UBC Final Evidence Table Renal Failure OMOP 9 11 2009

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UBC Final Evidence Table Renal Failure OMOP 9 11 2009 Powered By Docstoc
					                                                                             Year of         Dates of            Data Source (Specific Name if        Country Represented
               Citation                 PUBMED ID     Journal Name         Publication    Data/Records                     Database)                     by Data Used
  Andrade SE, Graham DJ, Staffa          15680751     J Clin Epidemiol        2005       January 1, 1998 –    11 geographically dispersed managed             US
    JA, Schech SD, Shatin D, La                                                            June 30, 2001               care organizations
 Grenade L, Goodman MJ, Platt R,
 Gurwitz JH, Chan KA. Health plan
    administrative databases can
efficiently identify serious myopathy
     and rhabdomyolysis. J Clin
 Epidemiol. 2005 Feb;58(2):171-4.

  Bi P, Parton KA, Whitby M. Co-         14732330      Int J Infect Dis       2004             1998                 Australian Mortality Data              Australia
 existing conditions for deaths from
infectious and parasitic diseases in
   Australia. Int J Infect Dis. 2004
           Mar;8(2):121-5.



Clarke P, Leal J, Kelman C, Smith        18380631      Value Health           2008        January 1, 1990 –   Australia’s National Health Insurance        Australia
M, Colagiuri S. Estimating the cost                                                      December 31, 1999          System (Medicare) Data
  of complications of diabetes in
  Australia using administrative
 health-care data. Value Health.
  2008 Mar-Apr;11(2):199-206.




Clinard F, Sgro C, Bardou M, Hillon      15103437   Eur J Clin Pharmacol      2004        January 1995 –      French Pharmacovigilance Database             France
     P, Dumas M, Kreft-Jais C,                                                            December 1999
  Escousse A, Bonithon-Kopp C.
 Association between concomitant
 use of several systemic NSAIDs
and an excess risk of adverse drug
 reaction. A case/non-case study
          from the French
    Pharmacovigilance system
 database. Eur J Clin Pharmacol.
      2004 Jun;60(4):279-83.
                                                                                   Year of         Dates of            Data Source (Specific Name if          Country Represented
              Citation                  PUBMED ID         Journal Name           Publication     Data/Records                   Database)                        by Data Used
 Endorf FW, Klein MB, Mack CD,           18997557        J Burn Care Res            2008         2001 and 2004     Nationwide Inpatient Sample (NIS) of the           US
     Jurkovich GJ, Rivara FP.                                                                                       Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project
 Necrotizing soft-tissue infections:
 differences in patients treated at
burn centers and non-burn centers.
   J Burn Care Res. 2008 Nov-
         Dec;29(6):933-8.

  Fischer MJ, Brimhall BB, Parikh        18223306         Am J Nephrol              2008          1999 – 2000      Massachusetts Division of Health Care              US
  CR. Uncomplicated acute renal                                                                                     Finance and Policy (DHCFP) Data
failure and post-hospital care: a not
   so uncomplicated illness. Am J
    Nephrol. 2008;28(3):523-30.




  García-Rodríguez LA, Massó-            18425988   Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf      2008         April 1, 2003 –    General Practice Research Database                UK
   González EL, Wallander MA,                                                                  December 31, 2005                  (GPRD)
    Johansson S. The safety of
 rosuvastatin in comparison with
other statins in over 100,000 statin
     users in UK primary care.
  Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf.
     2008 Oct;17(10):943-52.
                                                                           Year of       Dates of            Data Source (Specific Name if         Country Represented
              Citation                   PUBMED ID     Journal Name      Publication   Data/Records                   Database)                       by Data Used
Gerdtham UG, Clarke P, Hayes A,           19178126   Pharmacoeconomics      2009        1998 – 2003        Swedish National Diabetes Register            Sweden
 Gudbjornsdottir S. Estimating the
 cost of diabetes mellitus-related
events from inpatient admissions in
   Sweden using administrative
        hospitalization data.
      Pharmacoeconomics.
         2009;27(1):81-90.

 Heller JA, Weinberg A, Arons R,          11107080      J Vasc Surg         2000        1979 – 1997        National Hospital Discharge Survey              US
Krishnasastry KV, Lyon RT, Deitch                                                                                       (NHDS)
JS, Schulick AH, Bush HL Jr, Kent
 KC. Two decades of abdominal
 aortic aneurysm repair: have we
made any progress? J Vasc Surg.
    2000 Dec;32(6):1091-100.

Hellman RN, Decker BS, Murray M.          16825087        Ren Fail          2006       March 1, 1992 –            Regenstrief Database                     US
 Elevated serum creatinine and a                                                        March 1, 2001
      normal urinalysis: a short
differential diagnosis in the etiology
      of renal failure. Ren Fail.
         2006;28(5):389-94.




   Kern EF, Maney M, Miller DR,           16584465    Health Serv Res       2006        1999 – 2000      Medicare Data + Veterans Administration           US
Tseng CL, Tiwari A, Rajan M, Aron                                                                                      (VA) Data
 D, Pogach L. Failure of ICD-9-CM
   codes to identify patients with
comorbid chronic kidney disease in
 diabetes. Health Serv Res. 2006
        Apr;41(2):564-80.
                                                                            Year of       Dates of           Data Source (Specific Name if         Country Represented
             Citation                 PUBMED ID      Journal Name         Publication   Data/Records                  Database)                       by Data Used
 Li B, Evans D, Faris P, Dean S,       18194561   BMC Health Serv Res.       2008       April 01, 1997 –   Provincial (British Columbia, Canada)         Canada
     Quan H. Risk adjustment                                                            March 31, 2004       Hospital Discharge Administrative
  performance of Charlson and                                                                                             Database
Elixhauser comorbidities in ICD-9
    and ICD-10 administrative
           databases.
BMC Health Serv Res. 2008 Jan
            14;8:12.
 Li SQ, Cunningham J, Cass A.          15151672       Intern Med J           2004        1997 – 1999       Australian Bureau of Statistics (ABS)        Australia
Renal-related deaths in Australia
 1997-1999. Intern Med J. 2004
        May;34(5):259-65.




 Liangos O, Wald R, O'Bell JW,         17699189   Clin J Am Soc Nephrol      2006            2001           National Hospital Discharge Survey             US
  Price L, Pereira BJ, Jaber BL.                                                                                         (NHDS)
 Epidemiology and outcomes of
acute renal failure in hospitalized
   patients: a national survey.
  Clin J Am Soc Nephrol. 2006
         Jan;1(1):43-51.
                                                                                     Year of        Dates of              Data Source (Specific Name if            Country Represented
              Citation                  PUBMED ID         Journal Name             Publication    Data/Records                     Database)                          by Data Used
  Movahed MR, Hashemzadeh M,             17318769   Exp Clin Endocrinol Diabetes      2007         1990 – 2000         Veterans Health Administration (VHA)                US
 Jamal MM. Significant increase in                                                                                             Hospitals Database
  the prevalence of non-rheumatic
aortic valve disease in patients with
      type 2 diabetes mellitus.
Exp Clin Endocrinol Diabetes. 2007
         Feb;115(2):105-7.

  Moyneur E, Bookhart BK, Mody           18279115           Dis Manag                 2008       January 1, 1998 –     Employer Claims Data (anonymous)                    US
  SH, Fournier AA, Mallett D, Duh                                                                January 31, 2005
 MS. The economic impact of pre-
  dialysis epoetin alpha on health
care and work loss costs in chronic
   kidney disease: an employer's
   perspective. Dis Manag. 2008
           Feb;11(1):49-58.
 O'Connor AB, Lang VJ, Lurie SJ,         19174669            Acad Med                 2009       January 1, 2005 –   Data from two teaching hospitals affiliated           US
Lambert DR, Rudmann A, Robbins                                                                     June 30, 2005     with the University of Rochester School of
    B, Bordley DR. The effect of                                                                                     Medicine and Dentistry in Rochester, New
    nonteaching services on the                                                                                                         York
  distribution of inpatient cases for
 internal medicine residents. Acad
    Med. 2009 Feb;84(2):220-5.

     Powell H, Lim LL, Heller            11438409         J Clin Epidemiol            2001       December 1996 –           Hospitals from Hunter Region                 Australia
RF.Accuracy of administrative data                                                                January 1998
 to assess comorbidity in patients
 with heart disease. an Australian
perspective. J Clin Epidemiol. 2001
         Jul;54(7):687-93.
                                                                           Year of          Dates of              Data Source (Specific Name if         Country Represented
             Citation                  PUBMED ID      Journal Name       Publication      Data/Records                     Database)                       by Data Used
Quan H, Sundararajan V, Halfon P,       16224307        Med Care            2005       April l, 2001 – March     Calgary Health Region Discharge              Canada
   Fong A, Burnand B, Luthi JC,                                                               31, 2003                      Database
  Saunders LD, Beck CA, Feasby
 TE, Ghali WA.Coding algorithms
for defining comorbidities in ICD-9-
   CM and ICD-10 administrative
       data. Med Care. 2005
         Nov;43(11):1130-9.




Robbins JD, Kim JJ, Zdon G, Chan        14613467   J Manag Care Pharm       2003       September 1, 1998 –      Nationwide Managed Care Database                US
 WW, Jones J. Resource use and                                                            July 31, 2001
patient care associated with chronic
 kidney disease in a managed care
setting. J Manag Care Pharm. 2003
        May-Jun;9(3):238-47.



  So L, Evans D, Quan H. ICD-10         17173686   BMC Health Serv Res      2006        July – December        Canadian Provincial Hospital Discharge         Canada
   coding algorithms for defining                                                             2003                      Database (Alberta)
 comorbidities of acute myocardial
 infarction. BMC Health Serv Res.
         2006 Dec 15;6:161
                                                                         Year of       Dates of         Data Source (Specific Name if      Country Represented
             Citation                  PUBMED ID    Journal Name       Publication   Data/Records                Database)                    by Data Used
 Stevens LA, Fares G, Fleming J,        15930090   J Am Soc Nephrol       2005       April 1, 2002 –   Laboratory Corporation of America           US
  Martin D, Murthy K, Qiu J, Stark                                                   March 31, 2003             (LabCorp) Data
 PC, Uhlig K, Van Lente F, Levey
    AS. Low rates of testing and
    diagnostic codes usage in a
   commercial clinical laboratory:
   evidence for lack of physician
    awareness of chronic kidney
 disease. J Am Soc Nephrol. 2005
        Aug;16(8):2439-48.




 Vermeulen MJ, Tu JV, Schull MJ.        17689814    J Clin Epidemiol      2007       April 1, 2002 –   CIHI Hospital Discharge Abstract          Canada
ICD-10 adaptations of the Ontario                                                    March 31, 2004               Database
    acute myocardial infarction
mortality prediction rules performed
  as well as the original versions.
      J Clin Epidemiol. 2007
          Sep;60(9):971-4.


Waikar SS, Wald R, Chertow GM,          16641149   J Am Soc Nephrol       2006            2004          Research Patient Data Registry             US
 Curhan GC, Winkelmayer WC,
 Liangos O, Sosa MA, Jaber BL.
     Validity of International
Classification of Diseases, Ninth
  Revision, Clinical Modification
Codes for Acute Renal Failure. J
     Am Soc Nephrol. 2006
       Jun;17(6):1688-94.
                                                                            Year of       Dates of        Data Source (Specific Name if         Country Represented
              Citation                  PUBMED ID      Journal Name       Publication   Data/Records               Database)                       by Data Used
 Winkelmayer WC, Schneeweiss S,          16112040     Am J Kidney Dis        2005       1999 – 2000    Pharmaceutical Assistance Contract for           US
   Mogun H, Patrick AR, Avorn J,                                                                             the Elderly (PACE) Data
    Solomon DH. Identification of
individuals with CKD from Medicare
   claims data: a validation study.
       Am J Kidney Dis. 2005
         Aug;46(2):225-32.




 Wu CL, Anderson GF, Herbert R,          12945019   Reg Anesth Pain Med      2003       1994 – 1999     5% Nationally Random Sample of the              US
 Lietman SA, Fleisher LA. Effect of                                                                            Medicare Population
postoperative epidural analgesia on
  morbidity and mortality after total
     hip replacement surgery in
   medicare patients. Reg Anesth
Pain Med. 2003 Jul-Aug;28(4):271-
                 8.

 Wu CL, Sapirstein A, Herbert R,         17126780      J Clin Anesth         2006       1997 – 2001     5% Nationally Random Sample of the              US
   Rowlingson AJ, Michaels RK,                                                                                 Medicare Population
Petrovic MA, Fleisher LA. Effect of
postoperative epidural analgesia on
 morbidity and mortality after lung
 resection in Medicare patients. J
 Clin Anesth. 2006 Nov;18(7):515-
                20.
                                                                      Year of       Dates of        Data Source (Specific Name if       Country Represented
            Citation                 PUBMED ID    Journal Name      Publication   Data/Records               Database)                     by Data Used
    Xue JL, Daniels F, Star RA,       16495381   J Am Soc Nephrol      2006       1992 – 2001     Medicare 5% Sample and a Related              US
 Kimmel PL, Eggers PW, Molitoris                                                                 Medicare Enrollment Denominator File
   BA, Himmelfarb J, Collins AJ.
  Incidence and mortality of acute
      renal failure in Medicare
 beneficiaries, 1992 to 2001. J Am
Soc Nephrol. 2006 Apr;17(4):1135-
                  42.
                                                                                                                                                         Diagnosis Codes


                                                              Algorithm (The Authors Have Listed ICD Codes as the
                                                              Algorithm, Which Indicate That All the Codes Listed by
                                                              Them Were Used for Patient Identification (Code A OR
                                                             Code B or Code C…)—i.e., Patients Were Identified by at
               Citation                    Data Type                Least One of the Codes Listed by Authors                   Diagnosis Coding Scheme
  Andrade SE, Graham DJ, Staffa             Claims                Acute renal failure: ICD-9-CM 584 and subcodes                         ICD-9
    JA, Schech SD, Shatin D, La
 Grenade L, Goodman MJ, Platt R,
 Gurwitz JH, Chan KA. Health plan
    administrative databases can
efficiently identify serious myopathy
     and rhabdomyolysis. J Clin
 Epidemiol. 2005 Feb;58(2):171-4.

  Bi P, Parton KA, Whitby M. Co-        National Database                584.9 Acute renal failure, unspecified                         ICD-9
 existing conditions for deaths from                                          585.9 Chronic renal failure
infectious and parasitic diseases in                                       586.9 Renal failure, unspecified
   Australia. Int J Infect Dis. 2004
           Mar;8(2):121-5.



Clarke P, Leal J, Kelman C, Smith            Claims         Renal failure: Any acute intercurrent illness (ICD-9 codes 250.3            ICD-9
M, Colagiuri S. Estimating the cost                         and ≥585 and ≤586) and death because of renal failure (ICD-9
  of complications of diabetes in                                               codes ≥580 and ≤593.9).
  Australia using administrative
 health-care data. Value Health.
  2008 Mar-Apr;11(2):199-206.




Clinard F, Sgro C, Bardou M, Hillon      Clinical Series           Case groups were defined by two senior medical                     WHOART
     P, Dumas M, Kreft-Jais C,                                 pharmacologists trained in Pharmacovigilance coding. All
  Escousse A, Bonithon-Kopp C.                                reports mentioning reports of acute renal failure (WHOART
 Association between concomitant                                         code 0618) were considered cases
 use of several systemic NSAIDs
and an excess risk of adverse drug
 reaction. A case/non-case study
          from the French
    Pharmacovigilance system
 database. Eur J Clin Pharmacol.
      2004 Jun;60(4):279-83.
                                                                                                                                                                     Diagnosis Codes


                                                                        Algorithm (The Authors Have Listed ICD Codes as the
                                                                        Algorithm, Which Indicate That All the Codes Listed by
                                                                        Them Were Used for Patient Identification (Code A OR
                                                                       Code B or Code C…)—i.e., Patients Were Identified by at
               Citation                         Data Type                     Least One of the Codes Listed by Authors                     Diagnosis Coding Scheme
  Andrade SE, Graham Mack CD,
  Endorf FW, Klein MB, DJ, Staffa                 Claims                                        Renal (584)                                         ICD-9
      Jurkovich GJ, Shatin D, La
    JA, Schech SD, Rivara FP.
 Grenade L, Goodman MJ, Platt R,
 Necrotizing soft-tissue infections:
 Gurwitz JH, Chan KA. Health plan
  differences in patients treated at
    administrative databases can
burn centers and non-burn centers.
efficiently identify serious myopathy
    J Burn Care Res. 2008 Nov-
     and rhabdomyolysis. J Clin
           Dec;29(6):933-8.
 Epidemiol. 2005 Feb;58(2):171-4.
  Fischer MJ, Brimhall BB, Parikh           Hospital Database            Patient hospital discharge records were first screened and           DRG and then ICD-9
  CR. Uncomplicated acute renal                                        selected by a diagnosis-related group (DRG) code of 316 that
failure and post-hospital care: a not                                  corresponds to the broad diagnosis of renal failure (RF). Then
   so uncomplicated illness. Am J                                      the patients were further selected using ICD-9-CM diagnostic
    Nephrol. 2008;28(3):523-30.                                           codes consistent with ARF included 584.5 (ARF/tubular
                                                                      necrosis), 584.6 (ARF/cortical necrosis), 584.7 (ARF/medullary
                                                                      necrosis), 584.8 (ARF/necrosis), and 584.9 (ARF/ not otherwise
                                                                                                 specified).


