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Census Basics Description: By gaining an understanding of the basic structure and content of the United States census, students will be able to decide which data needs can be met by the census and how to start locating useful data. Objectives/Outcomes Student(s) will understand what types of information can be found in U.S. Census data products. Student(s) will understand structure of the U.S. Census and its data products. Student(s) will locate information in U.S. Census data products in multiple ways. Presentation Outline Part II: Where and How to Find Census Data (Slides 12-27) 1) Overview of Main Sources Part I: Census Introduction a) Demographic Profiles b) American Factfinder 1) Census Basics Description c) Social Explorer (subscription) 2) Objectives/Outcomes 2) Demographic Profiles 3) Presentation Outline a) Advanced Topic: Beware of Sampling Errors 4) Census Introduction 3) American Factfinder Overview a) Definition 4) American Factfiner: Factsheets b) Importance a) Guided Practice 1 5) History b) Practice Search 1 a) Questions vary over time 5) American Factfinder: Summary Files b) Grid of questions a) Guided Practice 2 6) Historical Costs b) Practice Search 2 7) Practical Applcations 6) American Factfinder: Where to Locate Info. a) Question 1: What are you planning to use it for? 7) American Factfinder: Custom Tables 8) Logistics and Structure a) Advanced Topic b) Guided Practice 3 a) Collection of Data 9) Logistics and Structure 8) Social Explorer: Overview a) Structure Before and after 2010 9) Social Explorer: Guided Practice a) Guided Practice 4: Map b) Addition of ACS b) Guided Practice 5: Report c) Question 2: Why the changes? 10) Other Sources of Census Info. 10) Census Geography a) Special Tabulations 11) Census Geography Map 11) Other Sources of Census Info., cont. a) Products available at Penn 12) Other Sources of Census Info., cont. a) Producrs Freely Available 13) Other Research Guides and Tutorials 14) Other Research Guides and Tutorials, cont. 15) Questions? 16) References Census Introduction Def. – A census “is an enumeration of … important items in a particular country or region at a particular time” (Encyclopedia Britannica). The U.S. Census counts every resident and is required by the Constitution to occur decennially (2010 being next). Why is it important? Determines: seats in House, distribution of federal $, redistricting. Used by researchers, comm. activists, etc. The Supreme Court has stated that the census “is the linchpin of the federal statistical system” (as cited in U.S. Census Bureau. “Census in the Constitution.”) History Questions vary over time Grid of questions (1790-2000) Slavery last asked in 1860 Feeble-minded in 1840-1890 Income first asked in 1940 Televisions surveyed, 1950-70 Detailed ancestry beginning 1980 Multiple races and grandparents as caregivers in 2000 From York (2008). Historical Costs Census year Population ` Census cost 1790 3,929,214 $44,377 1800 5,308,483 $66,109 1810 7,239,881 $178,445 1820 9,633,822 $208,526 1830 12,866,020 $378,545 1840 17,069,458 $833,371 1850 23,191,876 $1,423,351 1860 31,443,321 $1,969,377 1870 38,558,371 $3,421,198 1880 50,155,783 $5,790,678 1890 62,979,766 $11,547,127 1900 76,303,387 $11,854,000 1910 91,972,266 $15,968,000 1920 105,710,620 $25,117,000 1930 122,775,046 $40,156,000 1940 131,669,275 $67,527,000 1950 151,325,798 $91,462,000 1960 179,323,175 $127,934,000 1970 203,302,031 $247,653,000 1980 226,542,199 $1,078,488,000 1990 248,718,301 $2,492,830,000 2000 281,421,906 $4,500,000,000 From Gauthier (2002). Practical Applications Reapportioning seats in House of Rep. Used to distribute federal $ Used by researchers, marketers, grant writers Used by urban planners and public health professionals Question 1: What are you planning to use it for? Logistics and Structure of the Census Collection of Data Form is mailed to every U.S. household. Questions are ideally answered about all living in household (citizens and non-citizens alike) If form is not returned, a census taker must follow- up with every address. The 2010 form is short, consisting of only ten questions, available here. For comparison, Census 2000’s sample form 8 Questions for “person 1”. Logistics and Structure of the Census, cont. Structure Before 2010 Approx. 1 in 6 households received a “long form” (a.k.a. “sample” questionnaire) collecting further data Now, American Community Survey (ACS) collects sample information Replaces decennial “long form,” collects info. monthly, releases tabulations of data annually Some (Ron Paul incl.) argue this is unconstitutional Question 2: Why the change? Census Geography Census-Designated Areas Metropolitan Statistical Area (definition/list) Urbanized Area (50,000+) and Urban Cluster (2500- 50,000, can be outside MSA) Census Tract (about 4000 people, approx. neighborhoods) Block Group (2-8 per tract, smallest area for sample data) Began in 1940, in Philly 1970 Question 3: Does anyone know why? Block (In 2000, 4 digit numbers) Zip Code Tabulation Area (ZCTA) PUMAS/Super-PUMAS Traffic Analysis Zones From York (2008). Census Geography Map From York (2008). Where and How to Find Census Data Overview of Main Sources of Information Demographic Profiles Summary stats. for 1990 and 2000 Census. American Factfinder Factsheets, Detailed info. (maps/geographies), slight learning curve Census 1990, 2000, ACS, PR, Pop. Estimates, et al. Social Explorer (subscription via Penn Libraries) Fast, easy, good for maps, reports (export, copy or print) Good for 1990. 