Fig. 3.12, page 68
         Fleshy Fruits from > 1 Ovary
See Fig. 3.8, p. 66
Fleshy Fruits - Comparison
Fleshy Fruits from > 1 Flower
    Temperate Fruit & Nut Crops
Rosaceae – Rose Family                      See Tables 3.2, p. 55;
- Apples, Pears, and Quinces                Table 3.5, p. 62-63

- Plums, Cherries, Peaches, Apricots, Almonds
- Strawberries, Raspberries, Blackberries
Blueberries & Cranberries
Grapes
Olives
Kiwi Fruit
Walnuts & Pecans
Pistachios
Apples, Pears, and Quinces
                   See Fig. 3.6, p. 64
                 Apple Production


Native to: Caucasus Mountains, Kazakhstan
                 Apple Production

Native to: Caucasus Mountains, Kazakhstan
                  Apple Production


Native to: Caucasus Mountains, Kazakhstan
“Seed” apples (Johnny Appleseed) – diverse
                   Apple Production


Native to: Caucasus Mountains, Kazakhstan
“Seed” apples (Johnny Appleseed) – diverse
Cultivars – grafted onto rootstocks
                   Apple Production


Native to: Caucasus Mountains, Kazakhstan
“Seed” apples (Johnny Appleseed) – diverse
Cultivars – grafted onto rootstocks
Modern Favorites: Washington State, Oregon – Red Delicious
Being Superseded By: Granny Smith, Gala, Fuji, Braeburn


Economics: production cost = $12/box; wholesale $8-12/box
Stone Fruits – Plums, Cherries,
      Peaches, Apricots
 Stone Fruits – Plums and Peaches
Plum                           Peach
Stone Fruits – Cherries
  Berries that are not really berries
Strawberry - Fragaria




 See Fig. 3.8, p. 66
Berries that are not really berries
            Brambles – raspberries and blackberries
            Fruit = aggregate of small drupes (drupelets)
   Berries that are not really berries
 Raspberry – receptacle stays behind when fruit detached
 Blackberry – receptacle detaches with fruit




Black              Blackberry         Loganberry       Boysenberry
raspberry
     Berries that are really Berries
Blueberry           See Fig. 3.9, p. 67   Cranberry
                  Another Popular Berry
  Grapes - Vitis                                 Flowers


 See Fig. 3.11,
 p. 68


Vineyard grapes


                     Muscadine grapes
                                        Table grapes
A Berry with an Accent
                           See Fig. 3.14, p. 70

      Kiwi Fruit – Actinidia deliciosa (original
      common name = Chinese gooseberry)




                     Note: some individuals
                     can be allergic to kiwi
Drupes Again
                 See Fig. 3.12, p. 68
    Olive – Olea europea
Pecans     Nuts to You                   Walnuts




         See Fig. 3.15, 3.16, p. 70-71
            More Nuts   See Figs. 3.17, 3.18, p. 72
Chestnut - Castanea




                                       Hazelnut
         Nuts that are not nuts
                                                Almond - Prunus
                            Fig. 3.19, p. 73;
                            Figs. 3.20, 3.21,
                            p. 74
Pistachio – Pistacia vera
    Thursday Lecture – Fruits and
       Nuts of Warm Regions
Reading: Textbook, Chapter 4

				
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