Astronomy Unit Introduction: Big Bang Theory and Astronomy Vocabulary Topic: Astronomy Introduction Date: Astronomy Unit Day 1 of 12 (Tuesday February 22, 2011) Grade level: 9th/10th Subject: Earth Science Daily Question: What is astronomy? What is the Big Bang Theory? What are some terms that will help me understand astronomy? NSES: Earth and Space Science Content Standard C: As a result of their activities in grades 9-12, all students should develop an understanding of energy in the earth system; geochemical cycles; origin and evolution of the earth system; origin and evolution of the universe. SOL: ES.4 The student will investigate and understand the characteristics of the Earth and the solar system. Key concepts include a) position of the Earth in the solar system; b) characteristics of the sun, planets and their moons, comets, meteors, and asteroids; and ES.14 The student will investigate and understand scientific concepts related to the origin and evolution of the universe. Key concepts include a) cosmology including the big bang theory. Procedures for Learning Experience Guiding Questions Materials Evaluation Approx. Time Engagement: Journal quick write: What do students want to Journals/paper Responses will be 10 minutes What do you want to know about space? know about space? Writing utensil collected and read What interests you about astronomy? What (for teacher use in experiences have you had involving What interests students lesson planning) astronomy? about astronomy? Quick write activities are What background graded for knowledge are students participation, bringing into this unit? completeness, and quality of thought Exploration: Astronomy vocabulary How do we measure Vocabulary Graded assignment 30 minutes distance in the universe? worksheet (Terms will be In teams of two, identify as many of the graded for accuracy given terms as possible without using any Understanding of what Textbook and completeness resources. If you know a term, write down a important terms is after gone over as a definition, but if you don’t know the term necessary to understanding Computer class) don’t write anything. astronomy? Highlighters Highlight the words you and your partner did not know Using the online or paper textbook, provide a explanation of the rest of the terms Tell students to check the terms they are unsure of- go over gravity in depth gravity is attraction between two objects, not just a pull “down” often it takes a large object to be able to observe gravity gravity is force that holds objects in orbit Explanation: Activity: use a balloon to model the When was the universe Balloon Worksheet 35 minutes expanding universe and explore the Big formed? Marker questions (graded (5 minutes for Bang Theory Clip for completeness instructions/ How was the universe String and accuracy) demo, 20 for Prep students by saying “Scientists believe formed? Rulers students to the universe originated from the instant Lab sheet explore expansion of an extremely dense, extremely How is blowing up a activity, 5 small amount of matter, this theory is known balloon like our universe? minutes of as the Big Bang.” Explain that the universe review) started ridiculously small and is still What happens to the expanding since it began expanding about distance between objects 14 billion years ago. as the “universe” (aka balloon) expands? Hand out Expanding Universe worksheets and go over directions verbally, demonstrating with a balloon Allow students to work through activity, circulating and offering help when needed Bring class together when majority have worked through the questions. Ask students to share their responses to “How does the balloon represent the universe?” and “Explain the Big Bang Theory in your own words” Extension: Ask students how scientists know that the How do scientists know McDougal book Engagement 20 minutes universe is expanding how the universe was Participation formed? Document Involvement Explain blueshift/redshift using document Camera camera to project a diagram of the color How does a spectroscope spectrum (p. 615 in McDougal book) help scientists understand Spectroscope scientists use an instrument how the universe was called a spectroscope to analyze formed? the spectrum of light emitted by stars. By analyzing and What is Doppler shift? comparing these spectrum, scientists can determine how a star is moving spectroscopes use a prism to separate incoming light into its component wavelengths redshift: motion of a star away from earth causes the star’s spectral lines to shift towards the red end of the spectrum (shift towards longer wavelength = moving away) blueshift: when a star is moving towards Earth, its spectral lines shift toward the blue end of the spectrum (shift towards shorter wavelength = “squished” = moving towards) Have students pass around the spectroscope or take turns coming up to the front of the room