  García-Rodríguez LA, Massó-           Electronic Hospital Records      Acute renal failure: Hospitalization for abrupt onset of kidney             NR
   González EL, Wallander MA,                                          damage characterized by at least doubling of serum creatinine
    Johansson S. The safety of                                        levels to >laboratory ULN in patients with normal baseline renal
 rosuvastatin in comparison with                                        function or an increase to at least twice the laboratory ULN in
other statins in over 100,000 statin                                   patients with baseline renal insufficiency (defined as 1.5 times
     users in UK primary care.                                            ULN). Additional characteristics included active sediment,
  Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf.                                         azotaemia, and/or oliguria. Cases secondary to rhabdomyolysis
     2008 Oct;17(10):943-52.                                                               were evaluated separately
                                                                                                                                                                   Diagnosis Codes


                                                                        Algorithm (The Authors Have Listed ICD Codes as the
                                                                        Algorithm, Which Indicate That All the Codes Listed by
                                                                        Them Were Used for Patient Identification (Code A OR
                                                                       Code B or Code C…)—i.e., Patients Were Identified by at
               Citation                          Data Type                    Least One of the Codes Listed by Authors                   Diagnosis Coding Scheme
  Andrade UG, Clarke DJ, Staffa
Gerdtham SE, GrahamP, Hayes A,                    Registry            Renal failure, or dialysis ICD-10 code N18 or procedural codes             ICD-10
    JA, Schech SD, Estimating the
 Gudbjornsdottir S. Shatin D, La                                      V9211, V9212, V9223, V9531, V9532 and ICD-10 codes Z491
  cost of L, Goodman MJ, Platt R,
 Grenadediabetes mellitus-related                                                                  and Z492
 Gurwitz JH, Chan KA. Health plan
events from inpatient admissions in
    administrative databases can
    Sweden using administrative
efficiently identify serious myopathy
         hospitalization data.
     and rhabdomyolysis. J Clin
        Pharmacoeconomics.
 Epidemiol. 2005 Feb;58(2):171-4.
          2009;27(1):81-90.

 Heller JA, Weinberg A, Arons R,          Hospital Discharge Data                   Renal failure (584.9, 585, 403.91)                            ICD-9
Krishnasastry KV, Lyon RT, Deitch
JS, Schulick AH, Bush HL Jr, Kent
 KC. Two decades of abdominal
 aortic aneurysm repair: have we
made any progress? J Vasc Surg.
    2000 Dec;32(6):1091-100.

Hellman RN, Decker BS, Murray M.         Electronic Medical Record     For the purposes of this study, renal failure was defined as a             ICD-9
 Elevated serum creatinine and a                                        level of serum creatinine ≥2.0 mg/dL. Subsequent analysis
      normal urinalysis: a short                                      included acute and chronic renal failure diagnosis as identified
differential diagnosis in the etiology                                                        by ICD-9 codes.
      of renal failure. Ren Fail.
         2006;28(5):389-94.




   Kern EF, Maney M, Miller DR,          Hospital Database + Claims                       Chronic renal failure                                   ICD-9
Tseng CL, Tiwari A, Rajan M, Aron                                     403.11, 403.91, 404.12, 404.13, 404.92, 404.93, 585, 586, 587
 D, Pogach L. Failure of ICD-9-CM
   codes to identify patients with                                                    Acute renal failure and disease
comorbid chronic kidney disease in                                    403.00, 403.01, 404.00, 404.01, 404.02, 404.03, 405.01, 453.3,
 diabetes. Health Serv Res. 2006                                            580, 584, 590.1, 590.2, 590.3, 590.8, 593.81, 866
        Apr;41(2):564-80.
                                                                                                                                                              Diagnosis Codes


                                                                    Algorithm (The Authors Have Listed ICD Codes as the
                                                                    Algorithm, Which Indicate That All the Codes Listed by
                                                                    Them Were Used for Patient Identification (Code A OR
                                                                   Code B or Code C…)—i.e., Patients Were Identified by at
               Citation                       Data Type                   Least One of the Codes Listed by Authors                  Diagnosis Coding Scheme
  Li B, Evans Graham DJ, Staffa
  Andrade SE,D, Faris P, Dean S,        Hospital Discharge Data                        Chronic renal failure                            ICD-9 and ICD-10
      Quan H. Risk Shatin D, La
    JA, Schech SD, adjustment                                                             ICD-10: N18
 Grenade L, Goodman MJ, Platt R,
    performance of Charlson and                                                            ICD-9: 585
 Elixhauser Chan KA. Health plan
 Gurwitz JH,comorbidities in ICD-9
      and ICD-10 databases can
    administrativeadministrative
efficiently identify serious myopathy
              databases.
     and rhabdomyolysis. J Clin
 BMC Health Serv Res. 2008 Jan
 Epidemiol. 2005 Feb;58(2):171-4.
               14;8:12.
   Li SQ, Cunningham J, Cass A.                Registry           Renal causes were defined as including diseases of the kidney             ICD-10
 Renal-related deaths in Australia                                  and ureter (ICD-10 codes N00–N29), diabetic renal disease
   1997-1999. Intern Med J. 2004                                   (E10.2, E11.2, E13.2 and E14.2), hypertensive renal disease
          May;34(5):259-65.                                       (I12, I13, I15.0 and I15.1) and congenital malformations of the
                                                                     kidney and ureter (Q60–Q63). Renal causes were further
                                                                      subdivided into ‘renal failure’ and ‘other renal disease’:
                                                                                             Renal failure:
                                                                       Diabetic renal failure E10.23, E11.23, E13.23, E14.23
                                                                            Hypertensive renal failure I12.0, I13.1, I13.2
                                                                                       Acute renal failure N17
                                                                                      Chronic renal failure N18
                                                                                    Unspecified renal failure N19

                                                                                       Other renal disease:
                                                                   Diabetic renal disease E10.2, E11.2, E13.2, E14.2 (excluding
                                                                               E10.23, E11.23, E13.23 and E14.23)
                                                                    Hypertensive renal disease I12.9, I13.0, I13.9, I15.0, I15.1
                                                                   Other diseases of the kidney and ureter N00–N16, N20–N29
                                                                    Congenital malformation of the kidney and ureter Q60–Q63




  Liangos O, Wald R, O'Bell JW,                 Survey            ARF was defined by the presence of any of the following ICD-9-             ICD-9
   Price L, Pereira BJ, Jaber BL.                                    CM codes: 584.0 (ARF, unspecified), 584.5 (acute tubular
  Epidemiology and outcomes of                                     necrosis), 584.6 (cortical ARF), 584.7 (medullary ARF), 584.8
 acute renal failure in hospitalized                               (ARF with other specified pathologic lesion), and 584.9 (ARF
    patients: a national survey.                                                      not otherwise specified).
   Clin J Am Soc Nephrol. 2006
          Jan;1(1):43-51.
                                                                                                                                                                        Diagnosis Codes


                                                                           Algorithm (The Authors Have Listed ICD Codes as the
                                                                           Algorithm, Which Indicate That All the Codes Listed by
                                                                           Them Were Used for Patient Identification (Code A OR
                                                                          Code B or Code C…)—i.e., Patients Were Identified by at
               Citation                          Data Type                       Least One of the Codes Listed by Authors                     Diagnosis Coding Scheme
  Andrade MR, Hashemzadeh M,
  MovahedSE, Graham DJ, Staffa               Hospital Database           Acute renal failure (584.5, 584.6, 584.7, 584.8, 684.9), chronic              ICD-9
     JA, MM. Significant increase
 Jamal Schech SD, Shatin D, La in                                                             renal failure (585, 586)
 Grenade L, Goodman MJ, Platt R,
  the prevalence of non-rheumatic
 Gurwitz JH, Chan KA. Health with
aortic valve disease in patientsplan
    administrative databases can
       type 2 diabetes mellitus.
efficiently identify serious myopathy
Exp Clin Endocrinol Diabetes. 2007
      and rhabdomyolysis. J Clin
          Feb;115(2):105-7.
 Epidemiol. 2005 Feb;58(2):171-4.
   Moyneur E, Bookhart BK, Mody                    Claims                 The inclusion criteria were at least 2 medical claims carrying a             ICD-9
  SH, Fournier AA, Mallett D, Duh                                        diagnosis code for CKD (ICD-9: 585, 586, 588, 250.4, 403, 404)
 MS. The economic impact of pre-                                          in a 3-month period and at least 1 dialysis claim, with the first
   dialysis epoetin alpha on health                                               one at least 60 days after the first CKD claim.
care and work loss costs in chronic
    kidney disease: an employer's
    perspective. Dis Manag. 2008
           Feb;11(1):49-58.
 O'Connor AB, Lang VJ, Lurie SJ,        Hospital Databases (Clinical +                       584—Acute renal failure                                   ICD-9
Lambert DR, Rudmann A, Robbins                     Billing)
     B, Bordley DR. The effect of
     nonteaching services on the
  distribution of inpatient cases for
 internal medicine residents. Acad
     Med. 2009 Feb;84(2):220-5.

     Powell H, Lim LL, Heller                Hospital Database                                 Renal disease                                           ICD-9
RF.Accuracy of administrative data                                                    582—Chronic Glomerulonephritis
 to assess comorbidity in patients                                       583—Nephritis & nephropathy not specified as acute or chronic
 with heart disease. an Australian                                                         584—Acute renal failure
perspective. J Clin Epidemiol. 2001                                                       585—Chronic renal failure
         Jul;54(7):687-93.                                                             586—Renal failure unspecified
                                                                                      587—Renal sclerosis, unspecified
                                                                             588—Disorders relating from impaired renal function
                                                                                   589—Small kidney of unknown cause
                                                                                          590—Infections of kidney
                                                                                                                                                                           Diagnosis Codes


                                                                              Algorithm (The Authors Have Listed ICD Codes as the
                                                                              Algorithm, Which Indicate That All the Codes Listed by
                                                                              Them Were Used for Patient Identification (Code A OR
                                                                             Code B or Code C…)—i.e., Patients Were Identified by at
               Citation                            Data Type                        Least One of the Codes Listed by Authors                     Diagnosis Coding Scheme
  Andrade SE, Graham DJ, Staffa
Quan H, Sundararajan V, Halfon P,       Hospital Database (Administrative   Renal disease was defined using original ICD-9-CM algorithm,          ICD-9-CM, ICD-10, and
    JA, Schech SD, B, Luthi La
    Fong A, BurnandShatin D,JC,            Hospital Discharge Data)           enhanced ICD-9-CM algorithm, and new ICD-10 coding                   Enhanced ICD-9-CM
  Saunders Goodman MJ, Platt R,
 Grenade L, LD, Beck CA, Feasby                                               algorithm, respectively. The comorbidity frequencies and
 Gurwitz JH, Chan KA. Health plan
 TE, Ghali WA.Coding algorithms                                                mortality prediction achieved by these algorithms were
    defining comorbidities in can
for administrative databases ICD-9-                                                                   assessed.
efficiently identify serious myopathy
   CM and ICD-10 administrative
     and rhabdomyolysis. J Clin
        data. Med Care. 2005                                                    Deyo’s ICD-9-CM: 582.x, 583–583.7, 585.x, 586.x, 588.x
 Epidemiol. 2005 Feb;58(2):171-4.
         Nov;43(11):1130-9.                                                 ICD-10: I12.0, I13.1, N03.2–N03.7, N05.2–N05.7, N18.x, N19.x,
                                                                                             N25.0, Z49.0–Z49.2, Z94.0, Z99.2
                                                                             Enhanced ICD-9-CM: 403.01, 403.11, 403.91, 404.02, 404.03,
                                                                               404.12, 404.13, 404.92, 404.93, 582.x, 583.0–583.7, 585.x,
                                                                                             586.x, 588.0, V42.0, V45.1, V56.x
Robbins JD, Kim JJ, Zdon G, Chan                     Claims                   To identify eligible CKD patients in the claims database, new               ICD-9
 WW, Jones J. Resource use and                                              patients initiated on dialysis therapy, were selected using ICD-9-
patient care associated with chronic                                           CM procedure codes (39.95, 54.98), ICD-9-CM diagnostic
 kidney disease in a managed care                                               codes (996.56, 996.68, V45.1, V56, V56.1, V56.2, V56.0,
setting. J Manag Care Pharm. 2003                                             V56.31, V56.32, V56.8), CPT (90921, 90925, 90935, 90937,
        May-Jun;9(3):238-47.                                                    90940, 90945, 90947, 90997, 90999), and HCPCS codes
                                                                             (A4690, A4820, A4900, A4901, A4905, E1510, E1590, E1592,
                                                                                  E1594, E1632, E1635) indicative of dialysis therapy.

  So L, Evans D, Quan H. ICD-10           Hospital Discharge Database                             Acute Renal Failure                                ICD-9 and ICD-10
   coding algorithms for defining                                                              ICD-9: 584.x, 586.x, 788.5
 comorbidities of acute myocardial                                                            ICD-10: N17.x, N19.x, R34.x
 infarction. BMC Health Serv Res.
         2006 Dec 15;6:161                                                                      Chronic Renal Failure
                                                                                        ICD-9: 585.x, 403.x, 404.x, 996.7, v451
                                                                                          ICD-10: N18.x, T82.4, Z49.2, Z99.2
                                                                                                                                                                    Diagnosis Codes


                                                                        Algorithm (The Authors Have Listed ICD Codes as the
                                                                        Algorithm, Which Indicate That All the Codes Listed by
                                                                        Them Were Used for Patient Identification (Code A OR
                                                                       Code B or Code C…)—i.e., Patients Were Identified by at
               Citation                         Data Type                     Least One of the Codes Listed by Authors                    Diagnosis Coding Scheme
  Andrade SE, Graham DJ, Staffa
 Stevens LA, Fares G, Fleming J,            Administrative Data            Acute renal failure; chronic renal failure; renal failure               ICD-9
    JA, Schech SD, Shatin D, La
  Martin D, Murthy K, Qiu J, Stark                                    (unspecified); renal sclerosis (unspecified); disorder resulting
 PC, Uhlig Goodman MJ, Levey
 Grenade L,K, Van Lente F,Platt R,                                     from impaired renal function, hematuria, renal agenesis, and
     AS. Low Chan KA. Health plan
 Gurwitz JH, rates of testing and                                     dysgenesis; proteinuria; abnormal kidney function test; urinary
    administrative databasesin a
     diagnostic codes usage can                                             complications 584–588, 599.7, 791.0, 794.4, 997.5
efficiently identify serious myopathy
   commercial clinical laboratory:
     and rhabdomyolysis. J Clin
    evidence for lack of physician
    awareness of Feb;58(2):171-4.
 Epidemiol. 2005 chronic kidney
 disease. J Am Soc Nephrol. 2005
         Aug;16(8):2439-48.




 Vermeulen MJ, Tu JV, Schull MJ.        Hospital Discharge Database                         Acute renal failure                               ICD-9 and ICD-10
ICD-10 adaptations of the Ontario                                               ICD-9 revision code: 584.x, 586.x, 788.5
    acute myocardial infarction                                             ICD-10 revision coded (Canada): N17.x, N19, R34
mortality prediction rules performed
  as well as the original versions.                                    Chronic renal failure ICD-9 revision code: 585.x, 403.x, 404.x,
      J Clin Epidemiol. 2007                                                                    996.7, V451
          Sep;60(9):971-4.                                            ICD-10 revision coded (Canada): I12, I13, N18.x, T82.4, Z99.2


Waikar SS, Wald R, Chertow GM,                   Registry             Authors identified patients with administrative codes for ARF by             ICD-9
 Curhan GC, Winkelmayer WC,                                           the presence of ICD-9-CM codes 584.5, 584.6, 584.7, 584.8, or
 Liangos O, Sosa MA, Jaber BL.                                                      584.9 in any of the listed diagnoses.
     Validity of International
Classification of Diseases, Ninth                                      ARF-D was identified by the additional presence of any of the
  Revision, Clinical Modification                                      following ICD-9-CM codes for hemodialysis: Procedure code
Codes for Acute Renal Failure. J                                       39.95 (hemodialysis) or diagnosis codes V45.1 (renal dialysis
     Am Soc Nephrol. 2006                                               status), V56.0 (extracorporeal dialysis), or V56.1 (fitting and
       Jun;17(6):1688-94.                                                             adjustment of dialysis catheter).
                                                                                                                                                  Diagnosis Codes


                                                      Algorithm (The Authors Have Listed ICD Codes as the
                                                      Algorithm, Which Indicate That All the Codes Listed by
                                                      Them Were Used for Patient Identification (Code A OR
                                                     Code B or Code C…)—i.e., Patients Were Identified by at
               Citation                 Data Type           Least One of the Codes Listed by Authors                    Diagnosis Coding Scheme
  Andrade SE, Graham DJ, Staffa
 Winkelmayer WC, Schneeweiss S,          Claims     The following diagnosis groups were identified from all medical              ICD-9
    JA, Schech SD, AR, Avorn J,
   Mogun H, PatrickShatin D, La                        claims using ICD-9 codes from all healthcare encounters
 Grenade L, Goodman MJ, Platt R,
    Solomon DH. Identification of                      (Medicare Part A and Part B; i.e., inpatient and outpatient
 Gurwitz JH, Chan KA. Health plan
individuals with CKD from Medicare                     claims) within 12 months before admission: chronic renal
    administrative databases can
   claims data: a validation study.                  insufficiency (CRI), diabetic nephropathy (DN), hypertensive
efficiently identify serious myopathy
       Am J Kidney Dis. 2005                              nephropathy (HypN), acute renal failure (ARF), and
     and rhabdomyolysis. J Clin
          Aug;46(2):225-32.                                    miscellaneous other renal disease (MISC).
 Epidemiol. 2005 Feb;58(2):171-4.
                                                                      CRI: 582, 583, 585, 586, 587
                                                               DN: 250.4, 250.40, 250.41, 250.42, 250.43
                                                                          HypN: 403.xx, 404.xx
                                                    ARF: 572.4, 580.xx, 584.xx, 580.0, 580.4, 580.89, 580.9, 582.4,
                                                                               791.2, 791.3
                                                       MISC: 274.10, 440.1, 442.1, 453.3, 581.xx, 593.xx, 753.0,
                                                                      753.3, 866.00 866.01, 866.1
 Wu CL, Anderson GF, Herbert R,          Claims      All patients covered by Medicare (aged 65 years and younger                 ICD-9
 Lietman SA, Fleisher LA. Effect of                  patients on renal dialysis or who are disabled) living in any of
postoperative epidural analgesia on                    the 50 states or the District of Columbia with both parts A
  morbidity and mortality after total                   (hospital) and B (physician) coverage were eligible to be
     hip replacement surgery in                                           included in the study.
   medicare patients. Reg Anesth
Pain Med. 2003 Jul-Aug;28(4):271-                                 Acute renal failure: 584.X or 586.X
                 8.

