Chapter 10 Study Guide - Get as DOC by j5uNBk

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       Chapter 10 Study Guide
How wolves have helped sustain biodiversity in             How do fire scientists think we should reduce the
Yellowstone (keystone species) (7)                         chances of catastrophic fires? (2)
Human activities which impact earth’s biodiversity         Ways we use wood inefficiently (5)
(4)                                                        Examples of cash crops planted on land which was
Why biodiversity is important for natural capital (5)      once tropical rainforest (6)
Ecological services of forests (7)                         Ecological services provided by grasslands (7)
Economic services of forests (7)                           Effects of overgrazing on grassland (4)
Harmful environmental effects of deforestation (7)         Method of rangeland management to suppress the
Ways to reduce fuelwood crisis in developing               growth of unwanted invader plants (4)
countries (3)                                              Threats to National Parks worldwide (6)
Harmful effects of logging roads (6)                       Why large reserves are better than small reserves
Benefits of selective cutting (5)                          (3)
Harmful effects of creaming (3)                            Benefits of habitat corridors (3)
Ways to manage forests more sustainably (5)                Problems associated with habitat corridors (threats
Strategies for reducing fire-related harm to forests       to isolated populations) (7)
and people (3)                                             Examples of ecological restoration (7)
Why do scientists say the Healthy Forest
Restoration Act increases the chances for severe
forest fires? (2)

Chapter 10 Vocab
Be able to identify the following – use your brain, book, dictionary, or computer 

   1. intrinsic value                       11. surface fires                         20. crossbreeding
   2. aesthetic value                       12. crown fires                           21. overgrazing
   3. old-growth forest                     13. ground fires                          22. riparian zones
   4. tree farm                             14. prescribed fires                      23. inholdings
   5. selective cutting                     15. Healthy Forests                       24. habitat corridors
   6. clear-cutting                             Restoration Act                       25. biodiversity hot spots
   7. strip cutting                         16. peat bogs                             26. restoration
   8. creaming                              17. debt-for-nature swap                  27. rehabilitation
   9. government subsidies                  18. conservation easement                 28. ecological restoration
   10. sustainable forestry                 19. Green Belt Movement

APES Chapter 10 Questions

   1. How does the reintroduction of wolves into Yellowstone help make better habitat for trout?
   2. How have human activities affected the earth’s biodiversity?
   3. List the ecological services provided by forests.
   4. List the economic services provided by forests.
   5. Differentiate between an old-growth forest, a second-growth forest, and a tree farm.
   6. List the harmful environmental effects of deforestation.
   7. What is fuelwood?
   8. Describe ways people can reduce the unsustainable harvesting of fuelwood trees.
   9. What is bagasse? How is it helping people in Haiti?
   10. What are the harmful effects of building logging roads?
   11. Describe selective cutting? What is creaming?

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   12. List the advantages of clear-cutting a forest.
   13. List the disadvantages of clear-cutting a forest.
   14. What is the advantage of strip-cutting as compared to clear-cutting?
   15. List 4 ways to manage forest more sustainably.
   16. What is wrong with cutting down old-growth forests and replacing them with tree plantations? Explain.
   17. Describe the three types of fires that can affect forest ecosystems.
   18. List 4 ecological benefits of surface fires.
   19. What is a prescribed fire? What are the benefits of prescribed fires? What is the controversy over
       prescribed fires?
   20. Describe the Healthy Forest Restoration Act.
   21. What is kenaf? How will kenaf help sustain forests?
   22. How can people slow and reduce the deforestation and degradation of tropical forests?
   23. Describe Kenya’s Green Belt Movement.
   24. List ecological services provided by grasslands.
   25. Differentiate between a rangeland and a pasture.
   26. Describe the effects of overgrazing.
   27. How can we manage rangelands sustainably?
   28. Describe threats (stresses) faced by national parks.
   29. What are habitat corridors? How are they used to help wildlife?
   30. List ways you can help sustain terrestrial biodiversity.


