Lesson Plan Template - DOC 12 by Hh6tb8

VIEWS: 14 PAGES: 37

									                    Astronomy Unit Introduction: Big Bang Theory and Astronomy Vocabulary

Topic: Astronomy Introduction
Date: Astronomy Unit Day 1 of 12 (Tuesday February 22, 2011)
Grade level: 9th/10th
Subject: Earth Science
Daily Question: What is astronomy? What is the Big Bang Theory? What are some terms that will help me understand astronomy?

NSES: Earth and Space Science Content Standard C: As a result of their activities in grades 9-12, all students should develop an
understanding of energy in the earth system; geochemical cycles; origin and evolution of the earth system; origin and evolution of the
universe.

SOL:
       ES.4    The student will investigate and understand the characteristics of the Earth and the solar system. Key concepts include
               a) position of the Earth in the solar system;
               b) characteristics of the sun, planets and their moons, comets, meteors, and asteroids; and

       ES.14 The student will investigate and understand scientific concepts related to the origin and evolution of the universe. Key
             concepts include
             a) cosmology including the big bang theory.




Procedures for Learning Experience             Guiding Questions            Materials          Evaluation             Approx. Time
Engagement:
Journal quick write:                           What do students want to     Journals/paper     Responses will be      10 minutes
What do you want to know about space?          know about space?            Writing utensil    collected and read
What interests you about astronomy? What                                                       (for teacher use in
experiences have you had involving             What interests students                         lesson planning)
astronomy?                                     about astronomy?                                Quick write
                                                                                               activities are
                                               What background                                 graded for
                                               knowledge are students                          participation,
                                                 bringing into this unit?                  completeness, and
                                                                                           quality of thought

Exploration:
Astronomy vocabulary                             How do we measure           Vocabulary    Graded assignment 30 minutes
                                                 distance in the universe?   worksheet     (Terms will be
In teams of two, identify as many of the                                                   graded for accuracy
given terms as possible without using any        Understanding of what      Textbook       and completeness
resources. If you know a term, write down a      important terms is                        after gone over as a
definition, but if you don’t know the term       necessary to understanding Computer       class)
don’t write anything.                            astronomy?
                                                                            Highlighters
Highlight the words you and your partner
did not know

Using the online or paper textbook, provide
a explanation of the rest of the terms

Tell students to check the terms they are
unsure of- go over gravity in depth
     gravity is attraction between two
        objects, not just a pull “down”
     often it takes a large object to be able
        to observe gravity
     gravity is force that holds objects in
        orbit
Explanation:
Activity: use a balloon to model the           When was the universe        Balloon         Worksheet           35 minutes
expanding universe and explore the Big         formed?                      Marker          questions (graded   (5 minutes for
Bang Theory                                                                 Clip            for completeness    instructions/
                                               How was the universe         String          and accuracy)       demo, 20 for
Prep students by saying “Scientists believe    formed?                      Rulers                              students to
the universe originated from the instant                                    Lab sheet                           explore
expansion of an extremely dense, extremely     How is blowing up a                                              activity, 5
small amount of matter, this theory is known   balloon like our universe?                                       minutes of
as the Big Bang.” Explain that the universe                                                                     review)
started ridiculously small and is still        What happens to the
expanding since it began expanding about       distance between objects
14 billion years ago.                          as the “universe” (aka
                                               balloon) expands?
Hand out Expanding Universe worksheets
and go over directions verbally,
demonstrating with a balloon

Allow students to work through activity,
circulating and offering help when needed

Bring class together when majority have
worked through the questions. Ask students
to share their responses to “How does the
balloon represent the universe?” and
“Explain the Big Bang Theory in your own
words”

