Census Basics by Hh6tb8

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									Census Basics


   Description:
   By gaining an understanding of the basic structure and
   content of the United States census, students will be
   able to decide which data needs can be met by the
   census and how to start locating useful data.
Objectives/Outcomes

   Student(s) will understand what types of
    information can be found in U.S. Census
    data products.
   Student(s) will understand structure of the
    U.S. Census and its data products.
   Student(s) will locate information in U.S.
    Census data products in multiple ways.
Presentation Outline
                                                                  Part II: Where and How to Find Census Data (Slides 12-27)
                                                                  1)      Overview of Main Sources
Part I: Census Introduction                                             a)    Demographic Profiles
                                                                        b)    American Factfinder
1)       Census Basics Description
                                                                        c)    Social Explorer (subscription)
2)       Objectives/Outcomes                                      2)     Demographic Profiles
3)       Presentation Outline                                           a)    Advanced Topic: Beware of Sampling Errors
4)       Census Introduction                                      3)     American Factfinder Overview
      a)       Definition                                         4)     American Factfiner: Factsheets
      b)       Importance                                               a)    Guided Practice 1
5)         History                                                      b)    Practice Search 1
      a)       Questions vary over time                           5)     American Factfinder: Summary Files
      b)       Grid of questions                                        a)    Guided Practice 2
6)         Historical Costs                                             b)    Practice Search 2
7)         Practical Applcations                                  6)    American Factfinder: Where to Locate Info.
      a)       Question 1: What are you planning to use it for?   7)    American Factfinder: Custom Tables
8)         Logistics and Structure                                      a)    Advanced Topic
                                                                        b)    Guided Practice 3
      a)       Collection of Data
9)         Logistics and Structure                                8)     Social Explorer: Overview
      a)       Structure Before and after 2010                    9)     Social Explorer: Guided Practice
                                                                        a)    Guided Practice 4: Map
      b)       Addition of ACS
                                                                        b)    Guided Practice 5: Report
      c)       Question 2: Why the changes?
                                                                  10)   Other Sources of Census Info.
10)        Census Geography                                             a)    Special Tabulations
11)        Census Geography Map                                   11)   Other Sources of Census Info., cont.
                                                                        a)    Products available at Penn
                                                                  12)    Other Sources of Census Info., cont.
                                                                        a)    Producrs Freely Available
                                                                  13)   Other Research Guides and Tutorials
                                                                  14)   Other Research Guides and Tutorials, cont.
                                                                  15)   Questions?
                                                                  16)   References
Census Introduction

   Def. – A census “is an enumeration of … important
    items in a particular country or region at a particular
    time” (Encyclopedia Britannica).
   The U.S. Census counts every resident and is
    required by the Constitution to occur decennially
    (2010 being next).
   Why is it important?
       Determines: seats in House, distribution of federal $,
        redistricting. Used by researchers, comm. activists, etc.
       The Supreme Court has stated that the census “is the
        linchpin of the federal statistical system” (as cited in U.S.
        Census Bureau. “Census in the Constitution.”)
History

   Questions vary over time
   Grid of questions (1790-2000)
       Slavery last asked in 1860
       Feeble-minded in 1840-1890
       Income first asked in 1940
       Televisions surveyed, 1950-70
       Detailed ancestry beginning 1980
       Multiple races and grandparents as caregivers in
        2000
           From York (2008).
Historical Costs
   Census year                 Population    `   Census cost
   1790                        3,929,214         $44,377
   1800                        5,308,483         $66,109
   1810                        7,239,881         $178,445
   1820                        9,633,822         $208,526
   1830                        12,866,020        $378,545
   1840                        17,069,458        $833,371
   1850                        23,191,876        $1,423,351
   1860                        31,443,321        $1,969,377
   1870                        38,558,371        $3,421,198
   1880                        50,155,783        $5,790,678
   1890                        62,979,766        $11,547,127
   1900                        76,303,387        $11,854,000
   1910                        91,972,266        $15,968,000
   1920                        105,710,620       $25,117,000
   1930                        122,775,046       $40,156,000
   1940                        131,669,275       $67,527,000
   1950                        151,325,798       $91,462,000
   1960                        179,323,175       $127,934,000
   1970                        203,302,031       $247,653,000
   1980                        226,542,199       $1,078,488,000
   1990                        248,718,301       $2,492,830,000
   2000                        281,421,906       $4,500,000,000
       From Gauthier (2002).
Practical Applications