 Wu CL, Sapirstein A, Herbert R,         Claims     All patients covered by Medicare (aged ≥65 years and younger                 ICD-9
   Rowlingson AJ, Michaels RK,                        patients undergoing renal dialysis or who are disabled) and
Petrovic MA, Fleisher LA. Effect of                  living in any of the 50 states or the District of Columbia, with
postoperative epidural analgesia on                      both Medicare Part A (hospital) and Part B (physician)
 morbidity and mortality after lung                               coverage, were eligible for the study.
 resection in Medicare patients. J
 Clin Anesth. 2006 Nov;18(7):515-                                 Acute renal failure, 584.X or 586.X
                20.
                                                                                                                                               Diagnosis Codes


                                                     Algorithm (The Authors Have Listed ICD Codes as the
                                                     Algorithm, Which Indicate That All the Codes Listed by
                                                     Them Were Used for Patient Identification (Code A OR
                                                    Code B or Code C…)—i.e., Patients Were Identified by at
                Citation                Data Type          Least One of the Codes Listed by Authors                  Diagnosis Coding Scheme
     Xue JL, Daniels F, DJ, Staffa
  Andrade SE, GrahamStar RA,             Claims        ARF was determined on the basis of ICD-9-CM diagnosis                  ICD-9
    JA, Schech SD, Shatin D, La
 Kimmel PL, Eggers PW, Molitoris                    codes, coded as either the principal or a secondary diagnosis.
 Grenade L, Goodman MJ, Platt R,
    BA, Himmelfarb J, Collins AJ.                   In the ICD-9-CM, ARF is defined as “the sudden, severe onset
 Gurwitz JH,and mortality of acute
  Incidence Chan KA. Health plan                     of inadequate kidney function.” Five subcodes (584.5, 584.6,
    administrative databases can
       renal failure in Medicare                     584.7, 584.8, and 584.9) under a main code (584) are used to
efficiently identify serious myopathy
 beneficiaries, 1992 to 2001. J Am                                         designate ARF.
Soc and rhabdomyolysis. J Clin
      Nephrol. 2006 Apr;17(4):1135-
 Epidemiol. 2005 Feb;58(2):171-4.
                   42.
                                                                                                                                          Definition of Outcome
                                        Diagnosis Codes                                                                Procedure Codes                                   Laboratory Codes




                                                                                             Type of Procedure Codes
               Citation                                Diagnosis Codes                           Used (ICD, CPT)                   Procedure Codes                Laboratory Tests
  Andrade SE, Graham DJ, Staffa               584 and subcodes Acute renal failure                      NR                               NR                             NR
    JA, Schech SD, Shatin D, La
 Grenade L, Goodman MJ, Platt R,
 Gurwitz JH, Chan KA. Health plan
    administrative databases can
efficiently identify serious myopathy
     and rhabdomyolysis. J Clin
 Epidemiol. 2005 Feb;58(2):171-4.

  Bi P, Parton KA, Whitby M. Co-              584.9 Acute renal failure, unspecified                   NR                                NR                             NR
 existing conditions for deaths from               585.9 Chronic renal failure
infectious and parasitic diseases in            586.9 Renal failure, unspecified
   Australia. Int J Infect Dis. 2004
           Mar;8(2):121-5.



Clarke P, Leal J, Kelman C, Smith       250.3 and ≥585 and ≤586 Acute intercurrent illness             NR                                NR                             NR
M, Colagiuri S. Estimating the cost      ≥580 and ≤593.9 Death because of renal failure
  of complications of diabetes in
  Australia using administrative
 health-care data. Value Health.
  2008 Mar-Apr;11(2):199-206.




Clinard F, Sgro C, Bardou M, Hillon                   WHOART code 0618                                 NR                                NR                             NR
     P, Dumas M, Kreft-Jais C,
  Escousse A, Bonithon-Kopp C.
 Association between concomitant
 use of several systemic NSAIDs
and an excess risk of adverse drug
 reaction. A case/non-case study
          from the French
    Pharmacovigilance system
 database. Eur J Clin Pharmacol.
      2004 Jun;60(4):279-83.
                                                                                                                                          Definition of Outcome
                                        Diagnosis Codes                                                           Procedure Codes                                               Laboratory Codes




                                                                                        Type of Procedure Codes
               Citation                                Diagnosis Codes                      Used (ICD, CPT)                      Procedure Codes                       Laboratory Tests
  Andrade SE, Graham Mack CD,
  Endorf FW, Klein MB, DJ, Staffa                             584                                 NR                                     NR                                    NR
      Jurkovich GJ, Shatin D, La
    JA, Schech SD, Rivara FP.
 Grenade L, Goodman MJ, Platt R,
 Necrotizing soft-tissue infections:
 Gurwitz JH, Chan KA. Health plan
  differences in patients treated at
    administrative databases can
burn centers and non-burn centers.
efficiently identify serious myopathy
    J Burn Care Res. 2008 Nov-
     and rhabdomyolysis. J Clin
           Dec;29(6):933-8.
 Epidemiol. 2005 Feb;58(2):171-4.
  Fischer MJ, Brimhall BB, Parikh            Diagnosis-related group (DRG) code:                 ICD-9               Patients with mechanical ventilation (96.70,              NR
  CR. Uncomplicated acute renal             316 Broad diagnosis of renal failure (RF)                                96.71, 96.72)—indicating complicated ARF
failure and post-hospital care: a not                                                                                         were excluded from study
   so uncomplicated illness. Am J                           ICD-9
    Nephrol. 2008;28(3):523-30.                   584.5 ARF/tubular necrosis
                                                  584.6 ARF/cortical necrosis
                                                 584.7 ARF/medullary necrosis
                                                      584.8 ARF/necrosis
                                               584.9 ARF/not otherwise specified

  García-Rodríguez LA, Massó-                                 NR                                  NR                                     NR                             At least doubling of
   González EL, Wallander MA,                                                                                                                                         serum creatinine levels
    Johansson S. The safety of                                                                                                                                         to >laboratory ULN in
 rosuvastatin in comparison with                                                                                                                                        patients with normal
other statins in over 100,000 statin                                                                                                                                  baseline renal function
     users in UK primary care.                                                                                                                                      or an increase to at least
  Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf.                                                                                                                                       twice the laboratory ULN
     2008 Oct;17(10):943-52.                                                                                                                                         in patients with baseline
                                                                                                                                                                         renal insufficiency
                                                                                                                                                                       (defined as 1.5 times
                                                                                                                                                                          ULN). Additional
                                                                                                                                                                     characteristics included
                                                                                                                                                                          active sediment,
                                                                                                                                                                         azotaemia, and/or
                                                                                                                                                                               oliguria.
                                                                                                                                                Definition of Outcome
                                         Diagnosis Codes                                                                  Procedure Codes                                         Laboratory Codes




                                                                                              Type of Procedure Codes
               Citation                                Diagnosis Codes                            Used (ICD, CPT)                      Procedure Codes                    Laboratory Tests
  Andrade UG, Clarke DJ, Staffa
Gerdtham SE, GrahamP, Hayes A,                                N18                                     ICD-10                   V9211, V9212, V9223, V9531, V9532                 NR
    JA, Schech SD, Estimating the
 Gudbjornsdottir S. Shatin D, La
  cost of L, Goodman MJ, Platt R,
 Grenadediabetes mellitus-related
 Gurwitz JH, Chan KA. Health plan
events from inpatient admissions in
    administrative databases can
    Sweden using administrative
efficiently identify serious myopathy
         hospitalization data.
     and rhabdomyolysis. J Clin
        Pharmacoeconomics.
 Epidemiol. 2005 Feb;58(2):171-4.
          2009;27(1):81-90.

 Heller JA, Weinberg A, Arons R,                 584.9, 585, 403.91 Renal failure                       NR                                    NR                                 NR
Krishnasastry KV, Lyon RT, Deitch
JS, Schulick AH, Bush HL Jr, Kent
 KC. Two decades of abdominal
 aortic aneurysm repair: have we
made any progress? J Vasc Surg.
    2000 Dec;32(6):1091-100.

Hellman RN, Decker BS, Murray M.                               NR                                       NR                                    NR                          Urinalysis, serum
 Elevated serum creatinine and a                                                                                                                                              creatinine
      normal urinalysis: a short
differential diagnosis in the etiology
      of renal failure. Ren Fail.
         2006;28(5):389-94.




   Kern EF, Maney M, Miller DR,     403.11, 403.91, 404.12, 404.13, 404.92, 404.93, 585,     CPT + Revenue Center codes     CPT : 90935, 90937, 90945, 90947, 90989,    Serum creatinine tests
Tseng CL, Tiwari A, Rajan M, Aron               586, 587 Chronic renal failure                 [For excluding dialysis]               90993, 90921, 90925
 D, Pogach L. Failure of ICD-9-CM                                                                                           Revenue Center codes: 821, 831, 841, 851,
   codes to identify patients with 403.00, 403.01, 404.00, 404.01, 404.02, 404.03, 405.01,                                            801, 802, 803 or 804
comorbid chronic kidney disease in 453.3, 580, 584, 590.1, 590.2, 590.3, 590.8, 593.81 866
 diabetes. Health Serv Res. 2006               Acute renal failure and disease
        Apr;41(2):564-80.
                                                                                                                                                      Definition of Outcome
                                        Diagnosis Codes                                                                       Procedure Codes                                           Laboratory Codes




                                                                                                 Type of Procedure Codes
               Citation                                  Diagnosis Codes                             Used (ICD, CPT)                         Procedure Codes                     Laboratory Tests
  Li B, Evans Graham DJ, Staffa
  Andrade SE,D, Faris P, Dean S,                             ICD-9: 585                          Canadian Classification of                         NR                                 NR
      Quan H. Risk Shatin D, La
    JA, Schech SD, adjustment                                                                    Health Interventions (CCI)
 Grenade L, Goodman MJ, Platt R,
    performance of Charlson and                             ICD-10: N18
 Elixhauser Chan KA. Health plan
 Gurwitz JH,comorbidities in ICD-9
      and ICD-10 databases can
    administrativeadministrative
efficiently identify serious myopathy
              databases.
     and rhabdomyolysis. J Clin
 BMC Health Serv Res. 2008 Jan
 Epidemiol. 2005 Feb;58(2):171-4.
               14;8:12.
   Li SQ, Cunningham J, Cass A.              N00–N29 Diseases of the kidney and ureter                      NR                                      NR                                 NR
 Renal-related deaths in Australia      E10.2, E11.2, E13.2 and E14.2 Diabetic renal disease
   1997-1999. Intern Med J. 2004         I12, I13, I15.0 and I15.1 Hypertensive renal disease
          May;34(5):259-65.             Q60–Q63 Congenital malformations of the kidney and
                                                                 ureter

                                                            Renal failure:
                                        E10.23, E11.23, E13.23, E14.23 Diabetic renal failure
                                            I12.0, I13.1, I13.2 Hypertensive renal failure
                                                       N17 Acute renal failure
                                                      N18 Chronic renal failure
                                                    N19 Unspecified renal failure

                                                          Other renal disease:
                                        E10.2, E11.2, E13.2, E14.2 (excluding E10.23, E11.23,
                                             E13.23 and E14.23) Diabetic renal disease
                                          I12.9, I13.0, I13.9, I15.0, I15.1 Hypertensive renal
                                                                 disease
                                        N00–N16, N20–N29 Other diseases of the kidney and
                                                                  ureter
                                         Q60–Q63 Congenital malformation of the kidney and
                                                                  ureter

  Liangos O, Wald R, O'Bell JW,                       584.0 ARF, unspecified                               ICD-9               Requirement for acute dialysis: 39.95 or 54.98.         NR
   Price L, Pereira BJ, Jaber BL.                  584.5 Acute tubular necrosis
  Epidemiology and outcomes of                          584.6 Cortical ARF
 acute renal failure in hospitalized                   584.7 Medullary ARF
    patients: a national survey.           584.8 ARF with other specified pathologic lesion
   Clin J Am Soc Nephrol. 2006                   584.9 ARF not otherwise specified
          Jan;1(1):43-51.
                                                                                                                                               Definition of Outcome
                                        Diagnosis Codes                                                                     Procedure Codes                                   Laboratory Codes




                                                                                                Type of Procedure Codes
               Citation                                  Diagnosis Codes                            Used (ICD, CPT)                     Procedure Codes                Laboratory Tests
  Andrade MR, Hashemzadeh M,
  MovahedSE, Graham DJ, Staffa          584.5, 584.6, 584.7, 584.8, 684.9 Acute renal failure              NR                                 NR                             NR
     JA, MM. Significant increase
 Jamal Schech SD, Shatin D, La in
 Grenade L, Goodman MJ, Platt R,
  the prevalence of non-rheumatic                  585, 586 Chronic renal failure
 Gurwitz JH, Chan KA. Health with
aortic valve disease in patientsplan
    administrative databases can
       type 2 diabetes mellitus.
efficiently identify serious myopathy
Exp Clin Endocrinol Diabetes. 2007
      and rhabdomyolysis. J Clin
          Feb;115(2):105-7.
 Epidemiol. 2005 Feb;58(2):171-4.
   Moyneur E, Bookhart BK, Mody                    585, 586, 588, 250.4, 403, 404                   Current Procedural                        NR                             NR
  SH, Fournier AA, Mallett D, Duh                                                                Terminology (CPT) codes,
 MS. The economic impact of pre-                                                                   Healthcare Common
   dialysis epoetin alpha on health                                                              Procedure Coding System
care and work loss costs in chronic                                                             (HCPCS) codes, and ICD-9
    kidney disease: an employer's                                                                    procedure codes
    perspective. Dis Manag. 2008
           Feb;11(1):49-58.
 O'Connor AB, Lang VJ, Lurie SJ,                       584 Acute renal failure                             NR                                 NR                             NR
Lambert DR, Rudmann A, Robbins
     B, Bordley DR. The effect of
     nonteaching services on the
  distribution of inpatient cases for
 internal medicine residents. Acad
     Med. 2009 Feb;84(2):220-5.

     Powell H, Lim LL, Heller                               Renal disease                                  NR                                 NR                             NR
RF.Accuracy of administrative data                582 Chronic Glomerulonephritis
 to assess comorbidity in patients      583 Nephritis & nephropathy not specified as acute or
 with heart disease. an Australian                             chronic
perspective. J Clin Epidemiol. 2001                    584 Acute renal failure
         Jul;54(7):687-93.                            585 Chronic renal failure
                                                    586 Renal failure unspecified
                                                 587 Renal sclerosis, unspecified
                                         588 Disorders relating from impaired renal function
                                                589 Small kidney of unknown cause
                                                       590 Infections of kidney
                                                                                                                                                 Definition of Outcome
                                       Diagnosis Codes                                                                     Procedure Codes                                      Laboratory Codes




                                                                                                 Type of Procedure Codes
               Citation                                 Diagnosis Codes                              Used (ICD, CPT)                     Procedure Codes                 Laboratory Tests
  Andrade SE, Graham DJ, Staffa
Quan H, Sundararajan V, Halfon P,                              ICD-9:                                      NR                                   NR                             NR
    Fong A, BurnandShatin D,JC,
    JA, Schech SD, B, Luthi La             582.x, 583–583.7, 585.x, 586.x, 588.x Deyo’s
  Saunders Goodman MJ, Platt R,
 Grenade L, LD, Beck CA, Feasby
 Gurwitz JH, Chan KA. Health plan ICD-10: I12.0, I13.1, N03.2–N03.7, N05.2–N05.7, N18.x,
 TE, Ghali WA.Coding algorithms
for administrative databases ICD-9-
    defining comorbidities in can        N19.x, N25.0, Z49.0–Z49.2, Z94.0, Z99.2 Deyo’s
efficiently identify serious myopathy
   CM and ICD-10 administrative
     and rhabdomyolysis. J Clin
        data. Med Care. 2005                           Enhanced ICD-9-CM:
 Epidemiol. 2005 Feb;58(2):171-4. 403.01, 403.11, 403.91, 404.02, 404.03, 404.12, 404.13,
         Nov;43(11):1130-9.
                                      404.92, 404.93, 582.x, 583.0–583.7, 585.x, 586.x, 588.0,
                                                    V42.0, V45.1, V56.x Deyo’s


Robbins JD, Kim JJ, Zdon G, Chan         996.56, 996.68, V45.1, V56, V56.1, V56.2, V56.0,          ICD-9, CPT, HCPCS                  ICD-9-CM: (39.95, 54.98)                 NR
 WW, Jones J. Resource use and                        V56.31, V56.32, V56.8
patient care associated with chronic                                                                                          CPT: (90921, 90925, 90935, 90937, 90940,
 kidney disease in a managed care                                                                                                   90945, 90947, 90997, 90999),
setting. J Manag Care Pharm. 2003
        May-Jun;9(3):238-47.                                                                                                HCPCS: (A4690, A4820, A4900, A4901, A4905,
                                                                                                                             E1510, E1590, E1592, E1594, E1632, E1635)


  So L, Evans D, Quan H. ICD-10                                ICD-9:                                   CCP, CCI                                NR                             NR
   coding algorithms for defining              584.x, 586.x, 788.5 Acute Renal Failure
 comorbidities of acute myocardial     585.x, 403.x, 404.x, 996.7, v451 Chronic Renal Failure
 infarction. BMC Health Serv Res.
         2006 Dec 15;6:161                                   ICD-10:
                                            N17.x, N19.x, R34.x Acute Renal Failure
                                         N18.x, T82.4, Z49.2, Z99.2 Chronic Renal Failure
                                                                                                                                                   Definition of Outcome
                                        Diagnosis Codes                                                                    Procedure Codes                                            Laboratory Codes




                                                                                                 Type of Procedure Codes
               Citation                                  Diagnosis Codes                             Used (ICD, CPT)                      Procedure Codes                      Laboratory Tests
  Andrade SE, Graham DJ, Staffa
 Stevens LA, Fares G, Fleming J,                584–588, 599.7, 791.0, 794.4, 997.5                       ICD-9               Dialysis, complications peculiar to dialysis Serum creatinine assay,
    JA, Schech SD, Shatin D, La
  Martin D, Murthy K, Qiu J, Stark                                                                                            procedures, postprocedural renal dialysis,       Beckman Rate
 PC, Uhlig Goodman MJ, Levey
 Grenade L,K, Van Lente F,Platt R,                                                                                                accidents occurring during dialysis       Jaffe`/CX3 Synchron
     AS. Low Chan KA. Health plan
 Gurwitz JH, rates of testing and                                                                                            V56, 996.1, 996.56, 996.62, 996.68, 996.73,            assay
     diagnostic codes usage can
    administrative databasesin a                                                                                            V45.1, E870.2, E871.2, E872.2, E874.2, E879.1
efficiently identify serious myopathy
   commercial clinical laboratory:
     and rhabdomyolysis. J Clin
    evidence for lack of physician                                                                                          Kidney transplant, complication of transplanted
    awareness of Feb;58(2):171-4.
 Epidemiol. 2005 chronic kidney                                                                                               kidney, abnormal reaction of patient during
 disease. J Am Soc Nephrol. 2005                                                                                                       transplantation of kidney
         Aug;16(8):2439-48.                                                                                                             V42.0, 996.81, E 978.0