to see how a spectroscope separates light Notes: Balloons must be latex free! Students are likely to hold the idea that gravity is the force that pulls down- be sure to expand on this idea and be explicit that gravity is the force of “attraction” between two objects. We feel the pull “down” because Earth’s gravity is pulling us towards its center. Differentiation techniques: having students work at their own pace during vocabulary exercise and share/create knowledge with their desk partner. Partners will have been strategically arranged to create learning partnerships that benefit both partnerships, regardless of ability level. If students have special needs, partners can be arranged to meet these needs. Giving both written and verbal directions also helps students who have difficulty understanding directions. Name: _____________________________ Introduction to Astronomy Instructions: In teams of two, identify as many of the given terms as possible without using any resources. If you know a term, write down a definition, but if you don’t know the term don’t write anything. When you have defined all the words you do know, highlight the words you and your partner did not know. Then, using the online or paper textbook, provide a explanation of the rest of the terms. Gravity Star Orbit Solar system Newton Stellar Star Planet Satellite Astronomical Unit Light Year Name: _______________________ Expanding Universe Mini-Lab Materials: Balloon String Data Table Clip Sharpie marker Ruler Pen/Pencil Directions: A. Inflate the balloon until it is the size of your fist. Clip it shut with the mail clip so that air cannot escape. With the Sharpie, draw six small galaxies around your balloon and label them A through F. B. Use a string and a ruler to measure the distance from A to B, then A to C, then A to D, then A to E, and finally from A to F. Record these distances in your data table. C. Expand your universe by blowing a few puffs of air into it. Measure the distance from you’re a galaxy to each of the other galaxies. Record the distances in your data table. D. Repeat step C two more times. Galaxy Distance (cm) A to B A to C A to D A to E A to F 14 billion years ago (B) 8 billion years ago (C) 4 billion years ago (D) Present (D) E. Using a piece of graphing paper, draw a graph to represent your data. Think about the graph type and scale that would be most appropriate to fit your data. Make sure to include a title, label the axis, and a scale. F. Answer the following questions on the back of your graph: - Which distance changed the most? Which distance changed the least? - What does the balloon represent in this model? - Explain the theory of the Big Bang in your own words. Why is the universe expanding? Galaxies, Solar Systems, and Planets Topic: Galaxies and Solar Systems Date: Astronomy Unit Day 2 of 12 (Wednesday February 23, 2011) Grade level: 9th/10th Subject: Earth Science Daily Question: What are solar systems? What are galaxies? What are the differences between the two? NSES: Earth and Space Science Content Standard C: As a result of their activities in grades 9-12, all students should develop an understanding of energy in the earth system; geochemical cycles; origin and evolution of the earth system; origin and evolution of the universe. SOL: ES.3 The student will investigate and understand how to read and interpret maps, globes, models, charts, and imagery. Key concepts include b) maps (bathymetric, geologic, topographic, and weather) and star charts; ES.4 The student will investigate and understand the characteristics of the Earth and the solar system. Key concepts include c) characteristics of the sun, planets and their moons, comets, meteors, and asteroids; and d) the history and contributions of the space program. ES.14 The student will investigate and understand scientific concepts related to the origin and evolution of the universe. Key concepts include b) the origin of stars and star systems; c) galaxies; and d) cosmology including the big bang theory. Guiding Procedures for Learning Experience Materials Evaluation Approx. Questions Time Engagement: Show pictures of our solar system and What is a galaxy? Photos in PowerPoint Student 10 minutes galaxy Computer connected to projector participation Are there Explain the difference between a galaxy and different types of Observation of a solar system (and that both are different galaxies? engagement from the term universe) What is a solar Go over types of galaxies using photos system? (spiral, barred, elliptical, and irregular- determined by shape) What is a The Milky Way is a spiral galaxy, universe? which is why in very dark skies we can see its bands Exploration: Show a blank sketch of the solar system and What are the Worksheet Worksheet 10 minutes give worksheet with sketch on it to class. components of (graded for Have students provide names for as many our solar