Extension:
Ask students how scientists know that the      How do scientists know       McDougal book   Engagement          20 minutes
universe is expanding                          how the universe was                         Participation
                                               formed?                      Document        Involvement
Explain blueshift/redshift using document                                   Camera
camera to project a diagram of the color         How does a spectroscope
spectrum (p. 615 in McDougal book)               help scientists understand   Spectroscope
        scientists use an instrument            how the universe was
           called a spectroscope to analyze      formed?
           the spectrum of light emitted by
           stars. By analyzing and               What is Doppler shift?
           comparing these spectrum,
           scientists can determine how a
           star is moving
        spectroscopes use a prism to
           separate incoming light into its
           component wavelengths
        redshift: motion of a star away
           from earth causes the star’s
           spectral lines to shift towards the
           red end of the spectrum (shift
           towards longer wavelength =
           moving away)
        blueshift: when a star is moving
           towards Earth, its spectral lines
           shift toward the blue end of the
           spectrum (shift towards shorter
           wavelength = “squished” =
           moving towards)

Have students pass around the spectroscope
or take turns coming up to the front of the
room to see how a spectroscope separates
light

Notes:
Balloons must be latex free!
Students are likely to hold the idea that gravity is the force that pulls down- be sure to expand on this idea and be explicit that gravity
is the force of “attraction” between two objects. We feel the pull “down” because Earth’s gravity is pulling us towards its center.

Differentiation techniques: having students work at their own pace during vocabulary exercise and share/create knowledge with their
desk partner. Partners will have been strategically arranged to create learning partnerships that benefit both partnerships, regardless of
ability level. If students have special needs, partners can be arranged to meet these needs. Giving both written and verbal directions
also helps students who have difficulty understanding directions.
Name: _____________________________


                              Introduction to Astronomy

Instructions: In teams of two, identify as many of the given terms as possible without using any
resources. If you know a term, write down a definition, but if you don’t know the term don’t
write anything. When you have defined all the words you do know, highlight the words you and
your partner did not know. Then, using the online or paper textbook, provide a explanation of the
rest of the terms.

Gravity


Star


Orbit


Solar system


Newton


Stellar


Star


Planet


Satellite


Astronomical Unit


Light Year
                                                                  Name: _______________________

                              Expanding Universe Mini-Lab

Materials: Balloon                           String              Data Table        Clip
               Sharpie marker                Ruler               Pen/Pencil

Directions:
A. Inflate the balloon until it is the size of your fist. Clip it shut with the
mail clip so that air cannot escape. With the Sharpie, draw six small
galaxies around your balloon and label them A through F.


B. Use a string and a ruler to measure the distance from A to B, then A to
C, then A to D, then A to E, and finally from A to F. Record these
distances in your data table.

C. Expand your universe by blowing a few puffs of air into it. Measure the distance from you’re
a galaxy to each of the other galaxies. Record the distances in your data table.


D. Repeat step C two more times.

                                                       Galaxy Distance (cm)
                                         A to B         A to C A to D A to E              A to F
 14 billion years ago (B)
  8 billion years ago (C)
  4 billion years ago (D)
         Present (D)


E. Using a piece of graphing paper, draw a graph to represent your data. Think about the graph
type and scale that would be most appropriate to fit your data. Make sure to include a title, label
the axis, and a scale.

F. Answer the following questions on the back of your graph:
       - Which distance changed the most? Which distance changed the least?

          - What does the balloon represent in this model?

          - Explain the theory of the Big Bang in your own words. Why is the universe
        expanding?
                                              Galaxies, Solar Systems, and Planets

Topic: Galaxies and Solar Systems
Date: Astronomy Unit Day 2 of 12 (Wednesday February 23, 2011)
Grade level: 9th/10th
Subject: Earth Science
Daily Question: What are solar systems? What are galaxies? What are the differences between the two?

NSES: Earth and Space Science Content Standard C: As a result of their activities in grades 9-12, all students should develop an
understanding of energy in the earth system; geochemical cycles; origin and evolution of the earth system; origin and evolution of the
universe.

SOL:
       ES.3    The student will investigate and understand how to read and interpret maps, globes, models, charts, and imagery. Key
               concepts include b) maps (bathymetric, geologic, topographic, and weather) and star charts;

       ES.4    The student will investigate and understand the characteristics of the Earth and the solar system. Key concepts include
               c) characteristics of the sun, planets and their moons, comets, meteors, and asteroids; and
               d) the history and contributions of the space program.