 Vermeulen MJ, Tu JV, Schull MJ.                         ICD-9 revised code:                               NR                                     NR                                 NR
ICD-10 adaptations of the Ontario               584.x, 586.x, 788.5 Acute renal failure
    acute myocardial infarction         585.x, 403.x, 404.x, 996.7, V451 Chronic renal failure
mortality prediction rules performed
  as well as the original versions.               ICD-10 revision coded (Canada):
      J Clin Epidemiol. 2007                     N17.x, N19, R34 Acute renal failure
          Sep;60(9):971-4.               I12, I13, N18.x, T82.4, Z99.2 Chronic renal failure


Waikar SS, Wald R, Chertow GM,                  584.5, 584.6, 584.7, 584.8, or 584.9                      ICD-9             39.95 (hemodialysis) or diagnosis codes V45.1            NR
 Curhan GC, Winkelmayer WC,                                                                                                  (renal dialysis status), V56.0 (extracorporeal
 Liangos O, Sosa MA, Jaber BL.                                                                                                dialysis), or V56.1 (fitting and adjustment of
     Validity of International                                                                                                               dialysis catheter)
Classification of Diseases, Ninth
  Revision, Clinical Modification
Codes for Acute Renal Failure. J
     Am Soc Nephrol. 2006
       Jun;17(6):1688-94.
                                                                                                                                                Definition of Outcome
                                        Diagnosis Codes                                                                      Procedure Codes                                   Laboratory Codes




                                                                                                   Type of Procedure Codes
               Citation                                  Diagnosis Codes                               Used (ICD, CPT)                   Procedure Codes                Laboratory Tests
  Andrade SE, Graham DJ, Staffa
 Winkelmayer WC, Schneeweiss S,                     582, 583, 585, 586, 587 CRI                              NR                                NR                       Serum creatinine
    JA, Schech SD, AR, Avorn J,
   Mogun H, PatrickShatin D, La              250.4, 250.40, 250.41, 250.42, 250.43 DN
 Grenade L, Goodman MJ, Platt R,
    Solomon DH. Identification of                       403.xx, 404.xx HypN
 Gurwitz JH, Chan KA. Health plan
individuals with CKD from Medicare 572.4, 580.xx, 584.xx, 580.0, 580.4, 580.89, 580.9, 582.4,
    administrative databases can
   claims data: a validation study.                      791.2, 791.3 ARF
efficiently identify serious myopathy 274.10, 440.1, 442.1, 453.3, 581.xx, 593.xx, 753.0, 753.3,
       Am J Kidney Dis. 2005
     and rhabdomyolysis. J Clin
          Aug;46(2):225-32.                          866.00 866.01, 866.1 MISC
 Epidemiol. 2005 Feb;58(2):171-4.




 Wu CL, Anderson GF, Herbert R,                  584.X or 586.X Acute renal failure                          NR                                NR                             NR
 Lietman SA, Fleisher LA. Effect of
postoperative epidural analgesia on
  morbidity and mortality after total
     hip replacement surgery in
   medicare patients. Reg Anesth
Pain Med. 2003 Jul-Aug;28(4):271-
                 8.

 Wu CL, Sapirstein A, Herbert R,                 584.X or 586.X Acute renal failure                          NR                                NR                             NR
   Rowlingson AJ, Michaels RK,
Petrovic MA, Fleisher LA. Effect of
postoperative epidural analgesia on
 morbidity and mortality after lung
 resection in Medicare patients. J
 Clin Anesth. 2006 Nov;18(7):515-
                20.
                                                                                                                                      Definition of Outcome
                                        Diagnosis Codes                                                         Procedure Codes                                       Laboratory Codes




                                                                                      Type of Procedure Codes
                Citation                               Diagnosis Codes                    Used (ICD, CPT)                    Procedure Codes                   Laboratory Tests
     Xue JL, Daniels F, DJ, Staffa
  Andrade SE, GrahamStar RA,                  584.5, 584.6, 584.7, 584.8, and 584.9   ICD-9 codes and revenue        Renal dialysis: Revenue center codes            NR
    JA, Schech SD, Shatin D, La
 Kimmel PL, Eggers PW, Molitoris                                                            center codes          (0800–0809) and ICD-9-CM procedure codes
 Grenade L, Goodman MJ, Platt R,
    BA, Himmelfarb J, Collins AJ.                                                                                               (3995 and 5498)
  Incidence Chan KA. Health plan
 Gurwitz JH,and mortality of acute
    administrative databases can
       renal failure in Medicare                                                                                 ICU stay: Revenue center codes (0200–0209).
efficiently identify serious myopathy
 beneficiaries, 1992 to 2001. J Am
Soc and rhabdomyolysis. J Clin
      Nephrol. 2006 Apr;17(4):1135-
 Epidemiol. 2005 Feb;58(2):171-4.
                   42.
Definition of Outcome
                                    Laboratory Codes                           Prescriptions




                                                    Laboratory
                           Citation                  Results     Drug Coding Scheme            Drug/Class     Excluded Diagnoses/Comorbidities
              Andrade SE, Graham DJ, Staffa            NR                NR                       NR        Patients were excluded from the case group
                JA, Schech SD, Shatin D, La                                                                      if they were hospitalized with acute
             Grenade L, Goodman MJ, Platt R,                                                                             myocardial infarction.
             Gurwitz JH, Chan KA. Health plan
                administrative databases can
            efficiently identify serious myopathy
                 and rhabdomyolysis. J Clin
             Epidemiol. 2005 Feb;58(2):171-4.

               Bi P, Parton KA, Whitby M. Co-          NR               NR                        NR                           NR
              existing conditions for deaths from
             infectious and parasitic diseases in
                Australia. Int J Infect Dis. 2004
                        Mar;8(2):121-5.



             Clarke P, Leal J, Kelman C, Smith         NR               NR                        NR                           NR
             M, Colagiuri S. Estimating the cost
               of complications of diabetes in
               Australia using administrative
              health-care data. Value Health.
               2008 Mar-Apr;11(2):199-206.




            Clinard F, Sgro C, Bardou M, Hillon        NR               NR                        NR                           NR
                 P, Dumas M, Kreft-Jais C,
              Escousse A, Bonithon-Kopp C.
             Association between concomitant
             use of several systemic NSAIDs
            and an excess risk of adverse drug
             reaction. A case/non-case study
                      from the French
                Pharmacovigilance system
             database. Eur J Clin Pharmacol.
                  2004 Jun;60(4):279-83.
Definition of Outcome
                                    Laboratory Codes                           Prescriptions




                                                    Laboratory
                           Citation                  Results     Drug Coding Scheme            Drug/Class      Excluded Diagnoses/Comorbidities
              Andrade SE, Graham Mack CD,
              Endorf FW, Klein MB, DJ, Staffa          NR               NR                        NR                            NR
                  Jurkovich GJ, Shatin D, La
                JA, Schech SD, Rivara FP.
             Grenade L, Goodman MJ, Platt R,
             Necrotizing soft-tissue infections:
             Gurwitz JH, Chan KA. Health plan
              differences in patients treated at
                administrative databases can
            burn centers and non-burn centers.
            efficiently identify serious myopathy
                J Burn Care Res. 2008 Nov-
                 and rhabdomyolysis. J Clin
                       Dec;29(6):933-8.
             Epidemiol. 2005 Feb;58(2):171-4.
              Fischer MJ, Brimhall BB, Parikh          NR               NR                        NR           First, 1,147 patient records were excluded
              CR. Uncomplicated acute renal                                                                       because they did not have a principal
            failure and post-hospital care: a not                                                           diagnostic or ICD-9-CM code consistent with
               so uncomplicated illness. Am J                                                                  ARF. Second, 664 records were excluded
                Nephrol. 2008;28(3):523-30.                                                                   because these patients received care in the
                                                                                                             intensive care unit or underwent mechanical
                                                                                                                ventilation (ICD-9-CM procedure codes
                                                                                                              96.70, 96.71, 96.72). Third, 9 records were
                                                                                                            excluded because they involved children (age
                                                                                                                                <18 years).
               García-Rodríguez LA, Massó-             NR               NR                        NR                                NR
                González EL, Wallander MA,
                 Johansson S. The safety of
              rosuvastatin in comparison with
             other statins in over 100,000 statin
                  users in UK primary care.
               Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf.
                  2008 Oct;17(10):943-52.
Definition of Outcome
                                    Laboratory Codes                            Prescriptions




                                                     Laboratory
                           Citation                   Results     Drug Coding Scheme            Drug/Class      Excluded Diagnoses/Comorbidities
              Andrade UG, Clarke DJ, Staffa
            Gerdtham SE, GrahamP, Hayes A,              NR               NR                        NR                             NR
                JA, Schech SD, Estimating the
             Gudbjornsdottir S. Shatin D, La
              cost of L, Goodman MJ, Platt R,
             Grenadediabetes mellitus-related
             Gurwitz JH, Chan KA. Health plan
            events from inpatient admissions in
                administrative databases can
                Sweden using administrative
            efficiently identify serious myopathy
                     hospitalization data.
                 and rhabdomyolysis. J Clin
                    Pharmacoeconomics.
             Epidemiol. 2005 Feb;58(2):171-4.
                      2009;27(1):81-90.

              Heller JA, Weinberg A, Arons R,           NR               NR                        NR                             NR
             Krishnasastry KV, Lyon RT, Deitch
             JS, Schulick AH, Bush HL Jr, Kent
              KC. Two decades of abdominal
              aortic aneurysm repair: have we
             made any progress? J Vasc Surg.
                 2000 Dec;32(6):1091-100.

            Hellman RN, Decker BS, Murray M.            NR               NR                        NR                             NR
             Elevated serum creatinine and a
                  normal urinalysis: a short
            differential diagnosis in the etiology
                  of renal failure. Ren Fail.
                     2006;28(5):389-94.




                Kern EF, Maney M, Miller DR,            NR               NR                        NR          Individuals with indicators for preexisting
             Tseng CL, Tiwari A, Rajan M, Aron                                                                           ESRD were excluded
              D, Pogach L. Failure of ICD-9-CM
                codes to identify patients with                                                               Excluded individuals who lacked a record of
             comorbid chronic kidney disease in                                                                    any serum creatinine tests or key
              diabetes. Health Serv Res. 2006                                                                demographic variables needed for estimation
                     Apr;41(2):564-80.                                                                                          of GFR
Definition of Outcome
                                     Laboratory Codes                          Prescriptions




                                                    Laboratory
                           Citation                  Results     Drug Coding Scheme            Drug/Class      Excluded Diagnoses/Comorbidities
              Li B, Evans Graham DJ, Staffa
              Andrade SE,D, Faris P, Dean S,            NR              NR                        NR        Conditions coded as a hospital complication
                  Quan H. Risk Shatin D, La
                JA, Schech SD, adjustment                                                                     were excluded through searching the 15
             Grenade L, Goodman MJ, Platt R,
                performance of Charlson and                                                                   secondary diagnosis and diagnosis type
             Elixhauser Chan KA. Health plan
             Gurwitz JH,comorbidities in ICD-9                                                              coding fields. Authors further excluded those
                  and ICD-10 databases can
                administrativeadministrative                                                                 with length of hospital stay one day or less
            efficiently identify serious myopathy
                          databases.                                                                                    and discharged alive.
                 and rhabdomyolysis. J Clin
             BMC Health Serv Res. 2008 Jan
             Epidemiol. 2005 Feb;58(2):171-4.
                           14;8:12.
               Li SQ, Cunningham J, Cass A.             NR              NR                        NR                            NR
             Renal-related deaths in Australia
               1997-1999. Intern Med J. 2004
                      May;34(5):259-65.




               Liangos O, Wald R, O'Bell JW,            NR              NR                        NR         Discharge records with an ICD-9-CM code
                Price L, Pereira BJ, Jaber BL.                                                                for chronic dialysis status (V45.1, V56.0,
               Epidemiology and outcomes of                                                                  V56.31, V56.32, or V56.8) were excluded.
              acute renal failure in hospitalized
                 patients: a national survey.
                Clin J Am Soc Nephrol. 2006
                       Jan;1(1):43-51.
Definition of Outcome
                                    Laboratory Codes                           Prescriptions




                                                    Laboratory
                           Citation                  Results     Drug Coding Scheme            Drug/Class              Excluded Diagnoses/Comorbidities
              Andrade MR, Hashemzadeh M,
              MovahedSE, Graham DJ, Staffa             NR               NR                        NR                                    NR
                 JA, MM. Significant increase
             Jamal Schech SD, Shatin D, La in
             Grenade L, Goodman MJ, Platt R,
              the prevalence of non-rheumatic
             Gurwitz JH, Chan KA. Health with
            aortic valve disease in patientsplan
                administrative databases can
                   type 2 diabetes mellitus.
            efficiently identify serious myopathy
            Exp Clin Endocrinol Diabetes. 2007
                  and rhabdomyolysis. J Clin
                      Feb;115(2):105-7.
             Epidemiol. 2005 Feb;58(2):171-4.
               Moyneur E, Bookhart BK, Mody            NR               NR            Epoetin alfa (EPO) therapy Selected patients were excluded if they had 1
              SH, Fournier AA, Mallett D, Duh                                                                      or more claim for dialysis before their first
             MS. The economic impact of pre-                                                                     CKD claim, received any other EST anytime
               dialysis epoetin alpha on health                                                                   during their eligibility period, or were age 65
            care and work loss costs in chronic                                                                  or older at time of dialysis initiation. Patients
                kidney disease: an employer's                                                                      with a history of organ transplant or blood
                perspective. Dis Manag. 2008                                                                      transfusion before initiation of dialysis also
                       Feb;11(1):49-58.                                                                                           were excluded.
             O'Connor AB, Lang VJ, Lurie SJ,           NR               NR                        NR                                      NR
            Lambert DR, Rudmann A, Robbins
                 B, Bordley DR. The effect of
                 nonteaching services on the
              distribution of inpatient cases for
             internal medicine residents. Acad
                 Med. 2009 Feb;84(2):220-5.

                  Powell H, Lim LL, Heller             NR               NR                        NR                                    NR
             RF.Accuracy of administrative data
              to assess comorbidity in patients
              with heart disease. an Australian
             perspective. J Clin Epidemiol. 2001
                      Jul;54(7):687-93.
Definition of Outcome
                                    Laboratory Codes                           Prescriptions




                                                    Laboratory
                           Citation                  Results     Drug Coding Scheme            Drug/Class   Excluded Diagnoses/Comorbidities
              Andrade SE, Graham DJ, Staffa
            Quan H, Sundararajan V, Halfon P,          NR               NR                        NR                      NR
                JA, Schech SD, B, Luthi La
                Fong A, BurnandShatin D,JC,
              Saunders Goodman MJ, Platt R,
             Grenade L, LD, Beck CA, Feasby
             Gurwitz JH, Chan KA. Health plan
             TE, Ghali WA.Coding algorithms
                defining comorbidities in can
            for administrative databases ICD-9-
            efficiently identify serious myopathy
               CM and ICD-10 administrative
                 and rhabdomyolysis. J Clin
                    data. Med Care. 2005
             Epidemiol. 2005 Feb;58(2):171-4.
                     Nov;43(11):1130-9.




            Robbins JD, Kim JJ, Zdon G, Chan           NR               NR                        NR                      NR
             WW, Jones J. Resource use and
            patient care associated with chronic
             kidney disease in a managed care
            setting. J Manag Care Pharm. 2003
                    May-Jun;9(3):238-47.



              So L, Evans D, Quan H. ICD-10            NR               NR                        NR                      NR
               coding algorithms for defining
             comorbidities of acute myocardial
             infarction. BMC Health Serv Res.
                     2006 Dec 15;6:161
Definition of Outcome
                                    Laboratory Codes                           Prescriptions




                                                    Laboratory
                           Citation                  Results     Drug Coding Scheme            Drug/Class      Excluded Diagnoses/Comorbidities
              Andrade SE, Graham DJ, Staffa
             Stevens LA, Fares G, Fleming J,           NR               NR                        NR         Individuals who were pregnant during the
                JA, Schech SD, Shatin D, La
              Martin D, Murthy K, Qiu J, Stark                                                              year or who were on dialysis were excluded
             PC, Uhlig Goodman MJ, Levey
             Grenade L,K, Van Lente F,Platt R,
                 AS. Low Chan KA. Health plan
             Gurwitz JH, rates of testing and
                 diagnostic codes usage can
                administrative databasesin a
            efficiently identify serious myopathy
               commercial clinical laboratory:
                 and rhabdomyolysis. J Clin
                evidence for lack of physician
                awareness of Feb;58(2):171-4.
             Epidemiol. 2005 chronic kidney
             disease. J Am Soc Nephrol. 2005
                     Aug;16(8):2439-48.




             Vermeulen MJ, Tu JV, Schull MJ.           NR               NR                        NR                               NR
            ICD-10 adaptations of the Ontario
                acute myocardial infarction
            mortality prediction rules performed
              as well as the original versions.
                  J Clin Epidemiol. 2007
                      Sep;60(9):971-4.


             Waikar SS, Wald R, Chertow GM,            NR               NR                        NR        For calculating sensitivity, specificity, positive
              Curhan GC, Winkelmayer WC,                                                                        predictive value (PPV), and negative
              Liangos O, Sosa MA, Jaber BL.                                                                   predictive value (NPV), authors excluded
                  Validity of International                                                                      patients who were on maintenance
             Classification of Diseases, Ninth                                                              hemodialysis or peritoneal dialysis and those
               Revision, Clinical Modification                                                              who were undergoing kidney transplantation.
             Codes for Acute Renal Failure. J
                  Am Soc Nephrol. 2006
                    Jun;17(6):1688-94.
Definition of Outcome
                                    Laboratory Codes                           Prescriptions




                                                    Laboratory
                           Citation                  Results     Drug Coding Scheme            Drug/Class      Excluded Diagnoses/Comorbidities
              Andrade SE, Graham DJ, Staffa
             Winkelmayer WC, Schneeweiss S,            NR               NR                        NR            Authors excluded all patients who had
                JA, Schech SD, AR, Avorn J,
               Mogun H, PatrickShatin D, La                                                                 Medicare claims indicating a previous kidney
             Grenade L, Goodman MJ, Platt R,
                Solomon DH. Identification of                                                                transplant or maintenance dialysis therapy
             Gurwitz JH, Chan KA. Health plan
            individuals with CKD from Medicare                                                                      before the index admission.
                administrative databases can
               claims data: a validation study.
            efficiently identify serious myopathy
                   Am J Kidney Dis. 2005
                 and rhabdomyolysis. J Clin
                      Aug;46(2):225-32.
             Epidemiol. 2005 Feb;58(2):171-4.