system? completeness objects as possible on their own. and accuracy) Have students provide answers for worksheets- project worksheet onto white board using the document camera and have students label the diagram on the white board Explain the asteroid belt between Mars and Jupiter and that Pluto is considered a dwarf planet Go over planet names in order and give students memory device to remember planet order: My - Mercury Very - Venus Energetic - Earth Mother - Mars Just - Jupiter Served - Saturn Us - Uranus Nachos - Neptune Explanation and Extension: Hand out instruction sheet for Jigsaw What are the Computer lab/laptop cart with “biography of 70 activity and explain activity orally. Move properties of enough computers for the entire their planet” minutes: students to the computer lab (or if you have each planet in our class, internet access, word 25 of reserved a laptop cart, distribute the laptops) solar system? processor, and ability to print Guided notes group (defining research, Jigsaw activity to cover properties of each features, http://nineplanets.org/ 45 of planet in this solar system: Independent (or atmosphere, sharing (5 small group) part 1 done in the computer lab solid/gas?, http://science.nationalgeographic minutes help direct students to moons, color, .com/science/space/planets per planet) nineplanets.org or rings, tectonics, http://science.nationalgeographic. volcanism, etc.) Guided notes sheet com/science/space/planets students may choose the program they use to make their biography, but Word or Publisher programs are the most intuitive choices Return students to the classroom to complete part 2 (group share) Notes: Part 1 and part 2 groups determine by instructor in order to facilitate differentiation Have students complete their planet’s portion of the graphic organizer to ensure they have something to say during group share time. If time is running short, move activity on and have students complete “biography” for homework (offer opportunity to use computers during AEP or after school one day if students don’t have access to computers) Computer lab/laptop cart must be reserved far IN ADVANCE! Laptop cart may be preferable in order to cut down on transition time (although computer lab is just around the corner). If there aren’t enough computers, have students buddy up by expert planet assignment and become experts as a pair. Homework: 1 page typed description of your expert planet, to be completed individually. Include a picture (cannot exceed ¼ of the page). Let students know that they may work on the assignment during AEP if they wish (to help students who may not have home access to a computer or printer). Due at the end of the week (Friday). Name: ____________________ Mnemonic to remember planet order: ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Directions for Solar System Jigsaw Activity My planet is: ___________________ Part 1: Individual Planet “biography” To fill out the organized notes about your planet, use http://nineplanets.org/ or http://science.nationalgeographic.com/science/space/planets After you have your information, create a one page “biography” of your planet. The “biography” should be visually appealing and include: A title At least 1 picture Properties of the planet: composition (rock or gas?), climate, volcanism, presence of water or ice? atmosphere, color/appearance Information on the planet’s rings and moons (if your planet has them) Any other defining features or fun facts you think are important Each planet will have 2-3 students working on it. You may work with the other students assigned to your planet, but each student must hand in their own “biography.” When you are finished, print your biography to hand it in. Part 2: Group Share Class will be split into three groups of students. Each student will share what they learned about their planet with the group. Each member of the group should take notes on the other planets. Name: ________________________ Date: _______________ Our Solar System Notes Mercury Appearance: Atmosphere: Composition: Climate: Distinguishing Features (color, rings): Venus Mars Moons: Jupiter Moons: Saturn Moons: Uranus Moons: Neptune Moons: Pluto Moons: Star Light, Star Bright: Star Types and Stellar Evolution Topic: Stars Date: Astronomy Unit Day 3 of 12 (Thursday February 24, 2011) Grade level: 9th/10th Subject: Earth Science Daily Question: What are stars and how do they form/grow/die? NSES: Earth and Space Science Content Standard C: As a result of their activities in grades 9-12, all students should develop an understanding of energy in the earth system; geochemical cycles; origin and evolution of the earth system; origin and evolution of the universe. SOL: ES.4 The student will investigate and understand the characteristics of the Earth and the solar system. Key concepts include e) characteristics of the sun, planets and their