World History II SOL Review - Download as PowerPoint by j5uNBk

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									  World History II
   SOL Review
Independence Movements –
       World Today
Independence in Africa - Overview
   Negritude Movement – a movement
    to celebrate African culture, heritage,
    and values
   Right to self-determination (U.N.
    charter)
   Peaceful and violent revolutions after
    World War II
   Resentment toward imperial rule and
    economic exploitation
                 Kenya
   Bloody – British settlers owned prime
    farmland in the highlands of Kenya
    and resisted independence for Kenya
   Leader – Jomo Kenyatta
                 Ghana
   West Africa – peaceful transition
   Originally called Gold Coast under
    the British
                Algeria
   War for independence from France
              South Africa
   Struggle against apartheid
   Led by Nelson Mandela, who
    became the first black president of
    South Africa
    Religious Conflict – Palestine vs.
                 Israel
   Both Palestinians and Israelis want
    the same land
   Creation of Israel in 1948 led to
    many conflicts between Israel and
    countries in the Middle East (Syria,
    Lebanon, Iraq, etc…)
   1993 – creation of a Palestinian
    state (Gaza Strip and West Bank)
    Religious Conflict – Ireland and
           Northern Ireland
   Protestants vs. Catholics
   IRA (Irish Republican Army) – wants
    a united Ireland (Northern Ireland –
    part of Great Britain)
   Today – not an issue
     Religious Conflict - Balkans
   1990s – Slovenia and Croatia separate
    from Yugoslavia
   Serbian-led Yugoslav army invaded both
    Croatia and Slovenia – became free from
    Serbian rule
   February 1992 – Bosnia Herzegovina
    declared independence
   April 1992 – Serbia and Montenegro
    formed a new Yugoslavia
   While Bosnian Muslims and Croats
    supported independence, Bosnian Serbs
    did not
     Religious Conflict - Balkans
   Supported by
    Serbia, Bosnian
    Serbs launched a
    brutal war in
    1992 (ethnically
    cleanse Bosnia
    Herzegovina of all
    Muslims)
                   India
   Leader – Gandhi
   Role of civil disobedience and passive
    resistance (boycotts and Salt March)
   Hindu-Muslim conflict
   1947 partition – India (Hindus) and
    Pakistan (Muslims)
                 Pakistan
   Was created based on a religious
    issue and divided into two territories
    (East and West)
   Conflict between East and West
    (linguistic, religious, and regional
    issues)
              Bangladesh
   1971 – East Pakistan declared its
    independence
   East Pakistan became Bangladesh
                  China
   Division of China into two nations at
    the end of the Chinese civil war
   Chiang Kai-shek – nationalist China
    (Taiwan)
   Mao Tse-tung (Mao Zedong) –
    Communist China (mainland China)
   Continuing conflict
          Developed Nations
   North America and Europe
   Economic stability - prosperous
   High literacy rates (most people can
    read and write)
   Health care (most people have
    access to health care)
   Low birth rate/low infant mortality
    rate
   Population growth - slow
          Developing Nations
   Africa and Asia
   Economic Conditions – Poverty
   Low literacy rate
   Health care (diseases)
   High birth rate/high infant mortality
    rate
   Growing population – rapid
    Impact of New Technologies
   Widespread but unequal access to
    computers and instantaneous
    communications
   Genetic engineering and bioethics
Factors Affecting Environment and
              Society
   Economic development (pollution)
   Rapid population growth (strain on
    natural resources)
      Environmental Challenges
   Pollution
   Loss of habitat (places to live)
   Global climate change
          Social Challenges
   Poverty
   Poor health
   Illiteracy
   Famine
   Migration
     Economic Interdependence
   Role of rapid transportation, communication,
    and computer networks
   Rise and influence of multinational corporations
   Changing role of international boundaries
   Regional integration (European Union – tariff-
    free trade among European nations)
     Economic Interdependence
   Trade Agreements – North American Free Trade
    Agreement (NAFTA) – tariff-free trade between
    U.S., Canada, and Mexico and World Trade
    Organization (WTO) – monitors trade among
    nations
   International Organizations – United Nations +
    International Monetary Fund (IMF) – offers
    emergency funds to countries in crisis
                Refugees
   Refugees as an issue in international
    conflicts (ex. Palestinian-Israeli
    conflict forced a lot of Palestinians
    into Jordan) – people who are forced
    to leave their homelands because of
    war, poverty, political problems, and
    environmental disasters
           Migrant Workers
   People who leave their homeland to
    work elsewhere (Ex. Central and
    South Americans coming to the
    United States) – guest workers

								
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