             Wu CL, Anderson GF, Herbert R,            NR               NR                        NR                            NR
             Lietman SA, Fleisher LA. Effect of
            postoperative epidural analgesia on
              morbidity and mortality after total
                 hip replacement surgery in
               medicare patients. Reg Anesth
            Pain Med. 2003 Jul-Aug;28(4):271-
                             8.

             Wu CL, Sapirstein A, Herbert R,           NR               NR                        NR          Emergency surgical cases and patients
               Rowlingson AJ, Michaels RK,                                                                  undergoing pneumonectomy were excluded
            Petrovic MA, Fleisher LA. Effect of                                                                          from the study.
            postoperative epidural analgesia on
             morbidity and mortality after lung
             resection in Medicare patients. J
             Clin Anesth. 2006 Nov;18(7):515-
                            20.
Definition of Outcome
                                    Laboratory Codes                           Prescriptions




                                                    Laboratory
                            Citation                 Results     Drug Coding Scheme            Drug/Class     Excluded Diagnoses/Comorbidities
                 Xue JL, Daniels F, DJ, Staffa
              Andrade SE, GrahamStar RA,               NR               NR                        NR           Those with renal failure, as defined by
                JA, Schech SD, Shatin D, La
             Kimmel PL, Eggers PW, Molitoris                                                                registration with the US Renal Data System
             Grenade L, Goodman MJ, Platt R,
                BA, Himmelfarb J, Collins AJ.                                                                   for ESRD treatment, were excluded.
              Incidence Chan KA. Health plan
             Gurwitz JH,and mortality of acute
                administrative databases can
                   renal failure in Medicare
            efficiently identify serious myopathy
             beneficiaries, 1992 to 2001. J Am
            Soc and rhabdomyolysis. J Clin
                  Nephrol. 2006 Apr;17(4):1135-
             Epidemiol. 2005 Feb;58(2):171-4.
                               42.
                                                                                                     Validation




               Citation                 Validation (Extract Procedure)   Sensitivity   Specificity          Positive Predictive Value
  Andrade SE, Graham DJ, Staffa                       NR                    NR            NR                           NR
    JA, Schech SD, Shatin D, La
 Grenade L, Goodman MJ, Platt R,
 Gurwitz JH, Chan KA. Health plan
    administrative databases can
efficiently identify serious myopathy
     and rhabdomyolysis. J Clin
 Epidemiol. 2005 Feb;58(2):171-4.

  Bi P, Parton KA, Whitby M. Co-                     NR                     NR            NR                          NR
 existing conditions for deaths from
infectious and parasitic diseases in
   Australia. Int J Infect Dis. 2004
           Mar;8(2):121-5.



Clarke P, Leal J, Kelman C, Smith                    NR                     NR            NR                          NR
M, Colagiuri S. Estimating the cost
  of complications of diabetes in
  Australia using administrative
 health-care data. Value Health.
  2008 Mar-Apr;11(2):199-206.




Clinard F, Sgro C, Bardou M, Hillon                  NR                     NR            NR                          NR
     P, Dumas M, Kreft-Jais C,
  Escousse A, Bonithon-Kopp C.
 Association between concomitant
 use of several systemic NSAIDs
and an excess risk of adverse drug
 reaction. A case/non-case study
          from the French
    Pharmacovigilance system
 database. Eur J Clin Pharmacol.
      2004 Jun;60(4):279-83.
                                                                                                                            Validation




               Citation                         Validation (Extract Procedure)                  Sensitivity   Specificity          Positive Predictive Value
  Andrade SE, Graham Mack CD,
  Endorf FW, Klein MB, DJ, Staffa                              NR                                  NR            NR                          NR
      Jurkovich GJ, Shatin D, La
    JA, Schech SD, Rivara FP.
 Grenade L, Goodman MJ, Platt R,
 Necrotizing soft-tissue infections:
 Gurwitz JH, Chan KA. Health plan
  differences in patients treated at
    administrative databases can
burn centers and non-burn centers.
efficiently identify serious myopathy
    J Burn Care Res. 2008 Nov-
     and rhabdomyolysis. J Clin
           Dec;29(6):933-8.
 Epidemiol. 2005 Feb;58(2):171-4.
  Fischer MJ, Brimhall BB, Parikh                              NR                                  NR            NR                          NR
  CR. Uncomplicated acute renal
failure and post-hospital care: a not
   so uncomplicated illness. Am J
    Nephrol. 2008;28(3):523-30.




  García-Rodríguez LA, Massó-          The initial database search identified 63 individuals       NR            NR                          NR
   González EL, Wallander MA,         with a code suggesting rhabdomyolysis or myopathy,
    Johansson S. The safety of       931 individuals with a code suggesting liver injury, and
 rosuvastatin in comparison with       717 individuals with a code suggesting renal failure.
other statins in over 100,000 statin     After manual review (by LAGR and EMG) of the
     users in UK primary care.        corresponding computerized patient profiles, with the
  Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf.           reviewers blinded to all exposure information, 27
     2008 Oct;17(10):943-52.             potential rhabdomyolysis/myopathy cases (five
                                     rosuvastatin users and 22 users of other statins) were
                                       excluded. Free text comments were then requested
                                                and reviewed (by LAGR and EMG)
                                                                                                          Validation




               Citation                  Validation (Extract Procedure)    Sensitivity     Specificity           Positive Predictive Value
  Andrade UG, Clarke DJ, Staffa
Gerdtham SE, GrahamP, Hayes A,                        NR                       NR              NR                          NR
    JA, Schech SD, Estimating the
 Gudbjornsdottir S. Shatin D, La
  cost of L, Goodman MJ, Platt R,
 Grenadediabetes mellitus-related
 Gurwitz JH, Chan KA. Health plan
events from inpatient admissions in
    administrative databases can
    Sweden using administrative
efficiently identify serious myopathy
         hospitalization data.
     and rhabdomyolysis. J Clin
        Pharmacoeconomics.
 Epidemiol. 2005 Feb;58(2):171-4.
          2009;27(1):81-90.

 Heller JA, Weinberg A, Arons R,                      NR                       NR              NR                          NR
Krishnasastry KV, Lyon RT, Deitch
JS, Schulick AH, Bush HL Jr, Kent
 KC. Two decades of abdominal
 aortic aneurysm repair: have we
made any progress? J Vasc Surg.
    2000 Dec;32(6):1091-100.

Hellman RN, Decker BS, Murray M.                      NR                       NR              NR                          NR
 Elevated serum creatinine and a
      normal urinalysis: a short
differential diagnosis in the etiology
      of renal failure. Ren Fail.
         2006;28(5):389-94.




   Kern EF, Maney M, Miller DR,                       NR                  20.2% – 42.4%   93.2% – 99.4%                    NR
Tseng CL, Tiwari A, Rajan M, Aron
 D, Pogach L. Failure of ICD-9-CM
   codes to identify patients with
comorbid chronic kidney disease in
 diabetes. Health Serv Res. 2006
        Apr;41(2):564-80.
                                                                                                                                Validation




               Citation                            Validation (Extract Procedure)                   Sensitivity   Specificity          Positive Predictive Value
  Li B, Evans Graham DJ, Staffa
  Andrade SE,D, Faris P, Dean S,                                  NR                                   NR            NR                          NR
      Quan H. Risk Shatin D, La
    JA, Schech SD, adjustment
 Grenade L, Goodman MJ, Platt R,
    performance of Charlson and
 Elixhauser Chan KA. Health plan
 Gurwitz JH,comorbidities in ICD-9
      and ICD-10 databases can
    administrativeadministrative
efficiently identify serious myopathy
              databases.
     and rhabdomyolysis. J Clin
 BMC Health Serv Res. 2008 Jan
 Epidemiol. 2005 Feb;58(2):171-4.
               14;8:12.
   Li SQ, Cunningham J, Cass A.                                   NR                                   NR            NR                          NR
 Renal-related deaths in Australia
   1997-1999. Intern Med J. 2004
          May;34(5):259-65.




  Liangos O, Wald R, O'Bell JW,           The accuracy of ICD-9-CM for ARF was validated by          19.20%        99.60%                      87.60%
   Price L, Pereira BJ, Jaber BL.            reviewing the records of all patients who were
  Epidemiology and outcomes of           discharged from a tertiary medical center (Caritas St.
 acute renal failure in hospitalized     Elizabeth’s Medical Center, Boston, MA) during 2001
    patients: a national survey.        (n =13,412). Authors compared ARF diagnostic coding
   Clin J Am Soc Nephrol. 2006             (defined by the presence or absence of ICD-9-CM
          Jan;1(1):43-51.                codes 584.5 to 584.9) with well-established criteria for
                                          ARF that are based on changes in serum creatinine.
                                                                                                     Validation




               Citation                 Validation (Extract Procedure)   Sensitivity   Specificity          Positive Predictive Value
  Andrade MR, Hashemzadeh M,
  MovahedSE, Graham DJ, Staffa                       NR                     NR            NR                          NR
     JA, MM. Significant increase
 Jamal Schech SD, Shatin D, La in
 Grenade L, Goodman MJ, Platt R,
  the prevalence of non-rheumatic
 Gurwitz JH, Chan KA. Health with
aortic valve disease in patientsplan
    administrative databases can
       type 2 diabetes mellitus.
efficiently identify serious myopathy
Exp Clin Endocrinol Diabetes. 2007
      and rhabdomyolysis. J Clin
          Feb;115(2):105-7.
 Epidemiol. 2005 Feb;58(2):171-4.
   Moyneur E, Bookhart BK, Mody                      NR                     NR            NR                          NR
  SH, Fournier AA, Mallett D, Duh
 MS. The economic impact of pre-
   dialysis epoetin alpha on health
care and work loss costs in chronic
    kidney disease: an employer's
    perspective. Dis Manag. 2008
           Feb;11(1):49-58.
 O'Connor AB, Lang VJ, Lurie SJ,                     NR                     NR            NR                          NR
Lambert DR, Rudmann A, Robbins
     B, Bordley DR. The effect of
     nonteaching services on the
  distribution of inpatient cases for
 internal medicine residents. Acad
     Med. 2009 Feb;84(2):220-5.

     Powell H, Lim LL, Heller                        NR                     NR            NR                          NR
RF.Accuracy of administrative data
 to assess comorbidity in patients
 with heart disease. an Australian
perspective. J Clin Epidemiol. 2001
         Jul;54(7):687-93.
                                                                                                                                                  Validation




               Citation                          Validation (Extract Procedure)                     Sensitivity              Specificity                 Positive Predictive Value
  Andrade SE, Graham DJ, Staffa
Quan H, Sundararajan V, Halfon P, Physicians reviewed all of the descriptions of codes                 NR                        NR                                NR
    Fong A, BurnandShatin D,JC,
    JA, Schech SD, B, Luthi La        included in Deyo’s and Elixhauser’s coding algorithms.
  Saunders Goodman MJ, Platt R,
 Grenade L, LD, Beck CA, Feasby Through this careful review process, some codes were
 Gurwitz JH, Chan KA. Health plan
 TE, Ghali WA.Coding algorithms                         deleted or added.
    defining comorbidities in can
for administrative databases ICD-9-
efficiently identify serious myopathy
   CM and ICD-10 administrative
     and rhabdomyolysis. J Clin
        data. Med Care. 2005
 Epidemiol. 2005 Feb;58(2):171-4.
         Nov;43(11):1130-9.




Robbins JD, Kim JJ, Zdon G, Chan                              NR                                       NR                        NR
 WW, Jones J. Resource use and
patient care associated with chronic
 kidney disease in a managed care
setting. J Manag Care Pharm. 2003
        May-Jun;9(3):238-47.



  So L, Evans D, Quan H. ICD-10      Coders generated a comprehensive list of ICD-10             Acute Renal Failure     Acute Renal Failure                Acute Renal Failure
   coding algorithms for defining       codes corresponding to each AMI comorbidity.            ICD-9: 80.0 (95% CI:    ICD-9: 98.3 (95% CI:         ICD-9: 80.0 (95% CI: 51.91–95.67)
 comorbidities of acute myocardial Physicians independently reviewed and determined the             51.91–95.67)            95.15–99.65)            ICD-10: 60.0 (95% CI: 36.05–80.88)
 infarction. BMC Health Serv Res.   clinical relevance of each item on the list. To ensure     ICD-10: 80.0 (95% CI:   ICD-10: specificity 95.5
         2006 Dec 15;6:161          that the newly developed ICD-10 coding algorithms               51.91–95.67)       (95% CI: 91.34–98.04)               Chronic Renal Failure
                                    were valid in recording comorbidities, medical charts                                                            ICD-9: 68.2 (95% CI: 45.13–86.14)
                                                       were reviewed.                          Chronic Renal Failure   Chronic Renal Failure        ICD-10: 81.3 (95% CI: 54.35–95.95)
                                                                                                ICD-9: 80.0 (95% CI:    ICD-9:96.0 (95% CI:
                                                                                                   51.91–95.67)            91.93–98.38)
                                                                                               ICD-10: 72.2 (95% CI:   ICD-10: 98.3 (95% CI:
                                                                                                   46.52–90.31)            95.07–99.65)
                                                                                                                         Validation




               Citation                       Validation (Extract Procedure)                 Sensitivity   Specificity          Positive Predictive Value
  Andrade SE, Graham DJ, Staffa
 Stevens LA, Fares G, Fleming J,                             NR                                 NR            NR                          NR
    JA, Schech SD, Shatin D, La
  Martin D, Murthy K, Qiu J, Stark
 PC, Uhlig Goodman MJ, Levey
 Grenade L,K, Van Lente F,Platt R,
     AS. Low Chan KA. Health plan
 Gurwitz JH, rates of testing and
     diagnostic codes usage can
    administrative databasesin a
efficiently identify serious myopathy
   commercial clinical laboratory:
     and rhabdomyolysis. J Clin
    evidence for lack of physician
    awareness of Feb;58(2):171-4.
 Epidemiol. 2005 chronic kidney
 disease. J Am Soc Nephrol. 2005
         Aug;16(8):2439-48.




 Vermeulen MJ, Tu JV, Schull MJ.  The ICD-9 codes originally included in the Ontario AMI        NR            NR                          NR
ICD-10 adaptations of the Ontario mortality prediction rules were initially mapped to ICD-
    acute myocardial infarction      10-CA codes by using a list generated by coding
                                   experts at CIHI. The full list of ICD-10-CA codes was
mortality prediction rules performed
  as well as the original versions.    also manually searched for codes that were
      J Clin Epidemiol. 2007         substantively similar to the original ICD-9 codes.
          Sep;60(9):971-4.        These lists were reviewed by each of the authors and
                                     the final set of ICD-10-CA codes determined by
                                                         consensus.
Waikar SS, Wald R, Chertow GM,       Because chart review of entire database was not          35.40%        97.70%                      47.90%
 Curhan GC, Winkelmayer WC,           feasible, authors determined the performance
 Liangos O, Sosa MA, Jaber BL.    characteristics of administrative codes for ARF-D in a
     Validity of International    subpopulation of 300 discharges in which chart review
Classification of Diseases, Ninth                      was performed.
  Revision, Clinical Modification
Codes for Acute Renal Failure. J
     Am Soc Nephrol. 2006
       Jun;17(6):1688-94.
                                                                                                                                             Validation




               Citation                        Validation (Extract Procedure)                    Sensitivity              Specificity               Positive Predictive Value
  Andrade SE, Graham DJ, Staffa
 Winkelmayer WC, Schneeweiss S,       Hospital chart review was performed by 10 trained       DN 2.7 (1.8–3.6)        DN 99.0 (98.2–99.8)             DN 85.7 (75.1–96.3)
    JA, Schech SD, AR, Avorn J,
   Mogun H, PatrickShatin D, La        hospital records abstractors at the Peer Review        ARF 5.4 (4.2–6.6)      ARF 99.7 (99.2–100.0)           ARF 97.3 (93.5–100.0)
 Grenade L, Goodman MJ, Platt R, Organization by using a structured chart abstraction
    Solomon DH. Identification of                                                            HypN 7.0 (5.6–8.3)      HypN 99.2 (98.5–99.9)           HypN 94.8 (90.4–99.2)
 Gurwitz JH, Chan KA. Health plan
individuals with CKD from Medicare program. Chart abstraction data were entered directly    CRI 12.0 (10.3–13.8)     CRI 99.4 (98.8–100.0)            CRI 97.5 (95.2–99.9)
    administrative databases can
   claims data: a validation study.               into an electronic database.              MISC 17.5 (15.4–19.5)    MISC 95.5 (93.9–97.1)           MISC 89.2 (85.4–93.0)
efficiently identify serious myopathy
       Am J Kidney Dis. 2005                                                                 DN HypN CRI 16.3         DN HypN CRI 97.8           DN HypN CRI 93.9 (90.8–97.0)
     and rhabdomyolysis. J Clin
          Aug;46(2):225-32.                                                                     (14.3–18.3)               (96.6–98.9)          DN HypN CRI ARF 93.8 (90.8–96.9)
 Epidemiol. 2005 Feb;58(2):171-4.                                                          DN HypN CRI ARF 17.3     DN HypN CRI ARF 97.6       DN HypN CRI MISC 89.4 (86.3–92.5)
                                                                                                (15.2–19.3)               (96.4–98.8)            DN HypN CRI MISC ARF 89.3
                                                                                           DN HypN CRI MISC 26.2    DN HypN CRI MISC 93.4                 (86.3–92.4)
                                                                                                (23.8–28.5)               (91.5–95.4)
                                                                                           DN HypN CRI MISC ARF     DN HypN CRI MISC ARF
                                                                                              26.6 (24.2–28.9)         93.3 (91.3–95.2)


 Wu CL, Anderson GF, Herbert R,                             NR                                      NR                       NR                               NR
 Lietman SA, Fleisher LA. Effect of
postoperative epidural analgesia on
  morbidity and mortality after total
     hip replacement surgery in
   medicare patients. Reg Anesth
Pain Med. 2003 Jul-Aug;28(4):271-
                 8.