moons, comets, meteors, and asteroids; and ES.14 The student will investigate and understand scientific concepts related to the origin and evolution of the universe. Key concepts include e) nebulae; f) the origin of stars and star systems; g) stellar evolution; h) galaxies; and i) cosmology including the big bang theory. Procedures for Learning Experience Guiding Questions Materials Evaluation Approx. Time Engagement: Show a star chart- have students tell you What is a star chart? Star chart Student 25 minutes what they know about it (like if they know How is a star chart used? participation any constellations), then explain things they Document may have missed (such as scale, effect of Camera Observation of seasons) engagement Explain/hand out homework Exploration: Show image of the Sun’s life cycle- give a What do the phases of a Hubble Student 35 minutes name to each life stage and explain how the star’s life look like? pictures participation Sun will change in size, etc. over time (15 minutes How does a star evolve? Stellar Observation of going over Hand out stellar evolution organizer/chart evolution engagement stellar Go through chart using images in PowerPoint How is a star created? organizer evolution, 10 Use Hubble photos to go through the phases Student minutes of of stellar evolution How does a star die? Computer presentations group work, 10 Go over parts of a star (core with (participation) minutes of especially) when talking about main What is the life cycle of a projector presentations) sequence stars star? Have students get in groups of ~4-5 and Do stars have “parts?” create a poem, skit, song, rap, play etc. to demonstrate stellar evolution What is a creative way of explaining stellar Presentations of creative explanation evolution? Explanation: Explanation of Hertzsprung-Rrussell diagram Why are stars different Guided Notes Student 15 minutes Uses a graph of temperature and colors? participation luminosity to predict the type of star Luminosity is the amount of What is a star made of? Observation of electronmagnetic energy released by engagement a body (a star) in a specific unit of time What is a Hertzsprung- Stars primarily made of Helium and Russell Diagram? Hydrogen- fusion reactions release energy we receive (luminosity- spectrum of energy) What is luminosity? Extension: Cut and paste star types activity using What is the life cycle of a Star Student 15 minutes organizer star? Organizer participation Give students stellar organizer without Scissors Observation of connections made. Have students cut out engagement each box and instructed to practice recreating Tape or Glue the organizer Once students have the correct order, Ziplock bags they can either tape/glue them into place on a piece of paper or bring the pieces home in a Ziplock bag to study with later Notes: Homework: Give students a copy of a star chart similar to the one below to take home. Students should observe the night sky and take notes of their observations, including which constellations they saw, sky conditions, weather, etc. Due Day 7 of unit (unit review day). Name: ___________________ Stellar Evolution Organizer Nebula Protostar Main Sequence Supergiant Giant Supernova White Dwarf Black Hole Neutron Star Nova How Big is Big? A Tour of Outer Space Topic: Space structure and distance Date: Astronomy Unit Day 4 of 12 (Friday February 25, 2011) Grade level: 9th/10th Subject: Earth Science Daily Question: How is space organized/structured? How big is outer space? How far apart are planets and stars and galaxies, etc? NSES: Earth and Space Science Content Standard C: As a result of their activities in grades 9-12, all students should develop an understanding of energy in the earth system; geochemical cycles; origin and evolution of the earth system; origin and evolution of the universe. SOL: ES.4 The student will investigate and understand the characteristics of the Earth and the solar system. Key concepts include f) position of the Earth in the solar system; g) sun-Earth-moon relationships (seasons, tides, and eclipses); h) characteristics of the sun, planets and their moons, comets, meteors, and asteroids; and i) the history and contributions of the space program. ES.14 The student will investigate and understand scientific concepts related to the origin and evolution of the universe. Key concepts include j) nebulae; k) galaxies; and l) cosmology including the big bang theory. Procedures for Learning Experience Guiding Questions Materials Evaluation Approx. Time Engagement: Show beach ball and tennis ball- which is Which is a better model for Beach ball Participation in 5 minutes more like the earth? (the volleyball- the earth the earth: a tennis ball or a Tennis ball class discussion is so big we wouldn’t be able to see beach ball? Why? topography- the fuzz on a tennis ball- in a Observation of model that size) engagement Ask students how big the