2000, ACS, Hist. Census Hist. Census – Data normalized! Where and How to Find Census Data, Demographic Profiles Coverage: summary statistics from the 100% and sample data sets for Census2000, 1990 Demographic, Social, Economic, and Housing Characteristics For Census 2000, can be searched here: Demographic Profiles ex. Haddonfield Borough, NJ Harder to find for 1990 Census Steps: Select 1990 Tab, STF-1 or STF-3, Quick Tables Advanced Topic: Beware of sampling errors Information on data use Where and How to Find Census Data, American Factfinder Coverage: Census 1990, 2000, ACS, Population Estimates, PR Community Survey and Island Surveys Detailed Geographies Complex queries: Create detailed maps, custom tables Can save queries to load at later time Can download to Excel (sometimes), .RTF; dl zip files Where and How to Find Census Data, American Factfinder Choosing a Data Source For a simple variable for U.S., or one: state, county, place or zip code (1990-Today) Use Fact Sheets in American Factfinder – http://factfinder.census.gov (could also use DPs) Guided Practice: 2006-2008, what was the difference in percentages for families below the poverty level in the city of Philadelphia vs. the United States as a whole? Practice Search 1: Using Census 2000 data, what percentage of persons 25 and older in zip code 19104 have a high school degree or higher? Try out the map and brief functions if you complete early. Where and How to Find Census Data, American Factfinder Choosing a Data Source (cont.) For all other requests(1990-Today), choose a relevant data file based on your topic (subject) AND the geographic area (use address search if you need to determine) you are looking to cover. For detailed information, see the University of Michigan Library’s Census Toolkit, page 2. Guided Practice 2: What % of hh’s pay 50% or more of their income in gross rent in Kensington? Practice Search 2: For Census Tract 6018 in Camden, NJ, how many males are 18-24 y/o? Where and How to Find Census Data, American Factfinder From York (2008). Where and How to Find Census Data, American Factfinder Advanced Topic: Custom Tables Allows you to choose what elements you want in a table Guided Practice 3: Compare # of Black or African American Alone, Female, PhDs in Philadelphia County, Northampton County, PA, and U.S. GEONAME Black or African Am. Alone, Female PhDs United States 36663 Pennsylvania 1425 Northampton County, Pennsylvania 15 Philadelphia County, Pennsylvania 619 Where and How to Find Census Data, Social Explorer Subscription via Penn Libraries Coverage: 1940 to 2000 Census Tract Info Historical Data: 1790-2000 Census Data American Community Survey Information Great for Maps & Reports Can create slideshows, export images to PPT, export data to Excel Data is already normalized – Advantages Where and How to Find Census Data, Social Explorer Guided Practice 4: Map Slideshow – What percentage of homes had a television in Major Cities in 1950? Guided Practice 5: Report – Compare the “colored population” in Maryland, Virginia, and the Overall United States in 1860. Other Sources of Census Info. Census 2000 Special Tabulations Cannot be found via American Factfinder Can be extremely useful, if relevant to your topic Not standard Census Data products Usually sponsored by another org. (public or private) Examples: School District Data File Equal Employment Opportunity File Others: Worker Flows, Trans. Planning, Aging List: http://www.census.gov/mp/www/spectab/specialtab.html Usu. avail. a few years after decennial Census. Other Sources of Census Info., cont. Products available at Penn Libraries PolicyMap Combines Census info with other sources of info., over 10,000 indicators Datasets currently available Ancestry Library Edition (Ancestry.com) Census Images and Indexes from 1790 to 1930 ICPSR – Census Data Search “ICPSR” in FindIt! bar Most popular study: Persistent URL Advanced: Download for Stata s/w, manipulate Other Sources of Census Info., cont. Products Freely Available Social Explorer Extremely limited public version Census Scope Data trends over last few decades Historical Census Browser Coverage: 1790-1960 // Geographies: State, County Quick comparisons over decades NHGIS Coverage: 1790-2000 // Good geographical coverage No queries, many tables to choose from Must create a free account Public Use Microdata Samples Create your own table using data Steps - American Factfinder – Reference & Tools – Tools Use IPUMS or PDQ Explore Other Research Guides and Tutorials Penn Census Research Guide Includes location of in-print resources, incl. statistical publications, microfilm Links/location to writings on history of the Census University of Michigan Research Guides Many sections, incl. “Historical Census Publications” Using the Census Presentation Using “Products Freely Avail.” in more detail 2000 Census Toolkit Referenced in this presentation Other Research Guides and Tutorials, cont. American Factfinder Tutorials How to Search, Work with Tables, Create Custom Tables, Create and Use Maps, Work with Economic Data Social Explorer Help Page Tutorial Videos, other helps topics Link to University of Buffalo’s guide to Social Explorer Census Bureau’s Public Use Presentations Questions? Please feel free to ask now! Or, feel free to contact the presenters: Phillip Hewitt, Intern, Reference & Instruction Services – firstname.lastname@example.org Charles Cobine, Subject Specialist, Census and Social Science Data, info Or, feel free to contact a librarian via Chat, IM, text, e-mail, or phone. Thanks! References Census. (n.d.) In Encyclopædia Britannica online. Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved from http://proxy.library.upenn.edu:3225/eb/article-9022060. Dept. of Commerce v. U.S. House of Representatives, 525 U.S. 316, 341 (1999). Gauthier, J.G. (2002). Measuring America: The Decennial Censuses from 1790 to 2000. Report POL/02-MA(RV). Washington, D.C.: U.S. Census Bureau. Retrieved fro http://www.census.gov/prod/2002pubs/pol02marv.pdf. U.S. Census Bureau. (2010). Census in the Constitution. Retrieved from http://2010.census.gov/2010census/why/constitutional.php York, G. (2008). American Factfinder and Census 2000 [PowerPoint slides]. Retrieved from http://www.lib.umich.edu/government-documents-center/guides-1. center/guides-1.
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