 Wu CL, Sapirstein A, Herbert R,                            NR                                      NR                       NR                               NR
   Rowlingson AJ, Michaels RK,
Petrovic MA, Fleisher LA. Effect of
postoperative epidural analgesia on
 morbidity and mortality after lung
 resection in Medicare patients. J
 Clin Anesth. 2006 Nov;18(7):515-
                20.
                                                                                                                      Validation




                Citation                       Validation (Extract Procedure)             Sensitivity   Specificity          Positive Predictive Value
     Xue JL, Daniels F, DJ, Staffa
  Andrade SE, GrahamStar RA,            Authors scrutinized all principal and secondary      NR            NR                          NR
    JA, Schech SD, Shatin D, La
 Kimmel PL, Eggers PW, Molitoris        diagnosis codes for codes that denoted ARF.
 Grenade L, Goodman MJ, Platt R,
    BA, Himmelfarb J, Collins AJ.
  Incidence Chan KA. Health plan
 Gurwitz JH,and mortality of acute
    administrative databases can
       renal failure in Medicare
efficiently identify serious myopathy
 beneficiaries, 1992 to 2001. J Am
Soc and rhabdomyolysis. J Clin
      Nephrol. 2006 Apr;17(4):1135-
 Epidemiol. 2005 Feb;58(2):171-4.
                   42.
Validation                                                                                                                                                                      Quality Assessme




                                                                                                               How Many      If Inter-rater Reliability Was   Did a Physician
                                                                                                              Reviewers of     Reported, What Was the         Create the Case
                                                                             If a Reference Is Made to a      HOI/Non-HOI    Percent Agreement, Kappa,          Definition?
                    Citation                 Validation Specs – Others   Validation Study, Provide Citation     Status?                   etc.?                  (Yes/No)
       Andrade SE, Graham DJ, Staffa                     NR                              NR                        2                       NR                       NR
         JA, Schech SD, Shatin D, La
      Grenade L, Goodman MJ, Platt R,
      Gurwitz JH, Chan KA. Health plan
         administrative databases can
     efficiently identify serious myopathy
          and rhabdomyolysis. J Clin
      Epidemiol. 2005 Feb;58(2):171-4.

       Bi P, Parton KA, Whitby M. Co-                   NR                              NR                        NR                      NR                        NR
      existing conditions for deaths from
     infectious and parasitic diseases in
        Australia. Int J Infect Dis. 2004
                Mar;8(2):121-5.



     Clarke P, Leal J, Kelman C, Smith                  NR                              NR                        NR                      NR                        NR
     M, Colagiuri S. Estimating the cost
       of complications of diabetes in
       Australia using administrative
      health-care data. Value Health.
       2008 Mar-Apr;11(2):199-206.




     Clinard F, Sgro C, Bardou M, Hillon                NR                              NR                         2                      NR                        NR
          P, Dumas M, Kreft-Jais C,
       Escousse A, Bonithon-Kopp C.
      Association between concomitant
      use of several systemic NSAIDs
     and an excess risk of adverse drug
      reaction. A case/non-case study
               from the French
         Pharmacovigilance system
      database. Eur J Clin Pharmacol.
           2004 Jun;60(4):279-83.
Validation                                                                                                                                                                      Quality Assessme




                                                                                                               How Many      If Inter-rater Reliability Was   Did a Physician
                                                                                                              Reviewers of     Reported, What Was the         Create the Case
                                                                             If a Reference Is Made to a      HOI/Non-HOI    Percent Agreement, Kappa,          Definition?
                    Citation                 Validation Specs – Others   Validation Study, Provide Citation     Status?                   etc.?                  (Yes/No)
       Andrade SE, Graham Mack CD,
       Endorf FW, Klein MB, DJ, Staffa                  NR                              NR                        NR                      NR                        NR
           Jurkovich GJ, Shatin D, La
         JA, Schech SD, Rivara FP.
      Grenade L, Goodman MJ, Platt R,
      Necrotizing soft-tissue infections:
      Gurwitz JH, Chan KA. Health plan
       differences in patients treated at
         administrative databases can
     burn centers and non-burn centers.
     efficiently identify serious myopathy
         J Burn Care Res. 2008 Nov-
          and rhabdomyolysis. J Clin
                Dec;29(6):933-8.
      Epidemiol. 2005 Feb;58(2):171-4.
       Fischer MJ, Brimhall BB, Parikh                  NR                              NR                        NR                      NR                        NR
       CR. Uncomplicated acute renal
     failure and post-hospital care: a not
        so uncomplicated illness. Am J
         Nephrol. 2008;28(3):523-30.




       García-Rodríguez LA, Massó-                      NR                              NR                         2                      NR                        NR
        González EL, Wallander MA,
         Johansson S. The safety of
      rosuvastatin in comparison with
     other statins in over 100,000 statin
          users in UK primary care.
       Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf.
          2008 Oct;17(10):943-52.
Validation                                                                                                                                                                      Quality Assessme




                                                                                                               How Many      If Inter-rater Reliability Was   Did a Physician
                                                                                                              Reviewers of     Reported, What Was the         Create the Case
                                                                             If a Reference Is Made to a      HOI/Non-HOI    Percent Agreement, Kappa,          Definition?
                    Citation                 Validation Specs – Others   Validation Study, Provide Citation     Status?                   etc.?                  (Yes/No)
       Andrade UG, Clarke DJ, Staffa
     Gerdtham SE, GrahamP, Hayes A,                     NR                              NR                        NR                      NR                        NR
         JA, Schech SD, Estimating the
      Gudbjornsdottir S. Shatin D, La
       cost of L, Goodman MJ, Platt R,
      Grenadediabetes mellitus-related
      Gurwitz JH, Chan KA. Health plan
     events from inpatient admissions in
         administrative databases can
         Sweden using administrative
     efficiently identify serious myopathy
              hospitalization data.
          and rhabdomyolysis. J Clin
             Pharmacoeconomics.
      Epidemiol. 2005 Feb;58(2):171-4.
               2009;27(1):81-90.

      Heller JA, Weinberg A, Arons R,                   NR                              NR                        NR                      NR                        NR
     Krishnasastry KV, Lyon RT, Deitch
     JS, Schulick AH, Bush HL Jr, Kent
      KC. Two decades of abdominal
      aortic aneurysm repair: have we
     made any progress? J Vasc Surg.
         2000 Dec;32(6):1091-100.

    Hellman RN, Decker BS, Murray M.                    NR                              NR                        NR                      NR                        NR
     Elevated serum creatinine and a
          normal urinalysis: a short
    differential diagnosis in the etiology
          of renal failure. Ren Fail.
             2006;28(5):389-94.




        Kern EF, Maney M, Miller DR,                    NR                              NR                        NR                      NR                        NR
     Tseng CL, Tiwari A, Rajan M, Aron
      D, Pogach L. Failure of ICD-9-CM
        codes to identify patients with
     comorbid chronic kidney disease in
      diabetes. Health Serv Res. 2006
             Apr;41(2):564-80.
Validation                                                                                                                                                                                Quality Assessme




                                                                                                                         How Many      If Inter-rater Reliability Was   Did a Physician
                                                                                                                        Reviewers of     Reported, What Was the         Create the Case
                                                                                       If a Reference Is Made to a      HOI/Non-HOI    Percent Agreement, Kappa,          Definition?
                    Citation                    Validation Specs – Others          Validation Study, Provide Citation     Status?                   etc.?                  (Yes/No)
       Li B, Evans Graham DJ, Staffa
       Andrade SE,D, Faris P, Dean S,                       NR                                    NR                        NR                      NR                        NR
           Quan H. Risk Shatin D, La
         JA, Schech SD, adjustment
      Grenade L, Goodman MJ, Platt R,
         performance of Charlson and
      Elixhauser Chan KA. Health plan
      Gurwitz JH,comorbidities in ICD-9
           and ICD-10 databases can
         administrativeadministrative
     efficiently identify serious myopathy
                   databases.
          and rhabdomyolysis. J Clin
      BMC Health Serv Res. 2008 Jan
      Epidemiol. 2005 Feb;58(2):171-4.
                    14;8:12.
        Li SQ, Cunningham J, Cass A.                        NR                                    NR                        NR                      NR                        NR
      Renal-related deaths in Australia
        1997-1999. Intern Med J. 2004
               May;34(5):259-65.




       Liangos O, Wald R, O'Bell JW,         Negative predictive value of 90.1%.                  NR                        NR                      NR                        NR
        Price L, Pereira BJ, Jaber BL.
       Epidemiology and outcomes of
      acute renal failure in hospitalized
         patients: a national survey.
        Clin J Am Soc Nephrol. 2006
               Jan;1(1):43-51.
Validation                                                                                                                                                                      Quality Assessme




                                                                                                               How Many      If Inter-rater Reliability Was   Did a Physician
                                                                                                              Reviewers of     Reported, What Was the         Create the Case
                                                                             If a Reference Is Made to a      HOI/Non-HOI    Percent Agreement, Kappa,          Definition?
                    Citation                 Validation Specs – Others   Validation Study, Provide Citation     Status?                   etc.?                  (Yes/No)
       Andrade MR, Hashemzadeh M,
       MovahedSE, Graham DJ, Staffa                     NR                              NR                        NR                      NR                        NR
          JA, MM. Significant increase
      Jamal Schech SD, Shatin D, La in
      Grenade L, Goodman MJ, Platt R,
       the prevalence of non-rheumatic
      Gurwitz JH, Chan KA. Health with
     aortic valve disease in patientsplan
         administrative databases can
            type 2 diabetes mellitus.
     efficiently identify serious myopathy
     Exp Clin Endocrinol Diabetes. 2007
           and rhabdomyolysis. J Clin
               Feb;115(2):105-7.
      Epidemiol. 2005 Feb;58(2):171-4.
        Moyneur E, Bookhart BK, Mody                    NR                              NR                        NR                      NR                        NR
       SH, Fournier AA, Mallett D, Duh
      MS. The economic impact of pre-
        dialysis epoetin alpha on health
     care and work loss costs in chronic
         kidney disease: an employer's
         perspective. Dis Manag. 2008
                Feb;11(1):49-58.
      O'Connor AB, Lang VJ, Lurie SJ,                   NR                              NR                        NR                      NR                        NR
     Lambert DR, Rudmann A, Robbins
          B, Bordley DR. The effect of
          nonteaching services on the
       distribution of inpatient cases for
      internal medicine residents. Acad
          Med. 2009 Feb;84(2):220-5.

          Powell H, Lim LL, Heller                      NR                              NR                        NR                      NR                        NR
     RF.Accuracy of administrative data
      to assess comorbidity in patients
      with heart disease. an Australian
     perspective. J Clin Epidemiol. 2001
              Jul;54(7):687-93.
Validation                                                                                                                                                                                   Quality Assessme




                                                                                                                            How Many      If Inter-rater Reliability Was   Did a Physician
                                                                                                                           Reviewers of     Reported, What Was the         Create the Case
                                                                                          If a Reference Is Made to a      HOI/Non-HOI    Percent Agreement, Kappa,          Definition?
                    Citation                      Validation Specs – Others           Validation Study, Provide Citation     Status?                   etc.?                  (Yes/No)
       Andrade SE, Graham DJ, Staffa
     Quan H, Sundararajan V, Halfon P,                        NR                                     NR                        NR                      NR                        NR
         JA, Schech SD, B, Luthi La
         Fong A, BurnandShatin D,JC,
       Saunders Goodman MJ, Platt R,
      Grenade L, LD, Beck CA, Feasby
      Gurwitz JH, Chan KA. Health plan
      TE, Ghali WA.Coding algorithms
         defining comorbidities in can
     for administrative databases ICD-9-
     efficiently identify serious myopathy
        CM and ICD-10 administrative
          and rhabdomyolysis. J Clin
             data. Med Care. 2005
      Epidemiol. 2005 Feb;58(2):171-4.
              Nov;43(11):1130-9.




    Robbins JD, Kim JJ, Zdon G, Chan                          NR                                     NR                        NR                      NR                        NR
     WW, Jones J. Resource use and
    patient care associated with chronic
     kidney disease in a managed care
    setting. J Manag Care Pharm. 2003
            May-Jun;9(3):238-47.



      So L, Evans D, Quan H. ICD-10                   Acute Renal Failure                            NR                        NR                      NR                        NR
       coding algorithms for defining        ICD-9: NPV 98.3 (95% CI: 95.15–99.65).
     comorbidities of acute myocardial             ICD-10: NPV 98.3 (95% CI:
     infarction. BMC Health Serv Res.                    95.02–99.64).
             2006 Dec 15;6:161
                                                     Chronic Renal Failure
                                             ICD-9: NPV 98.2 (95% CI: 94.96–99.64).
                                                   ICD-10: NPV 97.2 (95% CI:
                                                         93.53–99.08).
Validation                                                                                                                                                                                      Quality Assessme




                                                                                                                               How Many      If Inter-rater Reliability Was   Did a Physician
                                                                                                                              Reviewers of     Reported, What Was the         Create the Case
                                                                                             If a Reference Is Made to a      HOI/Non-HOI    Percent Agreement, Kappa,          Definition?
                    Citation                      Validation Specs – Others              Validation Study, Provide Citation     Status?                   etc.?                  (Yes/No)
       Andrade SE, Graham DJ, Staffa
      Stevens LA, Fares G, Fleming J,        Sensitivity of diagnostic codes for CKD                    NR                        NR                      NR                        NR
         JA, Schech SD, Shatin D, La
       Martin D, Murthy K, Qiu J, Stark     for patients with and without risk factors
      PC, Uhlig Goodman MJ, Levey
      Grenade L,K, Van Lente F,Platt R,           for CKD and with or without
          AS. Low Chan KA. Health plan
      Gurwitz JH, rates of testing and         cardiovascular disease (CVD) was
          diagnostic codes usage can
         administrative databasesin a        evaluated. Sensitivity of the codes for
     efficiently identify serious myopathy detecting patients with estimated GFR of
        commercial clinical laboratory:
          and rhabdomyolysis. J Clin
         evidence for lack of physician     <60 and <30 ml/min per 1.73 m2 was 11
         awareness of Feb;58(2):171-4.
      Epidemiol. 2005 chronic kidney          and 39%, respectively. Positive and
      disease. J Am Soc Nephrol. 2005 negative predictive values of diagnostic
              Aug;16(8):2439-48.             codes for kidney disease for GFR <60
                                             ml/min per 1.73 m2 were 65 and 72%,
                                           respectively, and for GFR <30 ml/min per
                                            1.73 m2 were 24 and 98%, respectively.

      Vermeulen MJ, Tu JV, Schull MJ.                         NR                                        NR                        NR                      NR                        NR
     ICD-10 adaptations of the Ontario
         acute myocardial infarction
     mortality prediction rules performed
       as well as the original versions.
           J Clin Epidemiol. 2007
               Sep;60(9):971-4.


     Waikar SS, Wald R, Chertow GM, As compared with a diagnostic standard                              NR                        NR                      NR                        NR
      Curhan GC, Winkelmayer WC,        of a 100% change in serum creatinine,
      Liangos O, Sosa MA, Jaber BL.         ICD-9-CM codes for ARF had a
          Validity of International    sensitivity of 35.4%, specificity of 97.7%,
     Classification of Diseases, Ninth  positive predictive value of 47.9%, and
       Revision, Clinical Modification  negative predictive value of 96.1%. As
     Codes for Acute Renal Failure. J compared with review of medical records,
          Am Soc Nephrol. 2006         ICD-9-CM codes for ARF-D had positive
            Jun;17(6):1688-94.          predictive value of 94.0% and negative
                                               predictive value of 90.0%.
Validation                                                                                                                                                                               Quality Assessme




                                                                                                                      How Many      If Inter-rater Reliability Was     Did a Physician
                                                                                                                     Reviewers of     Reported, What Was the           Create the Case
                                                                                    If a Reference Is Made to a      HOI/Non-HOI    Percent Agreement, Kappa,            Definition?
                   Citation                     Validation Specs – Others       Validation Study, Provide Citation     Status?                   etc.?                    (Yes/No)
      Andrade SE, Graham DJ, Staffa
     Winkelmayer WC, Schneeweiss S,              DN 2.7 32.4 (30.3–34.5)                       NR                        10         Inter-rater agreement (κ) of the         NR
       Mogun H, PatrickShatin D, La
        JA, Schech SD, AR, Avorn J,               ARF 33.2 (31.0–35.3)                                                                structured chart abstraction,
     Grenade L, Goodman MJ, Platt R,
        Solomon DH. Identification of             HypN 33.4 (31.3–35.6)                                                                defined as the agreement
     Gurwitz JH, Chan KA. Health plan
    individuals with CKD from Medicare             CRI 34.7 (32.5–36.9)                                                                  between 2 independent
        administrative databases can
       claims data: a validation study.           MISC 35.3 (33.0–37.6)                                                             reviewers for all data elements
    efficiently identify serious myopathy
           Am J Kidney Dis. 2005              DN HypN CRI 35.5 (33.2–37.8)                                                             in a 20-chart sample, was
         and rhabdomyolysis. J Clin
              Aug;46(2):225-32.             DN HypN CRI ARF 35.7 (33.4–38.0)                                                                     0.931.
     Epidemiol. 2005 Feb;58(2):171-4.       DN HypN CRI MISC 37.4 (35.0–39.8)
                                              DN HypN CRI MISC ARF 37.4
                                                       (35.0–39.8)




     Wu CL, Anderson GF, Herbert R,                        NR                                  NR                        NR                       NR                         NR
     Lietman SA, Fleisher LA. Effect of
    postoperative epidural analgesia on
      morbidity and mortality after total
         hip replacement surgery in
       medicare patients. Reg Anesth
    Pain Med. 2003 Jul-Aug;28(4):271-
                     8.