universe is Explanation: Quick talk about how big the universe is How is space distance White board Observation of 10 minutes measured? How big is the engagement Review how distance in space is measured universe? Dry Erase Astronomical Unit Markers Lightyear Exploration/Extension: Give each student a celestial body (sun, What are the spatial Markers Student Distribution of moon, planets, other solar systems)- multiple relationships between participation, celestial students can be part of the asteroid belt, planets, the sun, and other Paper involvement, and bodies/sign Kuiper belt, comets, etc. objects in the solar system? questions making: In the universe? Wide open 10 minutes Make sure everyone knows what their space celestial body is (review difference between Travel to/from solar system, galaxy, and universe) athletic fields: 5 minutes each Students given 3 minutes to create a sign for way their object Activity: Take class outside to athletic fields and 45 minutes arrange students in a scale model of the universe. Begin with the sun, moon, and Review: planets, then expand to other solar systems 5 minutes and galaxies Main point is that all the inner planets, moon, sun are very close together, while the outer planets are slightly further away, and everything else is VERY far away Make sure to choose kids you know will be able to handle going far away from you to be the outermost objects (choose kids that you don’t need to control with proximity) If time, have students move in their orbital pattern or model the expanding universe by moving outward Return to the classroom with enough time left to talk about what students learned and answer any lingering questions that the activity may have inspired Weather is a major consideration for the football field solar system model activity- if the weather report is calling for rain, this lesson can be switched with other lessons (change the order of the unit) or can be done inside in a long hallway (however, this is not optimal because you don’t want to disrupt other classes). Students should be monitored for attendance- all students must be present at all parts of the lesson (outside and after returned inside). Students should be warned that they should use the bathroom before going outside, they won’t be able to leave the activity. Don’t leave the school campus or cross any major roads. Students may have a difficult time visualizing the spatial relationships between objects in space. In addition to kinesthetic learning (physically moving and making a human model), each student will be given a scale “map” of the universe to take notes on, label, etc., which will be especially helpful to visual learners. For other students, just seeing the numerical distances between objects will be helpful. Differentiation can also be done by thinking about student participation levels when assigning students their object. For example, a student who may be reluctant to participate may benefit from being the sun, a role that is critical to the rest of the activity. For an active student, a moving object (such as an asteroid or comet) may be best. If students can be managed and if they can handle the additional challenge, you can add motion to the activity by having each student move in the orbit of the object (the planets rotate around the sun, galaxies move away from each other to show the expanding universe, etc.) Distances from the sun if football field is the solar system: Mercury 1.2 yards Asteroid belt: between Pluto 118 yards Nearest star not our own: Venus 2.2 yards Mars and Jupiter (~10 Kuiper belt: 120 yards edge of parking lot Earth 3 yards yards) Oort Cloud: 120 yards Nearest galaxy: edge of Moon 3 yards Jupiter 16 yards Other dwarf planets: 125 parking lot Mars 5 yards Saturn 29 yards yards Nearest comet: edge of Uranus 57 yards Hubble telescope: parking parking lot (moving) Neptune 90 yards lot (moving) The Far Side of the Moon: Lunar Cycles and Moon Phases Topic: Earth’s Moon, Lunar Cycle, and Moon Phases Date: Astronomy Unit Day 5 of 12 (Monday February 28, 2011) Grade level: 9th/10th Subject: Earth Science Daily Question: Why does the moon “change shape” from night to night? How does the Moon move? Does the Moon have any impact on what happens on Earth? NSES: Earth and Space Science Content Standard C: As a result of their activities in grades 9-12, all students should develop an understanding of energy in the earth system; geochemical cycles; origin and evolution of the earth system; origin and evolution of the universe. SOL: ES.4 The student will investigate and understand the characteristics of the Earth and the solar system. Key concepts include j) position of the Earth in the solar system; k) sun-Earth-moon relationships (seasons, tides, and eclipses); l) characteristics of the sun, planets and their moons, comets, meteors, and asteroids; Procedures for Learning Experience Guiding