       ES.14 The student will investigate and understand scientific concepts related to the origin and evolution of the universe. Key
             concepts include
             b) the origin of stars and star systems;
             c) galaxies; and
             d) cosmology including the big bang theory.

                                                Guiding                  Procedures for Learning Experience
                                                                    Materials                     Evaluation              Approx.
                                                Questions                                                                 Time
Engagement:
Show pictures of our solar system and           What is a galaxy? Photos in PowerPoint             Student                10 minutes
galaxy                                                             Computer connected to projector participation
                                                Are there
Explain the difference between a galaxy and     different types of                                 Observation of
a solar system (and that both are different    galaxies?                       engagement
from the term universe)
                                               What is a solar
Go over types of galaxies using photos         system?
(spiral, barred, elliptical, and irregular-
determined by shape)                           What is a
     The Milky Way is a spiral galaxy,        universe?
         which is why in very dark skies we
         can see its bands
Exploration:
Show a blank sketch of the solar system and    What are the        Worksheet   Worksheet       10 minutes
give worksheet with sketch on it to class.     components of                   (graded for
Have students provide names for as many        our solar system?               completeness
objects as possible on their own.                                              and accuracy)

Have students provide answers for
worksheets- project worksheet onto white
board using the document camera and have
students label the diagram on the white
board

Explain the asteroid belt between Mars and
Jupiter and that Pluto is considered a dwarf
planet

Go over planet names in order and give
students memory device to remember planet
order:
       My - Mercury
       Very - Venus
       Energetic - Earth
       Mother - Mars
       Just - Jupiter
       Served - Saturn
       Us - Uranus
       Nachos - Neptune




Explanation and Extension:
Hand out instruction sheet for Jigsaw             What are the         Computer lab/laptop cart with       “biography of   70
activity and explain activity orally. Move        properties of        enough computers for the entire     their planet”   minutes:
students to the computer lab (or if you have      each planet in our   class, internet access, word                        25 of
reserved a laptop cart, distribute the laptops)   solar system?        processor, and ability to print     Guided notes    group
                                                  (defining                                                                research,
Jigsaw activity to cover properties of each       features,            http://nineplanets.org/                             45 of
planet in this solar system: Independent (or      atmosphere,                                                              sharing (5
small group) part 1 done in the computer lab      solid/gas?,          http://science.nationalgeographic                   minutes
     help direct students to                     moons, color,        .com/science/space/planets                          per planet)
        nineplanets.org or                        rings, tectonics,
        http://science.nationalgeographic.        volcanism, etc.)     Guided notes sheet
       com/science/space/planets
     students may choose the program
        they use to make their biography, but
        Word or Publisher programs are the
        most intuitive choices

Return students to the classroom to complete
part 2 (group share)


Notes:
    Part 1 and part 2 groups determine by instructor in order to facilitate differentiation
    Have students complete their planet’s portion of the graphic organizer to ensure they have something to say during group share
       time. If time is running short, move activity on and have students complete “biography” for homework (offer opportunity to
       use computers during AEP or after school one day if students don’t have access to computers)
      Computer lab/laptop cart must be reserved far IN ADVANCE! Laptop cart may be preferable in order to cut down on
       transition time (although computer lab is just around the corner). If there aren’t enough computers, have students buddy up by
       expert planet assignment and become experts as a pair.

Homework: 1 page typed description of your expert planet, to be completed individually. Include a picture (cannot exceed ¼ of the
page). Let students know that they may work on the assignment during AEP if they wish (to help students who may not have home
access to a computer or printer). Due at the end of the week (Friday).
                                                                            Name: ____________________




                                  Mnemonic to remember planet order:
___________________________________________________________________________________________________________
                        Directions for Solar System Jigsaw Activity
                           My planet is: ___________________


Part 1: Individual Planet “biography”
To fill out the organized notes about your planet, use http://nineplanets.org/ or
http://science.nationalgeographic.com/science/space/planets


After you have your information, create a one page “biography” of your planet.
The “biography” should be visually appealing and include:
              A title
              At least 1 picture
              Properties of the planet: composition (rock or gas?), climate, volcanism,
                presence of water or ice? atmosphere, color/appearance
              Information on the planet’s rings and moons (if your planet has them)
              Any other defining features or fun facts you think are important


Each planet will have 2-3 students working on it. You may work with the other students
assigned to your planet, but each student must hand in their own “biography.” When
you are finished, print your biography to hand it in.