     Wu CL, Sapirstein A, Herbert R,                       NR                                  NR                        NR                       NR                         NR
       Rowlingson AJ, Michaels RK,
    Petrovic MA, Fleisher LA. Effect of
    postoperative epidural analgesia on
     morbidity and mortality after lung
     resection in Medicare patients. J
     Clin Anesth. 2006 Nov;18(7):515-
                    20.
Validation                                                                                                                                                                            Quality Assessme




                                                                                                                     How Many      If Inter-rater Reliability Was   Did a Physician
                                                                                                                    Reviewers of     Reported, What Was the         Create the Case
                                                                             If a Reference Is Made to a            HOI/Non-HOI    Percent Agreement, Kappa,          Definition?
                     Citation                Validation Specs – Others   Validation Study, Provide Citation           Status?                   etc.?                  (Yes/No)
          Xue JL, Daniels F, DJ, Staffa
       Andrade SE, GrahamStar RA,                       NR               The validity of ARF in claims data has         NR                      NR                        NR
         JA, Schech SD, Shatin D, La
      Kimmel PL, Eggers PW, Molitoris                                      been evaluated previously. Positive
      Grenade L, Goodman MJ, Platt R,
         BA, Himmelfarb J, Collins AJ.                                      predictive value was 88% in ARF
       Incidence Chan KA. Health plan
      Gurwitz JH,and mortality of acute                                    defined by 50% increase of serum
         administrative databases can
            renal failure in Medicare                                    creatinine from the baseline and 87%
     efficiently identify serious myopathy
      beneficiaries, 1992 to 2001. J Am                                  in ARF recorded by ICD-9-CM codes
     Soc and rhabdomyolysis. J Clin
           Nephrol. 2006 Apr;17(4):1135-                                  (Reference: Winterstein AG, Weiner
      Epidemiol. 2005 Feb;58(2):171-4.
                        42.                                               ID, Johns TE, Hatton RC: Validation
                                                                         of automated database algorithms to
                                                                         identify hospital acquired acute renal
                                                                          failure [Abstract]. Value Health 7 (3):
                                                                                      PUK13, 2004)
                                             Quality Assessment


                                                                                                  Were Actual Counts
                                                                                                   Provided Such that    Were Confidence
                                         Did a Physician                                              Verification      Intervals Provided
                                        Review the Cases                         Were Reviewers   Measure(s) Could Be     for Verification
                                         for HOI Status?      Percent of           Masked?            Computed?            Measure(s)?
               Citation                      (Yes/No)      Population Verified      (Yes/No)            (Yes/No)              (Yes/No)
  Andrade SE, Graham DJ, Staffa                 NR                 NR                 Yes                  NR                    NR
    JA, Schech SD, Shatin D, La
 Grenade L, Goodman MJ, Platt R,
 Gurwitz JH, Chan KA. Health plan
    administrative databases can
efficiently identify serious myopathy
     and rhabdomyolysis. J Clin
 Epidemiol. 2005 Feb;58(2):171-4.

  Bi P, Parton KA, Whitby M. Co-              NR                   NR                 NR                  NR                   NR
 existing conditions for deaths from
infectious and parasitic diseases in
   Australia. Int J Infect Dis. 2004
           Mar;8(2):121-5.



Clarke P, Leal J, Kelman C, Smith             NR                   NR                 NR                  NR                   NR
M, Colagiuri S. Estimating the cost
  of complications of diabetes in
  Australia using administrative
 health-care data. Value Health.
  2008 Mar-Apr;11(2):199-206.




Clinard F, Sgro C, Bardou M, Hillon           NR                   NR                 NR                  NR                   NR
     P, Dumas M, Kreft-Jais C,
  Escousse A, Bonithon-Kopp C.
 Association between concomitant
 use of several systemic NSAIDs
and an excess risk of adverse drug
 reaction. A case/non-case study
          from the French
    Pharmacovigilance system
 database. Eur J Clin Pharmacol.
      2004 Jun;60(4):279-83.
                                             Quality Assessment


                                                                                                  Were Actual Counts
                                                                                                   Provided Such that    Were Confidence
                                         Did a Physician                                              Verification      Intervals Provided
                                        Review the Cases                         Were Reviewers   Measure(s) Could Be     for Verification
                                         for HOI Status?      Percent of           Masked?            Computed?            Measure(s)?
               Citation                      (Yes/No)      Population Verified      (Yes/No)            (Yes/No)              (Yes/No)
  Andrade SE, Graham Mack CD,
  Endorf FW, Klein MB, DJ, Staffa             NR                   NR                 NR                  NR                   NR
      Jurkovich GJ, Shatin D, La
    JA, Schech SD, Rivara FP.
 Grenade L, Goodman MJ, Platt R,
 Necrotizing soft-tissue infections:
 Gurwitz JH, Chan KA. Health plan
  differences in patients treated at
    administrative databases can
burn centers and non-burn centers.
efficiently identify serious myopathy
    J Burn Care Res. 2008 Nov-
     and rhabdomyolysis. J Clin
           Dec;29(6):933-8.
 Epidemiol. 2005 Feb;58(2):171-4.
  Fischer MJ, Brimhall BB, Parikh             NR                   NR                 NR                  NR                   NR
  CR. Uncomplicated acute renal
failure and post-hospital care: a not
   so uncomplicated illness. Am J
    Nephrol. 2008;28(3):523-30.




  García-Rodríguez LA, Massó-                 Yes                  NR                 NR                  NR                   NR
   González EL, Wallander MA,
    Johansson S. The safety of
 rosuvastatin in comparison with
other statins in over 100,000 statin
     users in UK primary care.
  Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf.
     2008 Oct;17(10):943-52.
                                              Quality Assessment


                                                                                                   Were Actual Counts
                                                                                                    Provided Such that    Were Confidence
                                          Did a Physician                                              Verification      Intervals Provided
                                         Review the Cases                         Were Reviewers   Measure(s) Could Be     for Verification
                                          for HOI Status?      Percent of           Masked?            Computed?            Measure(s)?
               Citation                       (Yes/No)      Population Verified      (Yes/No)            (Yes/No)              (Yes/No)
  Andrade UG, Clarke DJ, Staffa
Gerdtham SE, GrahamP, Hayes A,                 NR                   NR                 NR                  NR                   NR
    JA, Schech SD, Estimating the
 Gudbjornsdottir S. Shatin D, La
  cost of L, Goodman MJ, Platt R,
 Grenadediabetes mellitus-related
 Gurwitz JH, Chan KA. Health plan
events from inpatient admissions in
    administrative databases can
    Sweden using administrative
efficiently identify serious myopathy
         hospitalization data.
     and rhabdomyolysis. J Clin
        Pharmacoeconomics.
 Epidemiol. 2005 Feb;58(2):171-4.
          2009;27(1):81-90.

 Heller JA, Weinberg A, Arons R,               NR                   NR                 NR                  NR                   NR
Krishnasastry KV, Lyon RT, Deitch
JS, Schulick AH, Bush HL Jr, Kent
 KC. Two decades of abdominal
 aortic aneurysm repair: have we
made any progress? J Vasc Surg.
    2000 Dec;32(6):1091-100.

Hellman RN, Decker BS, Murray M.               NR                   NR                 NR                  NR                   NR
 Elevated serum creatinine and a
      normal urinalysis: a short
differential diagnosis in the etiology
      of renal failure. Ren Fail.
         2006;28(5):389-94.




   Kern EF, Maney M, Miller DR,                NR                   NR                 NR                  NR                   NR
Tseng CL, Tiwari A, Rajan M, Aron
 D, Pogach L. Failure of ICD-9-CM
   codes to identify patients with
comorbid chronic kidney disease in
 diabetes. Health Serv Res. 2006
        Apr;41(2):564-80.
                                             Quality Assessment


                                                                                                  Were Actual Counts
                                                                                                   Provided Such that    Were Confidence
                                         Did a Physician                                              Verification      Intervals Provided
                                        Review the Cases                         Were Reviewers   Measure(s) Could Be     for Verification
                                         for HOI Status?      Percent of           Masked?            Computed?            Measure(s)?
               Citation                      (Yes/No)      Population Verified      (Yes/No)            (Yes/No)              (Yes/No)
  Li B, Evans Graham DJ, Staffa
  Andrade SE,D, Faris P, Dean S,              NR                   NR                 NR                  NR                   NR
      Quan H. Risk Shatin D, La
    JA, Schech SD, adjustment
 Grenade L, Goodman MJ, Platt R,
    performance of Charlson and
 Elixhauser Chan KA. Health plan
 Gurwitz JH,comorbidities in ICD-9
      and ICD-10 databases can
    administrativeadministrative
efficiently identify serious myopathy
              databases.
     and rhabdomyolysis. J Clin
 BMC Health Serv Res. 2008 Jan
 Epidemiol. 2005 Feb;58(2):171-4.
               14;8:12.
   Li SQ, Cunningham J, Cass A.               NR                   NR                 NR                  NR                   NR
 Renal-related deaths in Australia
   1997-1999. Intern Med J. 2004
          May;34(5):259-65.




  Liangos O, Wald R, O'Bell JW,               NR                   NR                 NR                  NR                   NR
   Price L, Pereira BJ, Jaber BL.
  Epidemiology and outcomes of
 acute renal failure in hospitalized
    patients: a national survey.
   Clin J Am Soc Nephrol. 2006
          Jan;1(1):43-51.
                                             Quality Assessment


                                                                                                  Were Actual Counts
                                                                                                   Provided Such that    Were Confidence
                                         Did a Physician                                              Verification      Intervals Provided
                                        Review the Cases                         Were Reviewers   Measure(s) Could Be     for Verification
                                         for HOI Status?      Percent of           Masked?            Computed?            Measure(s)?
               Citation                      (Yes/No)      Population Verified      (Yes/No)            (Yes/No)              (Yes/No)
  Andrade MR, Hashemzadeh M,
  MovahedSE, Graham DJ, Staffa                NR                   NR                 NR                  NR                   NR
     JA, MM. Significant increase
 Jamal Schech SD, Shatin D, La in
 Grenade L, Goodman MJ, Platt R,
  the prevalence of non-rheumatic
 Gurwitz JH, Chan KA. Health with
aortic valve disease in patientsplan
    administrative databases can
       type 2 diabetes mellitus.
efficiently identify serious myopathy
Exp Clin Endocrinol Diabetes. 2007
      and rhabdomyolysis. J Clin
          Feb;115(2):105-7.
 Epidemiol. 2005 Feb;58(2):171-4.
   Moyneur E, Bookhart BK, Mody               NR                   NR                 NR                  NR                   NR
  SH, Fournier AA, Mallett D, Duh
 MS. The economic impact of pre-
   dialysis epoetin alpha on health
care and work loss costs in chronic
    kidney disease: an employer's
    perspective. Dis Manag. 2008
           Feb;11(1):49-58.
 O'Connor AB, Lang VJ, Lurie SJ,              NR                   NR                 NR                  NR                   NR
Lambert DR, Rudmann A, Robbins
     B, Bordley DR. The effect of
     nonteaching services on the
  distribution of inpatient cases for
 internal medicine residents. Acad
     Med. 2009 Feb;84(2):220-5.

     Powell H, Lim LL, Heller                 NR                   NR                 NR                  NR                   NR
RF.Accuracy of administrative data
 to assess comorbidity in patients
 with heart disease. an Australian
perspective. J Clin Epidemiol. 2001
         Jul;54(7):687-93.
                                             Quality Assessment


                                                                                                  Were Actual Counts
                                                                                                   Provided Such that    Were Confidence
                                         Did a Physician                                              Verification      Intervals Provided
                                        Review the Cases                         Were Reviewers   Measure(s) Could Be     for Verification
                                         for HOI Status?      Percent of           Masked?            Computed?            Measure(s)?
               Citation                      (Yes/No)      Population Verified      (Yes/No)            (Yes/No)              (Yes/No)
  Andrade SE, Graham DJ, Staffa
Quan H, Sundararajan V, Halfon P,             NR                   NR                 NR                  NR                   NR
    JA, Schech SD, B, Luthi La
    Fong A, BurnandShatin D,JC,
  Saunders Goodman MJ, Platt R,
 Grenade L, LD, Beck CA, Feasby
 Gurwitz JH, Chan KA. Health plan
 TE, Ghali WA.Coding algorithms
    defining comorbidities in can
for administrative databases ICD-9-
efficiently identify serious myopathy
   CM and ICD-10 administrative
     and rhabdomyolysis. J Clin
        data. Med Care. 2005
 Epidemiol. 2005 Feb;58(2):171-4.
         Nov;43(11):1130-9.




Robbins JD, Kim JJ, Zdon G, Chan              NR                   NR                 NR                  NR                   NR
 WW, Jones J. Resource use and
patient care associated with chronic
 kidney disease in a managed care
setting. J Manag Care Pharm. 2003
        May-Jun;9(3):238-47.



  So L, Evans D, Quan H. ICD-10               Yes                  NR                 NR                  NR                   NR
   coding algorithms for defining
 comorbidities of acute myocardial
 infarction. BMC Health Serv Res.
         2006 Dec 15;6:161
                                             Quality Assessment


                                                                                                  Were Actual Counts
                                                                                                   Provided Such that    Were Confidence
                                         Did a Physician                                              Verification      Intervals Provided
                                        Review the Cases                         Were Reviewers   Measure(s) Could Be     for Verification
                                         for HOI Status?      Percent of           Masked?            Computed?            Measure(s)?
               Citation                      (Yes/No)      Population Verified      (Yes/No)            (Yes/No)              (Yes/No)
  Andrade SE, Graham DJ, Staffa
 Stevens LA, Fares G, Fleming J,              NR                   NR                 NR                  NR                   NR
    JA, Schech SD, Shatin D, La
  Martin D, Murthy K, Qiu J, Stark
 PC, Uhlig Goodman MJ, Levey
 Grenade L,K, Van Lente F,Platt R,
     AS. Low Chan KA. Health plan
 Gurwitz JH, rates of testing and
     diagnostic codes usage can
    administrative databasesin a
efficiently identify serious myopathy
   commercial clinical laboratory:
     and rhabdomyolysis. J Clin
    evidence for lack of physician
    awareness of Feb;58(2):171-4.
 Epidemiol. 2005 chronic kidney
 disease. J Am Soc Nephrol. 2005
         Aug;16(8):2439-48.




 Vermeulen MJ, Tu JV, Schull MJ.              NR                   NR                 NR                  NR                   NR
ICD-10 adaptations of the Ontario
    acute myocardial infarction
mortality prediction rules performed
  as well as the original versions.
      J Clin Epidemiol. 2007
          Sep;60(9):971-4.


Waikar SS, Wald R, Chertow GM,                NR                   NR                 NR                  NR                   NR
 Curhan GC, Winkelmayer WC,
 Liangos O, Sosa MA, Jaber BL.
     Validity of International
Classification of Diseases, Ninth
  Revision, Clinical Modification
Codes for Acute Renal Failure. J
     Am Soc Nephrol. 2006
       Jun;17(6):1688-94.
                                             Quality Assessment


                                                                                                  Were Actual Counts
                                                                                                   Provided Such that    Were Confidence
                                         Did a Physician                                              Verification      Intervals Provided
                                        Review the Cases                         Were Reviewers   Measure(s) Could Be     for Verification
                                         for HOI Status?      Percent of           Masked?            Computed?            Measure(s)?
               Citation                      (Yes/No)      Population Verified      (Yes/No)            (Yes/No)              (Yes/No)
  Andrade SE, Graham DJ, Staffa
 Winkelmayer WC, Schneeweiss S,               NR                   NR                 NR                  NR                   NR
    JA, Schech SD, AR, Avorn J,
   Mogun H, PatrickShatin D, La
 Grenade L, Goodman MJ, Platt R,
    Solomon DH. Identification of
 Gurwitz JH, Chan KA. Health plan
individuals with CKD from Medicare
    administrative databases can
   claims data: a validation study.
efficiently identify serious myopathy
       Am J Kidney Dis. 2005
     and rhabdomyolysis. J Clin
          Aug;46(2):225-32.
 Epidemiol. 2005 Feb;58(2):171-4.




 Wu CL, Anderson GF, Herbert R,               NR                   NR                 NR                  NR                   NR
 Lietman SA, Fleisher LA. Effect of
postoperative epidural analgesia on
  morbidity and mortality after total
     hip replacement surgery in
   medicare patients. Reg Anesth
Pain Med. 2003 Jul-Aug;28(4):271-
                 8.

 Wu CL, Sapirstein A, Herbert R,              NR                   NR                 NR                  NR                   NR
   Rowlingson AJ, Michaels RK,
Petrovic MA, Fleisher LA. Effect of
postoperative epidural analgesia on
 morbidity and mortality after lung
 resection in Medicare patients. J
 Clin Anesth. 2006 Nov;18(7):515-
                20.
                                             Quality Assessment


                                                                                                  Were Actual Counts
                                                                                                   Provided Such that    Were Confidence
                                         Did a Physician                                              Verification      Intervals Provided
                                        Review the Cases                         Were Reviewers   Measure(s) Could Be     for Verification
                                         for HOI Status?      Percent of           Masked?            Computed?            Measure(s)?
                Citation                     (Yes/No)      Population Verified      (Yes/No)            (Yes/No)              (Yes/No)
     Xue JL, Daniels F, DJ, Staffa
  Andrade SE, GrahamStar RA,                  NR                   NR                 NR                  NR                   NR
    JA, Schech SD, Shatin D, La
 Kimmel PL, Eggers PW, Molitoris
 Grenade L, Goodman MJ, Platt R,
    BA, Himmelfarb J, Collins AJ.
  Incidence Chan KA. Health plan
 Gurwitz JH,and mortality of acute
    administrative databases can
       renal failure in Medicare
efficiently identify serious myopathy
 beneficiaries, 1992 to 2001. J Am
Soc and rhabdomyolysis. J Clin
      Nephrol. 2006 Apr;17(4):1135-
 Epidemiol. 2005 Feb;58(2):171-4.
                   42.
               Citation                                     Sample Description (Setting, Population)                                 Verbatim Definition of Outcome as Stated in Source
  Andrade SE, Graham DJ, Staffa             Authors conducted a retrospective study among patients enrolled in 11                      Acute renal failure (ICD-9-CM 584 and subcodes)
    JA, Schech SD, Shatin D, La           geographically dispersed managed care organizations (five in the Midwest,
 Grenade L, Goodman MJ, Platt R, three in the Northeast, two in the Southeast, and one in the West) that included
 Gurwitz JH, Chan KA. Health plan        independent practice associations and staff and group practice models. The
    administrative databases can              source population included patients dispensed a statin (atorvastatin,
efficiently identify serious myopathy      cerivastatin, fluvastatin, lovastatin, pravastatin, or simvastatin) or a fibrate
     and rhabdomyolysis. J Clin        (gemfibrozil or fenofibrate) during the period January 1, 1998 through June 30,
 Epidemiol. 2005 Feb;58(2):171-4.         2001. Among 206,732 new statin users and 15,485 new fibrate users, 194
                                                         hospitalizations met the criteria for chart review.
  Bi P, Parton KA, Whitby M. Co-         Australian mortality data for 1998 were provided by the Australian Bureau of                         584.9 Acute renal failure, unspecified
 existing conditions for deaths from      Statistics (ABS). They covered all deaths in Australia in 1998 and provided                              585.9 Chronic renal failure
infectious and parasitic diseases in information on age, sex, underlying cause of death, and co-existing conditions                             586.9 Renal failure, unspecified
   Australia. Int J Infect Dis. 2004  that contributed to the death. The death certificate was the source of the primary
            Mar;8(2):121-5.             data. In 1998, 1,355 people died from infectious and parasitic diseases as the
                                                                    recorded underlying cause.