   Reapportioning seats in House of Rep.
   Used to distribute federal $
   Used by researchers, marketers, grant
    writers
   Used by urban planners and public health
    professionals
   Question 1: What are you planning to use it
    for?
Logistics and Structure of the Census

   Collection of Data
       Form is mailed to every U.S. household.
           Questions are ideally answered about all living in
            household (citizens and non-citizens alike)
       If form is not returned, a census taker must follow-
        up with every address.
       The 2010 form is short, consisting of only ten
        questions, available here.
           For comparison, Census 2000’s sample form
               8 Questions for “person 1”.
Logistics and Structure of the Census,
cont.
   Structure
       Before 2010
           Approx. 1 in 6 households received a “long form” (a.k.a.
            “sample” questionnaire) collecting further data
       Now, American Community Survey (ACS) collects
        sample information
           Replaces decennial “long form,” collects info. monthly,
            releases tabulations of data annually
           Some (Ron Paul incl.) argue this is unconstitutional
           Question 2: Why the change?
Census Geography

   Census-Designated Areas
       Metropolitan Statistical Area (definition/list)
       Urbanized Area (50,000+) and Urban Cluster (2500-
        50,000, can be outside MSA)
       Census Tract (about 4000 people, approx. neighborhoods)
       Block Group (2-8 per tract, smallest area for sample data)
         Began in 1940, in Philly 1970
             Question 3: Does anyone know why?
       Block (In 2000, 4 digit numbers)
       Zip Code Tabulation Area (ZCTA)
       PUMAS/Super-PUMAS
       Traffic Analysis Zones
         From York (2008).
Census Geography Map




    From York (2008).
Where and How to Find Census Data

   Overview of Main Sources of Information
       Demographic Profiles
           Summary stats. for 1990 and 2000 Census.
       American Factfinder
           Factsheets, Detailed info. (maps/geographies), slight
            learning curve
           Census 1990, 2000, ACS, PR, Pop. Estimates, et al.
       Social Explorer (subscription via Penn Libraries)
           Fast, easy, good for maps, reports (export, copy or print)
           Good for 1990. 2000, ACS, Hist. Census
               Hist. Census – Data normalized!
Where and How to Find Census Data,
Demographic Profiles
   Coverage: summary statistics from the 100% and
    sample data sets for Census2000, 1990
       Demographic, Social, Economic, and Housing
        Characteristics
   For Census 2000, can be searched here:
    Demographic Profiles
       ex. Haddonfield Borough, NJ
   Harder to find for 1990 Census
       Steps: Select 1990 Tab, STF-1 or STF-3, Quick Tables
   Advanced Topic: Beware of sampling errors
       Information on data use
Where and How to Find Census Data,
American Factfinder
   Coverage:
       Census 1990, 2000, ACS, Population Estimates,
        PR Community Survey and Island Surveys
   Detailed Geographies
   Complex queries: Create detailed maps,
    custom tables
   Can save queries to load at later time
   Can download to Excel (sometimes), .RTF; dl
    zip files
Where and How to Find Census Data,
American Factfinder
   Choosing a Data Source
       For a simple variable for U.S., or one: state, county, place
        or zip code (1990-Today)
           Use Fact Sheets in American Factfinder –
            http://factfinder.census.gov (could also use DPs)
           Guided Practice:
               2006-2008, what was the difference in percentages for families
                below the poverty level in the city of Philadelphia vs. the United
                States as a whole?
           Practice Search 1:
               Using Census 2000 data, what percentage of persons 25 and
                older in zip code 19104 have a high school degree or higher?
               Try out the map and brief functions if you complete early.
Where and How to Find Census Data,
American Factfinder
   Choosing a Data Source (cont.)
       For all other requests(1990-Today), choose a
        relevant data file based on your topic (subject)
        AND the geographic area (use address search if
        you need to determine) you are looking to cover.
       For detailed information, see the University of
        Michigan Library’s Census Toolkit, page 2.
       Guided Practice 2: What % of hh’s pay 50% or
        more of their income in gross rent in Kensington?
       Practice Search 2: For Census Tract 6018 in
        Camden, NJ, how many males are 18-24 y/o?
Where and How to Find Census Data,
American Factfinder




From York (2008).
Where and How to Find Census Data,
American Factfinder
    Advanced Topic: Custom Tables
          Allows you to choose what elements you want in a table
          Guided Practice 3: Compare # of Black or African American
           Alone, Female, PhDs in Philadelphia County, Northampton
           County, PA, and U.S.