Read the three articles “Deforestation: the Unkindest Cut”, “Profiles in Sustainable Forestry: Mendocino
Redwood Company: Restoring California’s Coastal Forests”, and “Justice in the Forest: rural livelihoods
and forest law enforcement”. In addition, make sure that you answer the questions associated with each
article below. You may complete the articles in any order that you wish, just make sure to label each
section clearly!!!

“Deforestation: the Unkindest Cut”
1) What kind of pressures are contributing to tropical rainforest
   destruction?



2) Describe the correlation between square area and species diversity in
   tropical forests.

3) Describe the rate of tropical rainforest destruction in general.


4) What factors were indentified in the Brazilian case study in 1969 as
   main contributors to rainforest destruction?



5) How does fuel wood contribute to deforestation?
6) What are some of the typical negative environmental impacts of modern industrialized timber operations?


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7) Describe the selective cutting harvesting technique.


8) What is an old growth forest?


9) Examine the diagram on pg. 3 of the article. From an economic standpoint which enterprise (timber,
   ranching, or harvesting natural produce) is the most profitable? Which do you think is the most sustainable?




10) How is rainforest destruction correlated to species extinction?



11) What influence can deforestation have on climate and atmospheric dynamics?




12) Assume you are a senior at the University of Oregon, and a part of a senior project you spend 6 months
    studying abroad in tropical South America. As part of your assignment, you are flown to the tropical forests
    of Bolivia, where you will work with local government, industry, indigenous people, etc. to come up with a
    plan to prevent future deforestation in sensitive areas in the region. The mayor of the town asks you to
    develop a four part plan to be presented at the next stakeholder meeting of all involved parties. Outline the
    four parts of your plan to reduce rainforest destruction!




“Profiles in Sustainable Forestry: Mendocino Redwood Company: Restoring California’s
Coastal Forests”
1) Read the article, and in a paragraph summarize the impacts that the Mendocino Redwood Company has had
   on Coastal Forests in California, and how they were able to accomplish this.




“Justice in the Forest: rural livelihoods and forest law enforcement”.
   1) What is FLEG and why was it enacted by international agencies and governments?



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    2) What are some of the major goals of the FLEG program?



    3) How has the enforcement of FLEG affected the rural people that depend on the forest?



    4) How have much of the legislation and laws regarding forestry management sent a “contradictory”
       message?



    5) In developing countries, which has been favored large scale forestry or smaller community based
       forestry? Why do you think this is the case?



    6) How are forest goods destined for the black market and their practices (illegal logging, bush meat
       harvesting, etc.) often woven into the fabric of the society of various tropical forest countries?



    7) Do you favor “soft” or “hard” enforcement of forest policies? Why?



    8) What is often the result of closing markets to illegal forest product imports? How might forest
       certification play a role in resolving this?

    9) Do you think that modernized, industrial scale forestry operations can coexist with locally controlled,
       community based forestry operations? Why or why not?



APES Forestry Practices Harvesting and Sustainable Forestry Practices Internet Activity

Directions: Follow the various links as outlined on this page and answer any questions on a separate sheet of paper.

http://www.fscus.org/about_us/
1. Describe in a few sentences the purpose of the Forest Stewardship Council.




http://www.fsc.org/types-of-certification.html
    2. Describe the types of certification the FCS provides. How do you think this certification will influence the
        demand for “certified” wood products?



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http://www.fscus.org/images/documents/FSC_brochure.pdf
Be sure to read over the entire pdf file so you can answer the questions!

3. List the 10 basic principles and criteria under which the FCS operates.




4. Rank the top three principles in order of importance in your view, and defend each choice.



5. What kind of products does FCS certify?


6. What are the differences between FCS 100%, FSC Recycled, and FCS Mixed Source, product
certifications?



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7. In your opinion, do you think independent, 3 party, certification of forest products would influence your decision
to purchase wood based products of any kind?




8. Do you think sustainable wood product certification would have much impact on the general public’s purchasing
habits? Why or why not?




9. In your mind, would a company that utilizes only certified products be making a big financial mistake, or a
shrewd business move in light of more emphasis on “green” products?