Part 2: Group Share
Class will be split into three groups of students. Each student will share what they
learned about their planet with the group. Each member of the group should take notes
on the other planets.
Name: ________________________                                     Date: _______________
                             Our Solar System Notes


                                       Mercury

             Appearance:                                    Atmosphere:




             Composition:                                      Climate:




                         Distinguishing Features (color, rings):




                                        Venus
                    Mars
         Moons:




                  Jupiter
Moons:
           Saturn
 Moons:




          Uranus
Moons:
          Neptune
 Moons:




          Pluto
Moons:
                                Star Light, Star Bright: Star Types and Stellar Evolution

Topic: Stars
Date: Astronomy Unit Day 3 of 12 (Thursday February 24, 2011)
Grade level: 9th/10th
Subject: Earth Science
Daily Question: What are stars and how do they form/grow/die?

NSES: Earth and Space Science Content Standard C: As a result of their activities in grades 9-12, all students should develop an
understanding of energy in the earth system; geochemical cycles; origin and evolution of the earth system; origin and evolution of the
universe.

SOL:
       ES.4    The student will investigate and understand the characteristics of the Earth and the solar system. Key concepts include
               e) characteristics of the sun, planets and their moons, comets, meteors, and asteroids; and

       ES.14 The student will investigate and understand scientific concepts related to the origin and evolution of the universe. Key
             concepts include
             e) nebulae;
             f) the origin of stars and star systems;
             g) stellar evolution;
             h) galaxies; and
             i) cosmology including the big bang theory.


Procedures for Learning Experience              Guiding Questions             Materials       Evaluation             Approx. Time
Engagement:
Show a star chart- have students tell you       What is a star chart?         Star chart      Student                25 minutes
what they know about it (like if they know      How is a star chart used?                     participation
any constellations), then explain things they                                 Document
may have missed (such as scale, effect of                                     Camera          Observation of
seasons)                                                                                      engagement

Explain/hand out homework
Exploration:
Show image of the Sun’s life cycle- give a     What do the phases of a       Hubble        Student           35 minutes
name to each life stage and explain how the    star’s life look like?        pictures      participation
Sun will change in size, etc. over time                                                                      (15 minutes
                                               How does a star evolve?       Stellar       Observation of    going over
Hand out stellar evolution organizer/chart                                   evolution     engagement        stellar
Go through chart using images in PowerPoint    How is a star created?        organizer                       evolution, 10
Use Hubble photos to go through the phases                                                 Student           minutes of
of stellar evolution                           How does a star die?          Computer      presentations     group work, 10
     Go over parts of a star (core                                          with          (participation)   minutes of
         especially) when talking about main   What is the life cycle of a   projector                       presentations)
         sequence stars                        star?

Have students get in groups of ~4-5 and        Do stars have “parts?”
create a poem, skit, song, rap, play etc. to
demonstrate stellar evolution                  What is a creative way of
                                               explaining stellar
Presentations of creative explanation          evolution?

Explanation:
Explanation of Hertzsprung-Rrussell diagram Why are stars different          Guided Notes Student            15 minutes
     Uses a graph of temperature and          colors?                                    participation
        luminosity to predict the type of star
     Luminosity is the amount of              What is a star made of?                     Observation of
        electronmagnetic energy released by                                                engagement
        a body (a star) in a specific unit of
        time
                                               What is a Hertzsprung-
Stars primarily made of Helium and             Russell Diagram?
Hydrogen- fusion reactions release energy
we receive (luminosity- spectrum of energy) What is luminosity?
Extension:
Cut and paste star types activity using          What is the life cycle of a   Star           Student                15 minutes
organizer                                        star?                         Organizer      participation