Questions Materials Evaluation Approx. Time Engagement: Moon landing video/story What can scientists YouTube Observation of 5 minutes http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=RMINSD7MmT4 learn by going to the Moon engagement “First Moon Landing 1969” moon? landing video Participation in Talk about guiding questions: What is the relationship classroom What can scientists learn by going to the between Earth and the Computer discussion moon? moon? with What is the relationship between Earth and the internet moon? Do other planets have access Do other planets have moons? moons? Exploration: Use a flashlight and a ball to model moon phases and How does the position Flashlight Observation of 15 minutes eclipses of the moon impact engagement what phase of the moon Balls: tennis Have students help hold balls we see? ball for the Participation earth; What are the phases of marble for Involvement as the moon? the moon; volunteer to help and a beach during activity Why are there moon ball for the phases? sun Explanation: Illustrated lunar cycles notes What are the phases of Lunar cycle Observation of 30 minutes the moon? notes engagement Tides (with illustrations) Why are there moon Participation phases? Guided notes What causes tides? What types of tides are there? Extension: NASA Moon Survival activity What would help you Activity Explanation of 30 minutes survive on the moon? worksheet ranking Have students work in groups of 3, each gets one paper Observation of engagement Participation Notes: NASA Moon Survival Activity: http://www.earth2class.org/curr_units/astro%20labs.php NASA Moon Survival Space Crew Members: ________________________________________________________ Your space crew was originally scheduled to rendezvous with the mother ship on the lighted side of the moon. Due to mechanical difficulties, however, your ship was forced to land about 100 km from the planned rendezvous point. (But, still on the lighted side of the moon facing the Earth.) Fortunately, none of your crew were seriously injured. But, only a few items from your equipment store survived the rough landing. It is the task of your crew to select the most important items for your survival. Please make your decisions by group consensus. The 14 items below are all that survived the landing. Work in groups of two ore three students. Rank order these items from #1 for the most important item, to #14 for the least important object. And, in the spaces to the right of each item, explain your reason for needing or not needing each one. PRIORITY ITEM YOUR JUSTIFICATION a. _____ Box of matches _________________________________________________________ b. ____ Food concentrate _________________________________________________________ c. ____ 15 meters of nylon rope________________________________________________________ d. ____ 60 meters2 Parachute silk ______________________________________________________ e. ____ Portable heating unit_________________________________________________________ f. ____ Two .45 calibre pistols________________________________________________________ g. ____ One case of dehydrated milk____________________________________________________ h. ____ Two 50 kg tanks of oxygen ____________________________________________________ i. ____ Sky chart of constellations _____________________________________________________ j. ___ First aid kit _________________________________________________________________ k. ___ Solar powered receiver-transmitter _______________________________________________ l. ____ 20 liters of water ____________________________________________________________ m. ___ Life Raft for ocean landing _____________________________________________________ n. ____ Six signal flares _____________________________________________________________ Name: ______________________________ Lunar Cycle Notes When the sun and moon are not aligned, the gravitational forces cancel each other out, and the tides are not as dramatically high and low. These are called neap tides. When the sun and moon are aligned, there are exceptionally strong gravitational forces, causing very high and very low tides which are called spring tides, though they have nothing to do with the season. During NEW and FULL moons, there is a _________________ tide. During the FIRST and THIRD QUARTER, there is a _____________ tide. Put a CIRCLE around the phases with a NEAP TIDE. Put a SQUARE around the phases with a SPRING TIDE Rotation & Revolution Topic: Rotation & Revolution Date: Astronomy Unit Day 6 of 12 (Tuesday, March 1, 2011) Grade level: 9th/10th Subject: Earth Science Daily Question: How does the Earth and other objects move through space? What is the true shape of the Earth? NSES: Earth and Space Science Content Standard C: As a result of their activities in grades 9-12, all students should develop an understanding of energy in the earth system; geochemical