                             GEONAME      Black or African Am. Alone, Female PhDs


    United States                                                                   36663
    Pennsylvania                                                                    1425
    Northampton County, Pennsylvania

                                                                                      15
    Philadelphia County, Pennsylvania

                                                                                     619
Where and How to Find Census Data,
Social Explorer
   Subscription via Penn Libraries
   Coverage:
       1940 to 2000 Census Tract Info
       Historical Data: 1790-2000 Census Data
       American Community Survey Information
   Great for Maps & Reports
       Can create slideshows, export images to PPT,
        export data to Excel
       Data is already normalized – Advantages
Where and How to Find Census Data,
Social Explorer
   Guided Practice 4:
       Map Slideshow – What percentage of homes had
        a television in Major Cities in 1950?
   Guided Practice 5:
       Report – Compare the “colored population” in
        Maryland, Virginia, and the Overall United States
        in 1860.
Other Sources of Census Info.
Census 2000 Special Tabulations
 Cannot be found via American Factfinder
       Can be extremely useful, if relevant to your topic
   Not standard Census Data products
       Usually sponsored by another org. (public or private)
   Examples:
       School District Data File
       Equal Employment Opportunity File
       Others: Worker Flows, Trans. Planning, Aging
   List: http://www.census.gov/mp/www/spectab/specialtab.html
   Usu. avail. a few years after decennial Census.
Other Sources of Census Info., cont.

   Products available at Penn Libraries
       PolicyMap
           Combines Census info with other sources of info., over
            10,000 indicators
           Datasets currently available
       Ancestry Library Edition (Ancestry.com)
           Census Images and Indexes from 1790 to 1930
       ICPSR – Census Data
           Search “ICPSR” in FindIt! bar
           Most popular study: Persistent URL
               Advanced: Download for Stata s/w, manipulate
Other Sources of Census Info., cont.
   Products Freely Available
     Social Explorer
           Extremely limited public version
       Census Scope
           Data trends over last few decades
       Historical Census Browser
           Coverage: 1790-1960 // Geographies: State, County
           Quick comparisons over decades
       NHGIS
           Coverage: 1790-2000 // Good geographical coverage
           No queries, many tables to choose from
           Must create a free account
       Public Use Microdata Samples
           Create your own table using data
           Steps - American Factfinder – Reference & Tools – Tools
           Use IPUMS or PDQ Explore
Other Research Guides and Tutorials

   Penn Census Research Guide
       Includes location of in-print resources, incl. statistical
        publications, microfilm
       Links/location to writings on history of the Census
   University of Michigan Research Guides
       Many sections, incl. “Historical Census Publications”
       Using the Census Presentation
           Using “Products Freely Avail.” in more detail
       2000 Census Toolkit
           Referenced in this presentation
Other Research Guides and Tutorials,
cont.
   American Factfinder Tutorials
       How to Search, Work with Tables, Create Custom
        Tables, Create and Use Maps, Work with
        Economic Data
   Social Explorer Help Page
       Tutorial Videos, other helps topics
       Link to University of Buffalo’s guide to Social
        Explorer
   Census Bureau’s Public Use Presentations
Questions?

   Please feel free to ask now!
   Or, feel free to contact the presenters:
       Phillip Hewitt, Intern, Reference & Instruction
        Services – phewitt@pobox.upenn.edu
       Charles Cobine, Subject Specialist, Census and
        Social Science Data, info
   Or, feel free to contact a librarian via Chat,
    IM, text, e-mail, or phone.
                        Thanks!
References
   Census. (n.d.) In Encyclopædia Britannica online. Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved
          from http://proxy.library.upenn.edu:3225/eb/article-9022060.

   Dept. of Commerce v. U.S. House of Representatives, 525 U.S. 316, 341 (1999).

   Gauthier, J.G. (2002). Measuring America: The Decennial Censuses from 1790 to 2000. Report
          POL/02-MA(RV). Washington, D.C.: U.S. Census Bureau. Retrieved fro
          http://www.census.gov/prod/2002pubs/pol02marv.pdf.

   U.S. Census Bureau. (2010). Census in the Constitution. Retrieved from
           http://2010.census.gov/2010census/why/constitutional.php

   York, G. (2008). American Factfinder and Census 2000 [PowerPoint slides]. Retrieved from
           http://www.lib.umich.edu/government-documents-center/guides-1.
center/guides-1.

								
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