Give students stellar organizer without                                        Scissors       Observation of
connections made. Have students cut out                                                       engagement
each box and instructed to practice recreating                                 Tape or Glue
the organizer
     Once students have the correct order,                                    Ziplock bags
       they can either tape/glue them into
       place on a piece of paper or bring the
       pieces home in a Ziplock bag to study
       with later

Notes:
Homework: Give students a copy of a star chart similar to the one below to take home. Students should observe the night sky and take
notes of their observations, including which constellations they saw, sky conditions, weather, etc. Due Day 7 of unit (unit review day).
                                                        Name: ___________________


                          Stellar Evolution Organizer


                                         Nebula



                                        Protostar



                                          Main
                                        Sequence


             Supergiant                                    Giant




             Supernova                                  White Dwarf




Black Hole               Neutron Star                      Nova
                                            How Big is Big? A Tour of Outer Space

Topic: Space structure and distance
Date: Astronomy Unit Day 4 of 12 (Friday February 25, 2011)
Grade level: 9th/10th
Subject: Earth Science
Daily Question: How is space organized/structured? How big is outer space? How far apart are planets and stars and galaxies, etc?

NSES: Earth and Space Science Content Standard C: As a result of their activities in grades 9-12, all students should develop an
understanding of energy in the earth system; geochemical cycles; origin and evolution of the earth system; origin and evolution of the
universe.

SOL:
       ES.4    The student will investigate and understand the characteristics of the Earth and the solar system. Key concepts include
               f) position of the Earth in the solar system;
               g) sun-Earth-moon relationships (seasons, tides, and eclipses);
               h) characteristics of the sun, planets and their moons, comets, meteors, and asteroids; and
               i) the history and contributions of the space program.

       ES.14 The student will investigate and understand scientific concepts related to the origin and evolution of the universe. Key
             concepts include
             j) nebulae;
             k) galaxies; and
             l) cosmology including the big bang theory.


Procedures for Learning Experience                Guiding Questions               Materials     Evaluation            Approx. Time
Engagement:
Show beach ball and tennis ball- which is         Which is a better model for     Beach ball    Participation in      5 minutes
more like the earth? (the volleyball- the earth   the earth: a tennis ball or a   Tennis ball   class discussion
is so big we wouldn’t be able to see              beach ball? Why?
topography- the fuzz on a tennis ball- in a                                                     Observation of
model that size)                                                                                engagement

Ask students how big the universe is
Explanation:
Quick talk about how big the universe is        How is space distance      White board   Observation of     10 minutes
                                                measured? How big is the                 engagement
Review how distance in space is measured        universe?                  Dry Erase
       Astronomical Unit                                                  Markers
       Lightyear
Exploration/Extension:
Give each student a celestial body (sun,        What are the spatial         Markers     Student            Distribution of
moon, planets, other solar systems)- multiple   relationships between                    participation,     celestial
students can be part of the asteroid belt,      planets, the sun, and other  Paper       involvement, and   bodies/sign
Kuiper belt, comets, etc.                       objects in the solar system?             questions          making:
                                                In the universe?             Wide open                      10 minutes
Make sure everyone knows what their                                          space
celestial body is (review difference between                                                                Travel to/from
solar system, galaxy, and universe)                                                                         athletic fields:
                                                                                                            5 minutes each
Students given 3 minutes to create a sign for                                                               way
their object
                                                                                                            Activity:
Take class outside to athletic fields and                                                                   45 minutes
arrange students in a scale model of the
universe. Begin with the sun, moon, and                                                                     Review:
planets, then expand to other solar systems                                                                 5 minutes
and galaxies
     Main point is that all the inner
        planets, moon, sun are very close
        together, while the outer planets are
        slightly further away, and everything
        else is VERY far away
     Make sure to choose kids you know
        will be able to handle going far away
        from you to be the outermost objects
        (choose kids that you don’t need to
        control with proximity)
If time, have students move in their orbital
pattern or model the expanding universe by
moving outward

Return to the classroom with enough time left
to talk about what students learned and
answer any lingering questions that the
activity may have inspired


Weather is a major consideration for the football field solar system model activity- if the weather report is calling for rain, this lesson
can be switched with other lessons (change the order of the unit) or can be done inside in a long hallway (however, this is not optimal
because you don’t want to disrupt other classes). Students should be monitored for attendance- all students must be present at all parts
of the lesson (outside and after returned inside). Students should be warned that they should use the bathroom before going outside,
they won’t be able to leave the activity. Don’t leave the school campus or cross any major roads.