Butterfly's Tale
http://www.circleoflife.org/education/kids/butterflys_tale.htm

The Julia “Butterfly” story is an account of her recollections, feelings, impressions and motivations for her
stand against the destruction of old growth forests. It is a compelling example how a single individual can be a
catalyst for environmental awareness or social change. After or while reading the article, respond to the
prompts below:

   1. Describe Julia “Butterflies” basic motivation for her actions and personal quest.



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   2. Where and what is the “Lost Coast”?

   3. List three characteristics Julia “Butterfly” demonstrates that you respect as an individual.


   4. Are there any reasons why you might doubt Julia “Butterfly’s” credibility?



   5. Describe some of the forestry harvesting Julia “Butterfly” witnessed first hand.


   6. What is your own position on non-violent, civil disobedience in a case like this? Can you provide any
      other examples where non-violent, civil disobedience would be justified in your opinion?



   7. Describe the living conditions Julia “Butterfly” experienced during her tree-sitting experience.



   8. How does the role of mass media and media coverage play into the story of “Luna” and Julia
      “Butterfly”?


   9. How does this story influence your own opinions of forestry practices and harvesting techniques as
      discussed in chapter 10 of Miller?



Visit the site http://www.circleoflife.org/inspiration/luna/today.htm to see how Luna fares today.

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Chapter 11 Study Guide
Characteristics of species prone to ecological and          Characteristics of ecosystems vulnerable to invader
biological extinctions with examples (8)                    species (6)
Reasons why we should preserve wild species (3)             Ways you can prevent or slow the spread of harmful
The most important causes of premature extinction           invasive species (10)
(HIPPO)                                                     Suggestions by scientists as to ways to prevent
Types of species which are especially vulnerable to         introduction and establishment of invasive species
local and regional extinction because of habitat            (6)
fragmentation (5)                                           U.S. agencies responsible for listing endangered or
Reasons why birds are excellent environmental               threatened species (2)
indicators (3)                                              Requirements of the ESA (4)
Characteristics of successful invader species (7)           Why biologist insist the ESA has not been a failure
                                                            (4)

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Ch. 11 Vocabulary

   1.   Endangered species                 6. Environmental                        10. Bioaccumulation
   2.   Threatened species                    indicators                           11. Biomagnifications
   3.   Hot spots                          7. Feral                                12. Bushmeat
   4.   Habitat island                     8. Precautionary approach
   5.   Habitat fragmentation              9. DDT

APES Chapter 11 Questions
  1. Describe the human activities which led to the extinction of the passenger pigeon.
  2. Describe the three types of extinction.
  3. Differentiate between an endangered species and a threatened species.
  4. Describe different characteristics which make a species more vulnerable to extinction. (read what E.O.
      Wilson said)
  5. Describe behavioral characteristics which causes the Key deer to get killed by cars.
  6. List 5 species which have become prematurely extinct due to human activities.
  7. What is the IUCN? What is its mission?
  8. Why should we preserve wild species? Be descriptive.
  9. Why should we care about bats?
  10. What is ecotourism? Is it a good thing or a bad thing? Explain.
  11. What is HIPPO?
  12. What is the greatest threat to wild species?
  13. What is a habitat island?
  14. Why are birds an excellent environmental indicator species?
  15. Describe why the collapse of India’s Gyp vulture led to thousands of people in India to die from rabies.
  16. List valuable introduced species which supply 98% of the U.S. food supply.
  17. Describe problems associated with the deliberate introduction of feral boars and feral cats.
  18. Describe the bioaccumulation and biomagnifications of DDT in the aquatic food chain. See p. 237 Fig.
      11-15
  19. Describe different wild species which are killed for their valuable parts and different species which are
      captured to be sold live to collectors.
  20. How did the killing of prairie dogs lead to the endangerment of the black-footed ferret?
  21. What is CITES? What is its purpose?
  22. Describe the ESA and how it protects wild species. This is a long answer.
  23. What is a habitat conservation plan?
  24. How are gene and seed banks used to protect species?
  25. What is a captive-breeding program?
  26. How is reconciliation ecology protecting bluebirds?


