PowerPoint Presentation by a17N430

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									             MENTORING
            RELATIONSHIPS




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         EARLY RESEARCH ON
        MENTORING: KRAM (1983)
 Initiative phase: relationship has just started (6-12
  months)
 Cultivation phase: positive expectations
  continuously tested against reality (2-5 years)
 Separation : 6-12 months after a significant change
  in the relationship
 Redefinition: major transformations over time (may
  end or a peer relationship may begin)

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         COMPLEXITIES OF CROSS-
         GENDER RELATIONSHIPS
 Internal relationship
           Assumption of stereotypical roles
           Role modeling function
           Growing intimacy and sexuality
 External relationship
           Public scrutiny
           Peer resentment

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            FOUR STEREOTYPICAL
                   ROLES
 Father & the pet
 Chivalrous knight &
  helpless maiden
 Tough warrior &
  nurturing mother
 Macho & seductress



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         COMPLEXITIES OF CROSS-
         GENDER RELATIONSHIPS
 Internal relationship
           Assumption of stereotypical
            roles
           Role modeling function
           Growing intimacy and
            sexuality
 External relationship
           Public scrutiny
           Peer resentment




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         COMPLEXITIES OF CROSS-
         GENDER RELATIONSHIPS

 External relationship
           Public scrutiny
           Peer resentment




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             IMPLICATIONS

 Individual self-awareness is a critical first
  step.
 Discuss with others.
 Existence of an educational context
  important in the increase of self-awareness.
 Changes in organizational context are
  important.

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         MENTORING & NETWORKING
                 & RACE

 Mentoring
           Bell & Nkomo’s study – very few of the women had
            mentors – sponsors who helped in career development
            but absent in psychosocial support
           Critical to obtain sponsorship in order to advance
 Networking
           Exclusion from informal networks
           Two studies discussed how this hampered career
            development – also less psychosocial support

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                DIVIDE INTO GROUPS

 Assignment: relate the chapter on mentoring to your
  own experience
 Focus on:
           Have you been in a mentor or protégé relationship?
            Characteristics? Gender? More career development or
            psychosocial functions stressed? Position of mentor or
            protégé? Internal or external or both? Experiences in the
            relationship? Kram’s phases? Outcomes?
           Perceptual questions (see p. 368)

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    JOLINE GODFREY & THE
   POLAROID CORPORATION
             (A)




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               LEARNING FROM THE
                     CASE
 Illustrates a strategic model of career management &
  importance of being proactive in managing one’s career;
 Importance of capitalizing on the developmental
  opportunities of day-to-day work life & of “stretch
  assignments”
 The critical role that developmental relationships play in
  the process of building a successful and satisfying career
 The specific challenges & dilemmas faced by women in
  establishing developmental relationships & achieving
  career success
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            SPECIFIC OBJECTIVES OF
                   THE CASE
 To think from a power & influence perspective
  about building a career
 Given the power dynamics associated with a
  position & the sources of power at one’s disposal,
  to understand how to assess the risks &
  opportunities – the “fit” – that the job presents
 To gain an understanding of the importance of
  developmental relationships in building a successful
  & satisfying career.

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            COMPANY CONTEXT

 Changing competitive environment in 1970s &
  1980s
 Sources of conflict on the rise at Polaroid
 Polaroid needed to shift away from its traditional
  focus on technology toward a new focus on the
  customer
 Power destined to shift to marketing from
  manufacturing & engineering.
 Diverse groups would become more interdependent
  & would have to work closely together
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            JOLINE GODFREY &
            QUESTION OF “FIT”
 At first glance, not a good fit
 But Godfrey had personal strengths &
  sources of power (leveraged these to gain
  significant developmental assignments &
  expanded her network).




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             DETERMINANTS OF AN
             INDIVIDUAL’S POWER
Sources of Positional Power:___________________________
Formal authority      Position in hierarchy & prescribed responsibility
Relevance             Relationship between task & org. objectives
Centrality            Position in key networks
Autonomy              Amount of discretion in a position
Visibility            Degree to which performance seen by others
________________________________________________________________
Sources of Personal Power:______________________________
Expertise            Relevant knowledge & skills
Track Record         Relevant experience
Attractiveness       Attributes others find appealing & identify with
Effort               Expenditure of time & energy
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            OTHER PERSONAL
            CHARACTERISTICS
 Creativity
 Willingness to take
  risks
 Willingness to be a
  leader
 Resourcefulness
 Her influence style


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            IMPORTANCE OF TIMING

 Timing & contextual factors were in her favor as
  well.
 Her strengths & interests fit well with the new
  strategic direction of the company.
 Photo Odyssee idea fit with the Polaroid tradition of
  creativity & experimentation begun by Dr. Land.
 Her idea did find support (Sudbey, O’Neill & other
  senior executives)

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       MANAGING YOUR CAREER

 Central themes of a successful career
           The right “stretch assignments & developmental
            relationships play a critical role in the process of building
            a successful & satisfying career
           Successful careers are strategically & proactively
            managed
           Pay attention to the more intangible measures of power
            growth (not only to promotions & raises)
 How does Godfrey measure up?