Students may have a difficult time visualizing the spatial relationships between objects in space. In addition to kinesthetic learning
(physically moving and making a human model), each student will be given a scale “map” of the universe to take notes on, label, etc.,
which will be especially helpful to visual learners. For other students, just seeing the numerical distances between objects will be
helpful.

Differentiation can also be done by thinking about student participation levels when assigning students their object. For example, a
student who may be reluctant to participate may benefit from being the sun, a role that is critical to the rest of the activity. For an
active student, a moving object (such as an asteroid or comet) may be best. If students can be managed and if they can handle the
additional challenge, you can add motion to the activity by having each student move in the orbit of the object (the planets rotate
around the sun, galaxies move away from each other to show the expanding universe, etc.)

Distances from the sun if football field is the solar system:
Mercury 1.2 yards                    Asteroid belt: between              Pluto 118 yards                      Nearest star not our own:
Venus 2.2 yards                      Mars and Jupiter (~10               Kuiper belt: 120 yards               edge of parking lot
Earth 3 yards                        yards)                              Oort Cloud: 120 yards                Nearest galaxy: edge of
Moon 3 yards                         Jupiter 16 yards                    Other dwarf planets: 125             parking lot
Mars 5 yards                         Saturn 29 yards                     yards                                Nearest comet: edge of
                                     Uranus 57 yards                     Hubble telescope: parking            parking lot (moving)
                                     Neptune 90 yards                    lot (moving)
                               The Far Side of the Moon: Lunar Cycles and Moon Phases

Topic: Earth’s Moon, Lunar Cycle, and Moon Phases
Date: Astronomy Unit Day 5 of 12 (Monday February 28, 2011)
Grade level: 9th/10th
Subject: Earth Science
Daily Question: Why does the moon “change shape” from night to night? How does the Moon move? Does the Moon have any
impact on what happens on Earth?

NSES: Earth and Space Science Content Standard C: As a result of their activities in grades 9-12, all students should develop an
understanding of energy in the earth system; geochemical cycles; origin and evolution of the earth system; origin and evolution of the
universe.

SOL:
       ES.4    The student will investigate and understand the characteristics of the Earth and the solar system. Key concepts include
               j) position of the Earth in the solar system;
               k) sun-Earth-moon relationships (seasons, tides, and eclipses);
               l) characteristics of the sun, planets and their moons, comets, meteors, and asteroids;

Procedures for Learning Experience                       Guiding Questions          Materials      Evaluation          Approx.
                                                                                                                       Time
Engagement:
Moon landing video/story                                 What can scientists        YouTube        Observation of      5 minutes
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=RMINSD7MmT4               learn by going to the      Moon           engagement
“First Moon Landing 1969”                                moon?                      landing
                                                                                    video          Participation in
Talk about guiding questions:                            What is the relationship                  classroom
    What can scientists learn by going to the           between Earth and the      Computer       discussion
       moon?                                             moon?                      with
    What is the relationship between Earth and the                                 internet
       moon?                                             Do other planets have      access
    Do other planets have moons?                        moons?
Exploration:
Use a flashlight and a ball to model moon phases and   How does the position     Flashlight      Observation of      15 minutes
eclipses                                               of the moon impact                        engagement
                                                       what phase of the moon    Balls: tennis
Have students help hold balls                          we see?                   ball for the    Participation
                                                                                 earth;
                                                       What are the phases of    marble for      Involvement as
                                                       the moon?                 the moon;       volunteer to help
                                                                                 and a beach     during activity
                                                       Why are there moon        ball for the
                                                       phases?                   sun

Explanation:
Illustrated lunar cycles notes                         What are the phases of    Lunar cycle     Observation of      30 minutes
                                                       the moon?                 notes           engagement
Tides (with illustrations)
                                                       Why are there moon                        Participation
                                                       phases?
                                                                                                 Guided notes
                                                       What causes tides?