cycles; origin and evolution of the earth system; origin and evolution of the universe. SOL: ES.2 The student will demonstrate scientific reasoning and logic by a) analyzing how science explains and predicts the interactions and dynamics of complex Earth systems; b) recognizing that evidence is required to evaluate hypotheses and explanations; c) comparing different scientific explanations for a set of observations about the Earth; d) explaining that observation and logic are essential for reaching a conclusion; and e) evaluating evidence for scientific theories. ES.4 The student will investigate and understand the characteristics of the Earth and the solar system. Key concepts include m) position of the Earth in the solar system; n) sun-Earth-moon relationships (seasons, tides, and eclipses); o) characteristics of the sun, planets and their moons, comets, meteors, and asteroids Procedures for Learning Experience Guiding Materials Evaluation Approx. Questions Time Engagement: NOVA Origins video “How the Earth was Made” How was the Video Engagement 30 http://topdocumentaryfilms.com/nova-origins/ earth made? mintues Computer Are there other with planets like internet earth? access and Projector Exploration: Explain that the earth moves in two different ways: rotation and What type of Open Participation 10 revolution movement is space in revolution/ minutes rotation? rotation Have students get up and go into the lobby outside of the classroom. “dance” Have each “draw an axis” through themselves and rotate on that axis- What type of each student will spin in a circle while remaining in one spot. Have movement is students repeat “I revolve on my axis.” Then, have students rotate revolution? around you, the sun. Have students say “I rotate around the sun” How can I Go back in the classroom remember which is which? Explanation: Talk about reason for seasons, time zones, and day and night. Which What are the Computer Engagement 20 movement (rotation or revolution) causes each? effects of with minutes rotation and internet Show and explain simulations: revolution? access and Seasons simulator: projector http://astro.unl.edu/naap/motion1/animations/seasons_ecliptic. How did the html theory of how “Motion of the sun” (Rotation) Simulator the earth moves http://astro.unl.edu/naap/motion3/animations/sunmotions.html originate? History of the theory- show pictures of old dead guys, tell history like How do we your are telling a story: know how the People perceive that the earth is large and stationary and that Earth moves all other objects in the sky orbit around it. That perception through space? was the basis for theories of how the universe is organized that prevailed from over 2,000 years. Prolemy, an Egyptian astronomer living in the second century A.D., devised a powerful mathematical model of the universe based on constant motion in perfect circles, and circles on circles. With the model, he was able to predict the motions of the sun, moon, and stars, and even of the irregular “wandering stars” now called planets. In the 16th century, a Polish astronomer named Copernicus suggested that all those same motions could be explained by imagining that the earth was turning around once a day and orbiting around the sun once a year. This explanation was rejected by nearly everyone because it violated common sense and required the universe to be unbelievably large. Worse, it flew in the face of the belief, universally held at the time, that the earth was at the center of the universe. Johannes Kepler, a German astronomer who lived at about the same time as Galileo, showed mathematically that Copernicus’ idea of a sun-centered system worked well if uniform circular motion was replaced with uneven (but predictable) motion along off-center ellipses. Using the newly invented telescope to study the sky, Galileo made discoveries that supported the ideas of Copernicus. It was Galileo who found the moons of Jupiter, sunspots, craters and mountains on the moon, and many more stars than were visible to the unaided eye. Writing in Italian rather than in Latin (the language of scholars at the time), Galileo presented arguments for and against the two main views of the universe in a way that favored the newer view. That brought the issue to the educated people of the time and created political, religious, and scientific controversy. Extension: Explain that the Earth is not a perfectly round sphere: it’s true shape is What is the true Paper Participation 20 an oblate spheroid, which is a sphere with bulges at the “sides” shape of the Scissors minutes earth? Glue Creation of Students create their own “oblate spheroids” by cutting and gluing Pencil oblate strips of paper, then rotating (spinning) them on their pencils to create Why is the earth spheroid bulges, an oblate spheroid not a perfect sphere?
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