Endangered Species Act
   1. What is the purpose of the ESA?

   2. Who is responsible for the administration of the ESA for terrestrial and freshwater organisms? For
      marine wildlife and anadromous fish?

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  3. List the 5 factors used to evaluate a species for listing.



  4. What is “take”?


  5. What is “critical habitat”?


  6. How does a HCP benefit a species?



ESA Recovery Program
  1. List the conservation tools the USFWS uses to “recover” an endangered or threatened species.



  2. Describe how landowners in the Southeast participate in the Safe Harbor Agreements for the red-
     cockaded woodpeckers?



  3. What is an experimental population? Why was it necessary to define the gray wolf as an experimental
     population when it was reintroduced into Yellowstone NP?




Brown Pelican
  1. How many pounds of fish does a brown pelican need to eat each day?



  2. Why are pelicans able to survive a 70 foot dive into the ocean?



  3. At what age, do brown pelicans begin to reproduce?



  4. Are brown pelicans an r-selected or a K-selected species? Support your answer with several examples.

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   5. Why were pelicans hunted in the late 19th and 20th centuries?




   6. How did the widespread use of DDT contribute to the dramatic decrease in the pelican population?




APES Chapter 12 Study Guide
4 Reasons for Lake Victoria’s         Industrial fish harvesting             Laws and international treaties
loss of biodiversity                  methods (4)                            protecting marine biodiversity
3 General patterns of marine          Problems with industrial fish          (6)
biodiversity                          harvesting methods (4)                 Ways to protect wetlands (6)
Human impacts on marine                                                      Ecological services of rivers (5)
biodiversity (8)

Ch. 12 Vocabulary

   1.  Nile perch                         11. Exclusive economic                 18. Mitigation banking
   2.  Asian swamp eel                        zone (EEZ)                         19. Comprehensive
   3.  Purple loosestrife                 12. Marine protected areas                 Everglades Restoration
   4.  Bycatch                            13. Marine reserves                        Plan
   5.  Trawler fishing                    14. Integrated coastal                 20. Zebra mussel
   6.  Purse-seine fishing                    management                         21. Sea lamprey
   7.  Longlining                         15. Maximum sustainable                22. Quagga mussel
   8.  Driftnet fishing                       yield (MSY)                        23. National Wild and
   9.  Turtle exclusion device            16. Optimum sustainable                    Scenic Rivers Act
       (TED)                                  yield (OSY)
   10. Commercial extinction              17. Precautionary principle


Chapter 12 Questions
  1. What are the 4 factors which caused the dramatic loss of aquatic biodiversity in Lake Victoria?
  2. What were the social and economic effects of introducing the nile perch into Lake Victoria?
  3. Why is the Asian swamp eel a successful invader species in the waters of Florida? Be specific.
  4. Explain how purple loosestrife is degrading our wetlands.
  5. How is the U.S. fighting against the purple loosestrife?
  6. Explain HIPPO as it relates to aquatic biodiversity.
  7. Why are industrial fishing fleets so successful in harvesting marine fish?
  8. Describe the following:
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       a.   Trawler fishing
       b.   Purse-seine fishing
       c.   Longlining
       d.   Drift-net fishing

9. Why is it difficult to protect aquatic biodiversity?
10. List reasons why marine sea turtles are threatened or endangered.
11. List reasons why the Florida manatee is threatened.
12. What is a TED? What is its importance?
13. What is the exclusive economic zone? What is its purpose?
14. Why has the MSY concept not worked well to sustainably manage marine fisheries? What are the
    options?
15. How are scientists using the precautionary principle for managing marine fisheries?
16. What is mitigation banking in relation to wetlands?
17. What is a wetland restoration bank? What is its purpose?
18. What are the goals of the Comprehensive Everglades Restoration Plan?
19. Identify 8 ways we can manage and sustain freshwater fisheries.




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