                                                       What types of tides are
                                                       there?

Extension:
NASA Moon Survival activity                            What would help you       Activity        Explanation of      30 minutes
                                                       survive on the moon?      worksheet       ranking
Have students work in groups of 3, each gets one
paper                                                                                            Observation of
                                                                                                 engagement

                                                                                                 Participation

Notes:
NASA Moon Survival Activity: http://www.earth2class.org/curr_units/astro%20labs.php
                                     NASA Moon Survival
     Space Crew Members: ________________________________________________________

Your space crew was originally scheduled to rendezvous with the mother ship on the lighted side of
the moon. Due to mechanical difficulties, however, your ship was forced to land about 100 km from
the planned rendezvous point. (But, still on the lighted side of the moon facing the Earth.) Fortunately,
none of your crew were seriously injured. But, only a few items from your equipment store survived
the rough landing. It is the task of your crew to select the most important items for your survival.
Please make your decisions by group consensus.

The 14 items below are all that survived the landing. Work in groups of two ore three students. Rank
order these items from #1 for the most important item, to #14 for the least important object. And, in the
spaces to the right of each item, explain your reason for needing or not needing each one.


         PRIORITY        ITEM                                       YOUR JUSTIFICATION


a. _____ Box of matches       _________________________________________________________

b. ____ Food concentrate      _________________________________________________________

c. ____ 15 meters of nylon rope________________________________________________________

d. ____ 60 meters2 Parachute silk ______________________________________________________

e. ____ Portable heating unit_________________________________________________________

f. ____ Two .45 calibre pistols________________________________________________________

g. ____ One case of dehydrated milk____________________________________________________

h. ____ Two 50 kg tanks of oxygen ____________________________________________________

i.   ____ Sky chart of constellations _____________________________________________________

j.   ___ First aid kit _________________________________________________________________

k. ___ Solar powered receiver-transmitter _______________________________________________

l.   ____ 20 liters of water ____________________________________________________________

m. ___ Life Raft for ocean landing _____________________________________________________

n. ____ Six signal flares _____________________________________________________________
                                                         Name: ______________________________

                                      Lunar Cycle Notes




When the sun and moon are not aligned, the gravitational forces cancel each other out,
  and the tides are not as dramatically high and low. These are called neap tides.

When the sun and moon are aligned, there are exceptionally strong gravitational forces, causing very
high and very low tides which are called spring tides, though they have nothing to do with the season.

          During NEW and FULL moons, there is a _________________ tide.

       During the FIRST and THIRD QUARTER, there is a _____________ tide.


                  Put a CIRCLE around the phases with a NEAP TIDE.
                 Put a SQUARE around the phases with a SPRING TIDE
                                                     Rotation & Revolution

Topic: Rotation & Revolution
Date: Astronomy Unit Day 6 of 12 (Tuesday, March 1, 2011)
Grade level: 9th/10th
Subject: Earth Science
Daily Question: How does the Earth and other objects move through space? What is the true shape of the Earth?

NSES: Earth and Space Science Content Standard C: As a result of their activities in grades 9-12, all students should develop an
understanding of energy in the earth system; geochemical cycles; origin and evolution of the earth system; origin and evolution of the
universe.

SOL:
       ES.2    The student will demonstrate scientific reasoning and logic by
               a) analyzing how science explains and predicts the interactions and dynamics of complex Earth systems;
               b) recognizing that evidence is required to evaluate hypotheses and explanations;
               c) comparing different scientific explanations for a set of observations about the Earth;
               d) explaining that observation and logic are essential for reaching a conclusion; and
               e) evaluating evidence for scientific theories.