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                GODFREY’S PATH AT
                    POLAROID
 Creating a “success” syndrome
           Become a self-directed learner
           Expanding a network of relationships
           Progressively challenging stretch assignments
            provided by mentors & sponsors




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             DETERMINANTS OF AN
             INDIVIDUAL’S POWER
Sources of Positional Power:___________________________
Formal authority      Position in hierarchy & prescribed responsibility
Relevance             Relationship between task & org. objectives
Centrality            Position in key networks
Autonomy              Amount of discretion in a position
Visibility            Degree to which performance seen by others
________________________________________________________________
Sources of Personal Power:______________________________
Expertise            Relevant knowledge & skills
Track Record         Relevant experience
Attractiveness       Attributes others find appealing & identify with
Effort               Expenditure of time & energy
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            QUALITIES OF A “GOOD
                 PROTÉGÉ”
 They are “learning junkies.”
 They always do more than asked (the “bring back a
  whale, even if you only asked for a flounder”).
 It is easy to be honest with them.
 They appreciate the risks mentors take on their
  behalf and they help to manage those risks.
 They give as much as they get; they understand that
  the relationship must be fair and equitable.

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       MANAGING YOUR CAREER

 Central themes of a successful career
           The right “stretch assignments & developmental
            relationships play a critical role in the process of
            building a successful & satisfying career
           Successful careers are strategically & proactively
            managed
           Pay attention to the more intangible measures of
            power growth (not only to promotions & raises)

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                GODFREY’S CAREER

 Early experiences – in accordance to this
  model
 Projects with Rebelsky
           The severance project
           The ethics assignment
 The Spectra project
 Starting her own venture

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                    ANALYSIS

 Principle of reciprocity
 As a mentor, Sudbey provided Godfrey: sponsorship;
  legitimacy & credibility; opportunities to increase her
  knowledge & expertise; advice, consulting & counseling;
  a role model; friendship
 As a protégé, Godfrey provided Sudbey: an opportunity
  to refocus the direction of the company; another
  individual in his conspiracy (Land’s philosophy); work-
  related assistance support; pride & satisfaction;
  inspiration to leave Polaroid (“B” case)


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            APPLICATION OF KRAM’S
                   STAGES
   Initiation
   Cultivation
   Separation
   Redefinition




                         Stages
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               GROUP ASSIGNMENT

 Divide into groups
 Analyze Godfrey’s & Sudbey’s relationship
           Extent of career support & psychosocial
            functions for Godfrey by Sudbey
           Functions played by Godfrey for her mentor
           Do Kram’s stages fit?



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            SUMMARY OF “B” CASE

 After leaving Polaroid, Godfrey & her
  partner, Lytle, secured venture capital
  funding for Odysseum & the small company
  quickly established a national presence in the
  corporate meeting industry
 Sudbey remained in close contact with
  Odysseum until its sale.

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            WHAT COULD GODFREY HAVE
               DONE DIFFERENTLY?

 Extremely successful at managing her
  relationships with the very senior executives,
  but she was not very proactive at managing
  her immediate bosses
 Godfrey also resistant to managing her peers
  in other functions


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            EVALUATION OF GODFREY’S
              CAREER AT POLAROID

 Was Godfrey’s final lack of success an
  example of her hitting a “brick wall” because
  she is a woman?
 No?
 Yes?



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            JOLINE GODFREY: UPDATE
                    1992-2002

 1992 - Joline launched Independent Means Inc.
  (IMI), a leading provider of financial education
  products & programs for kids and parents
 1996 – IMI incorporated
 2002 – New service (Raising Financially Fit Kids
  Platform) – personalized financial activities &
  resources for children & teenagers – sold wholesale
  to large consumer business networks

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                 WRAP-UP: Strategic Career-
                       Building
 Get into a job & organization that “fits” & offers learning opportunities
 Use the “fit” leverage to develop your expertise, relationship, & track
  record
 Focus on achieving organizational objectives, not simply personal
  ambitions.
 Set your career objectives & proactively pursue or create assignments
  that will help you achieve them. Invest your power to acquire more
  power.
 Pay attention to measures of power growth & not only to the more
  tangible signs of career progress such as raises & promotions
 Make sure your speed of movement is neither too slow nor too fast.
 Cultivate developmental relationships


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       WRAP-UP: On Developmental
             Relationship
 Do not expect one mentor-protégé relationship to
  carry you through the course of your career
 Recognize opportunities to establish developmental
  relationships & reach out to prospective partners
 Be realistic about developmental relationships
 Accept that developmental relationships are
  dynamic; be prepared for them to evolve over time
 When evaluating career choices, take into account
  the extent to which opportunities are available for
  forming developmental relationships.
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                   ASSIGNMENT FOR
                       30/7/2003
 TOPIC: Dual Careers
  & Stress
 READING:
           Chapters 20-21
 CASE & EXERCISE:
           Elizabeth Fisher (A)
           Dual Careers Role Play
            exercise


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