       ES.4    The student will investigate and understand the characteristics of the Earth and the solar system. Key concepts include
               m) position of the Earth in the solar system;
               n) sun-Earth-moon relationships (seasons, tides, and eclipses);
               o) characteristics of the sun, planets and their moons, comets, meteors, and asteroids


Procedures for Learning Experience                                       Guiding            Materials    Evaluation       Approx.
                                                                         Questions                                        Time
Engagement:
NOVA Origins video “How the Earth was Made”                              How was the        Video        Engagement       30
http://topdocumentaryfilms.com/nova-origins/                             earth made?                                      mintues
                                                                                            Computer
                                                                         Are there other    with
                                                                         planets like       internet
                                                                         earth?             access and
                                                                                                  Projector

Exploration:
Explain that the earth moves in two different ways: rotation and                What type of      Open         Participation    10
revolution                                                                      movement is       space        in revolution/   minutes
                                                                                rotation?                      rotation
Have students get up and go into the lobby outside of the classroom.                                           “dance”
Have each “draw an axis” through themselves and rotate on that axis-            What type of
each student will spin in a circle while remaining in one spot. Have            movement is
students repeat “I revolve on my axis.” Then, have students rotate              revolution?
around you, the sun. Have students say “I rotate around the sun”
                                                                                How can I
Go back in the classroom                                                        remember
                                                                                which is which?
Explanation:
Talk about reason for seasons, time zones, and day and night. Which             What are the      Computer     Engagement       20
movement (rotation or revolution) causes each?                                  effects of        with                          minutes
                                                                                rotation and      internet
Show and explain simulations:                                                   revolution?       access and
    Seasons simulator:                                                                           projector
       http://astro.unl.edu/naap/motion1/animations/seasons_ecliptic.           How did the
       html                                                                     theory of how
    “Motion of the sun” (Rotation) Simulator                                   the earth moves
   http://astro.unl.edu/naap/motion3/animations/sunmotions.html                 originate?

History of the theory- show pictures of old dead guys, tell history like       How do we
your are telling a story:                                                      know how the
              People perceive that the earth is large and stationary and that Earth moves
               all other objects in the sky orbit around it. That perception   through space?
               was the basis for theories of how the universe is organized
               that prevailed from over 2,000 years.
              Prolemy, an Egyptian astronomer living in the second
               century A.D., devised a powerful mathematical model of the
               universe based on constant motion in perfect circles, and
               circles on circles. With the model, he was able to predict the
               motions of the sun, moon, and stars, and even of the
               irregular “wandering stars” now called planets.
              In the 16th century, a Polish astronomer named Copernicus
               suggested that all those same motions could be explained by
               imagining that the earth was turning around once a day and
               orbiting around the sun once a year. This explanation was
               rejected by nearly everyone because it violated common
               sense and required the universe to be unbelievably large.
               Worse, it flew in the face of the belief, universally held at
               the time, that the earth was at the center of the universe.
              Johannes Kepler, a German astronomer who lived at about
               the same time as Galileo, showed mathematically that
               Copernicus’ idea of a sun-centered system worked well if
               uniform circular motion was replaced with uneven (but
               predictable) motion along off-center ellipses.
              Using the newly invented telescope to study the sky, Galileo
               made discoveries that supported the ideas of Copernicus. It
               was Galileo who found the moons of Jupiter, sunspots,
               craters and mountains on the moon, and many more stars
               than were visible to the unaided eye.
              Writing in Italian rather than in Latin (the language of
               scholars at the time), Galileo presented arguments for and
               against the two main views of the universe in a way that
               favored the newer view. That brought the issue to the
               educated people of the time and created political, religious,
               and scientific controversy.

Extension:
Explain that the Earth is not a perfectly round sphere: it’s true shape is     What is the true   Paper      Participation   20
an oblate spheroid, which is a sphere with bulges at the “sides”               shape of the       Scissors                   minutes
                                                                               earth?             Glue       Creation of
Students create their own “oblate spheroids” by cutting and gluing                                Pencil     oblate
strips of paper, then rotating (spinning) them on their pencils to create      Why is the earth              spheroid
bulges, an oblate spheroid                                                     not a perfect
                                                                               sphere?

								
To top