Clarke P, Leal J, Kelman C, Smith      The study is based on administrative healthcare use data from WA over a 10-             Renal failure: Any acute intercurrent illness (ICD-9 codes 250.3 and
M, Colagiuri S. Estimating the cost     year period—i.e., in the period from January 1, 1990 to December 31, 1999,            ≥585 and ≤586) and death because of renal failure (ICD-9 codes ≥580
  of complications of diabetes in       which combines records from four separate sources: 1) Medicare insurance                                           and ≤593.9).
  Australia using administrative         claims for medical and diagnostic services which include date and type of
 health-care data. Value Health.         service, the amount claimed, out-of-pocket costs, post-code of the service
  2008 Mar-Apr;11(2):199-206.          provider; 2) information on prescriptions for pharmaceuticals by drug type and
                                            strength; 3) hospital records of inpatient episodes (including day-only
                                        admissions) for public and private hospitals; and 4) WA State death records.
                                           The sample was divided into 33,619 (48%) males and 36,721 females.

Clinard F, Sgro C, Bardou M, Hillon Between January 1995 and December 1999, 55,251 spontaneous reports of                                  Acute renal failure (WHOART code 0618)
     P, Dumas M, Kreft-Jais C,          ADRs for patients aged 1 year or older were collected in the French
  Escousse A, Bonithon-Kopp C.     Pharmacovigilance database. Only systemic NSAIDs excluding salicylate drugs
 Association between concomitant were considered. A case/non-case design was used. Cases were reports of the
 use of several systemic NSAIDs     ADR of interest. Non-cases were all reports of ADRs other than those being
and an excess risk of adverse drug                                  studied.
 reaction. A case/non-case study
          from the French
    Pharmacovigilance system
 database. Eur J Clin Pharmacol.
      2004 Jun;60(4):279-83.
               Citation                                   Sample Description (Setting, Population)                                Verbatim Definition of Outcome as Stated in Source
  Andrade SE, Graham Mack CD,
  Endorf FW, Klein MB, DJ, Staffa          Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project is a partnership of federal and state                                Renal (584)
      Jurkovich GJ, Shatin D, La
    JA, Schech SD, Rivara FP.             governments as well as hospital associations and private data organizations.
 Grenade L, Goodman MJ, Platt R,
 Necrotizing soft-tissue infections:         The NIS is the largest all-payer inpatient database in the United States,
 Gurwitz JH, Chan KA. Health plan
  differences in patients treated at     comprising data from about 14 million hospital stays every year. Currently, this
    administrative databases can
burn centers and non-burn centers.       includes data from 994 hospitals in 37 states. Authors used NIS data from the
efficiently identify serious myopathy
    J Burn Care Res. 2008 Nov-           years 2001 and 2004 for this study. Of the more than 28 million patients in the
     and rhabdomyolysis. J Clin
           Dec;29(6):933-8.               NIS database, a total of 10,940 patients (0.04%) were identified as having a
 Epidemiol. 2005 Feb;58(2):171-4.                            NSTI (necrotizing soft-tissue infections)
  Fischer MJ, Brimhall BB, Parikh       Authors obtained the hospital case mix datasets of 23 Massachusetts hospitals        The ICD-9-CM diagnostic codes consistent with ARF included 584.5
  CR. Uncomplicated acute renal            for a 2-year period (1999–2000) from the Massachusetts Division of Health            (ARF/tubular necrosis), 584.6 (ARF/cortical necrosis), 584.7
failure and post-hospital care: a not   Care Finance and Policy (DHCFP) to perform all analyses. They identified 2,128      (ARF/medullary necrosis), 584.8 (ARF/necrosis), and 584.9 (ARF/ not
   so uncomplicated illness. Am J       adult patients whose primary reason for hospitalization was uncomplicated ARF.                             otherwise specified).
    Nephrol. 2008;28(3):523-30.




  García-Rodríguez LA, Massó-             The GPRD is a large longitudinal primary care database that contains            Acute renal failure hospitalization for abrupt onset of kidney damage
   González EL, Wallander MA,        information entered by approximately 1,500 primary care physicians covering a           characterized by at least doubling of serum creatinine levels to
    Johansson S. The safety of        population of 3 million individuals representative of the UK general population.   >laboratory ULN in patients with normal baseline renal function or an
 rosuvastatin in comparison with     10,289 patients on rosuvastatin and 117,102 taking other statins were included.     increase to at least twice the laboratory ULN in patients with baseline
other statins in over 100,000 statin                                                                                   renal insufficiency (defined as 1.5 times ULN). Additional characteristics
     users in UK primary care.                                                                                          included active sediment, azotaemia, and/or oliguria. Cases secondary
  Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf.                                                                                                         to rhabdomyolysis were evaluated separately.
     2008 Oct;17(10):943-52.
               Citation                                Sample Description (Setting, Population)                                 Verbatim Definition of Outcome as Stated in Source
  Andrade UG, Clarke DJ, Staffa
Gerdtham SE, GrahamP, Hayes A, This study is based on analysis of data from the Swedish NDR. The NDR was                 Renal failure, or dialysis ICD-10 code N18 or procedural codes V9211,
    JA, Schech SD, Estimating the
 Gudbjornsdottir S. Shatin D, La        launched in 1996. A total of 212,981 patients are currently registered. This       V9212, V9223, V9531, V9532 and ICD-10 codes Z491 and Z492
  cost of L, Goodman MJ, Platt R,
 Grenadediabetes mellitus-related      dataset has been linked to the Swedish discharge register from the National
 Gurwitz JH, Chan KA. Health plan
events from inpatient admissions in    Board of Health and Welfare and to the National Causes of Death Statistics
    administrative databases can
    Sweden using administrative       (Statistics Sweden) to provide information on hospital episodes and mortality.
efficiently identify serious myopathy The sample comprised 101,233 (56%) men and 78,516 women ranging in age
         hospitalization data.
     and rhabdomyolysis. J Clin
        Pharmacoeconomics.                         from 35– 94 years and identified as having diabetes.
 Epidemiol. 2005 Feb;58(2):171-4.
          2009;27(1):81-90.

 Heller JA, Weinberg A, Arons R,    The National Hospital Discharge Survey (NHDS) is a large national data set                              Renal failure (584.9, 585, 403.91)
Krishnasastry KV, Lyon RT, Deitch developed in 1965 by the National Center for Health Care Statistics. Information
JS, Schulick AH, Bush HL Jr, Kent for this database is obtained through evaluation of inpatient records from acute
 KC. Two decades of abdominal        care, nonfederally funded hospitals. From the nation’s approximately 6,000
 aortic aneurysm repair: have we hospitals, a sample of approximately 500 is selected on a yearly basis. Over the
made any progress? J Vasc Surg.     19-year study period, 358,521 patients underwent eAAA (elective abdominal
    2000 Dec;32(6):1091-100.                                  aortic aneurysm) repair.

Hellman RN, Decker BS, Murray M. The Regenstrief Medical Record System was used to extract laboratory data                For the purposes of this study, renal failure was defined as a level of
 Elevated serum creatinine and a       from March 1, 1992, to March 1, 2001. This electronic medical record contains                         serum creatinine ≥2.0 mg/dL.
      normal urinalysis: a short         inpatient laboratory and other clinical data for patients admitted to Wishard
differential diagnosis in the etiology Memorial Hospital, Indianapolis, Indiana. Over the nine-year time interval from
      of renal failure. Ren Fail.        March 1, 1992, to March 1, 2001, there were a total of 190,343 admissions
         2006;28(5):389-94.                within the Regenstrief database. A subset of this group, 38,257 patients,
                                                     comprised those with the target discharge diagnoses.




   Kern EF, Maney M, Miller DR,        The study sample was drawn from the national VA population of 566,509                                     Chronic renal failure
Tseng CL, Tiwari A, Rajan M, Aron       veterans with diabetes alive on September 30, 1999. Patient-level data              403.11, 403.91, 404.12, 404.13, 404.92, 404.93, 585, 586, 587,
 D, Pogach L. Failure of ICD-9-CM     elements in VA records included demographics, visits and hospitalizations,
   codes to identify patients with providers, diagnosis and procedure codes, and values of serum creatinine tests.                          Acute renal failure and disease
comorbid chronic kidney disease in The study sample of 263,730 individuals with diabetes contained the following          403.00, 403.01, 404.00, 404.01, 404.02, 404.03, 405.01, 453.3, 580,
 diabetes. Health Serv Res. 2006 proportions of individuals by stage of CKD: (No CKD) 68.4%; (Stage 3) 28.7%;                        584, 590.1, 590.2, 590.3, 590.8, 593.81, 866
        Apr;41(2):564-80.           (Stage 4) 2.5%; (Stage 5) 0.4%. The overall prevalence of CKD, defined in the
                                                study as Stages 3, 4, or 5, was 31.6% (83,338/263,730)
               Citation                                   Sample Description (Setting, Population)                                 Verbatim Definition of Outcome as Stated in Source
  Li B, Evans Graham DJ, Staffa
  Andrade SE,D, Faris P, Dean S,      This study employed hospital discharge abstract data (DAD) from the province                                   Chronic renal failure
      Quan H. Risk Shatin D, La
    JA, Schech SD, adjustment         of British Columbia, Canada between April 01, 1997, and March 31, 2004. The                                       ICD-10: N18
 Grenade L, Goodman MJ, Platt R,
    performance of Charlson and         DAD contains demographic, administrative and clinical data for all hospital                                      ICD-9: 585
 Elixhauser Chan KA. Health plan
 Gurwitz JH,comorbidities in ICD-9                                discharges in the province.
      and ICD-10 databases can
    administrativeadministrative
efficiently identify serious myopathy
              databases.
     and rhabdomyolysis. J Clin
 BMC Health Serv Res. 2008 Jan
 Epidemiol. 2005 Feb;58(2):171-4.
               14;8:12.
   Li SQ, Cunningham J, Cass A.       The ABS dataset included information on the underlying cause of death, up to           Renal causes were defined as including diseases of the kidney and
 Renal-related deaths in Australia      12 other conditions listed on the death certificate and the age, sex, place of      ureter (ICD-10 codes N00–N29), diabetic renal disease (E10.2, E11.2,
   1997-1999. Intern Med J. 2004         residence and indigenous status of the deceased. Of the 378,832 deaths            E13.2 and E14.2), hypertensive renal disease (I12, I13, I15.0 and I15.1)
          May;34(5):259-65.            analyzed, renal disease was listed as the underlying cause of death for 7,888          and congenital malformations of the kidney and ureter (Q60–Q63).
                                          (2.1%). For an additional 28,012 (7.4% of all deaths), renal disease was         Renal causes were further subdivided into ‘renal failure’ and ‘other renal
                                           recorded as an associated cause. Thus, approximately one in 10 death                                          disease’.
                                                 certificates (9.5%) listed renal disease as a cause of death.
                                                                                                                                                         Renal failure:
                                                                                                                                   Diabetic renal failure (E10.23, E11.23, E13.23, E14.23)
                                                                                                                                       Hypertensive renal failure (I12.0, I13.1, I13.2)
                                                                                                                                                   Acute renal failure (N17)
                                                                                                                                                  Chronic renal failure (N18)
                                                                                                                                               Unspecified renal failure (N19)

                                                                                                                                                    Other renal disease:
                                                                                                                            Diabetic renal disease (E10.2, E11.2, E13.2, E14.2 (excluding E10.23,
                                                                                                                                                 E11.23, E13.23 and E14.23)
                                                                                                                                 Hypertensive renal disease (I12.9, I13.0, I13.9, I15.0, I15.1)
                                                                                                                                Other diseases of the kidney and ureter (N00–N16, N20–N29)
                                                                                                                                Congenital malformation of the kidney and ureter (Q60–Q63)



  Liangos O, Wald R, O'Bell JW,         This annual survey comprises a sample of all nonfederal acute care hospitals             ARF was defined by the presence of any of the following ICD-9-CM
   Price L, Pereira BJ, Jaber BL.          (with an average patient LOS of <30 d) in the United States and includes            codes: 584.0 (ARF, unspecified), 584.5 (acute tubular necrosis), 584.6
  Epidemiology and outcomes of            approximately 500 hospitals, with equal representation from all geographic           (cortical ARF), 584.7 (medullary ARF), 584.8 (ARF with other specified
 acute renal failure in hospitalized     regions. This survey excludes federal, military, and Department of Veterans                 pathologic lesion), and 584.9 (ARF not otherwise specified).
    patients: a national survey.       Affairs hospitals; institutional hospital units (e.g., prison hospitals); and hospitals
   Clin J Am Soc Nephrol. 2006          with fewer than six beds. Approximately 1.9% of hospitalizations in the United
          Jan;1(1):43-51.               States included a discharge diagnosis of ARF during the study period of 2001.
               Citation                                   Sample Description (Setting, Population)                                    Verbatim Definition of Outcome as Stated in Source
  MovahedSE, Graham DJ, Staffa
  Andrade MR, Hashemzadeh M,            Authors used patients’ treatment files (PTFs) from the Austin Automation Center         Acute renal failure (584.5, 584.6, 584.7, 584.8, 684.9), chronic renal
 Jamal Schech SD, Shatin D, La in
     JA, MM. Significant increase           that have been available since July 1969. The PTFs document inpatients ’                                      failure (585, 586)
 Grenade L, Goodman MJ, Platt R,
  the prevalence of non-rheumatic        diagnosis from Veterans Health Administration (VHA) hospitals, extended care
 Gurwitz JH, Chan KA. Health with
aortic valve disease in patientsplan       discharges and non-VA hospital discharges at the VHA expense. The PTFs
    administrative databases can
       type 2 diabetes mellitus.            recorded demographics of patients and their discharge diagnosis. Authors
efficiently identify serious myopathy
Exp Clin Endocrinol Diabetes. 2007         studied 293,124 patients with DM and 552,624 control patients hospitalized
      and rhabdomyolysis. J Clin
          Feb;115(2):105-7.                                    between the years 1990 and 2000.
 Epidemiol. 2005 Feb;58(2):171-4.
   Moyneur E, Bookhart BK, Mody           Anonymous health and disability insurance claims data were used to assess           The inclusion criteria were at least 2 medical claims carrying a diagnosis
  SH, Fournier AA, Mallett D, Duh          healthcare and productivity work loss costs. The claims database included            code for CKD (ICD-9: 585, 586, 588, 250.4, 403, 404) in a 3-month
 MS. The economic impact of pre-           approximately 5 million employees, their spouses, and dependents from 31            period and at least 1 dialysis claim, with the first one at least 60 days
   dialysis epoetin alpha on health      large, self-insured US companies. A total of 1,128 patients met the criteria for                              after the first CKD claim.
care and work loss costs in chronic       the pre-dialysis CKD group. From this group, 196 patients were classified as
    kidney disease: an employer's         having untreated anemia (no-EPO) and 199 patients were treated with EPO.
    perspective. Dis Manag. 2008
           Feb;11(1):49-58.
 O'Connor AB, Lang VJ, Lurie SJ,           Authors included only medical patients admitted to general medical floors in                               584—Acute renal failure
Lambert DR, Rudmann A, Robbins          either of two teaching hospitals affiliated with the University of Rochester School
     B, Bordley DR. The effect of       of Medicine and Dentistry in Rochester, New York: Strong Memorial Hospital, a
     nonteaching services on the              750-bed tertiary care referral center; and Highland Hospital, a 268-bed
  distribution of inpatient cases for   community hospital. The combined data were for 6,907 patients, of whom 1,976
 internal medicine residents. Acad         (29%) were covered by medical residents and 4,931 (71%) were covered by
     Med. 2009 Feb;84(2):220-5.                                                 NTSs.

     Powell H, Lim LL, Heller       The subjects in the study included patients who had been discharged from any                                        Renal disease
RF.Accuracy of administrative data     hospital in the Hunter Region, in the state of NSW. There are 23 hospitals                              582—Chronic Glomerulonephritis
 to assess comorbidity in patients   ranging from tertiary care hospitals to community nonacute, including private                583—Nephritis & nephropathy not specified as acute or chronic
 with heart disease. an Australian     hospitals, in the region. Hospital discharge codes were available for these                                  584—Acute renal failure
perspective. J Clin Epidemiol. 2001   patients. Out of 2,993 eligible subjects, 1,765 consented to the extraction of                               585—Chronic renal failure
         Jul;54(7):687-93.                                    data from their medical records.                                                  586—Renal failure unspecified
                                                                                                                                               587—Renal sclerosis, unspecified
                                                                                                                                      588—Disorders relating from impaired renal function
                                                                                                                                            589—Small kidney of unknown cause
                                                                                                                                                   590—Infections of kidney
               Citation                                  Sample Description (Setting, Population)                               Verbatim Definition of Outcome as Stated in Source
  Andrade SE, Graham DJ, Staffa
Quan H, Sundararajan V, Halfon P,         The coding algorithms were applied to hospital discharge data for patients                                 Renal disease:
    Fong A, BurnandShatin D,JC,
    JA, Schech SD, B, Luthi La           discharged between April l, 2001, and March 31, 2003, from Calgary Health              Deyo’s ICD-9-CM: 582.x, 583–583.7, 585.x, 586.x, 588.x
 Grenade L, LD, Beck CA, Feasby
  Saunders Goodman MJ, Platt R,                    Region hospitals, in the province of Alberta, Canada.                 ICD-10: I12.0, I13.1, N03.2–N03.7, N05.2–N05.7, N18.x, N19.x, N25.0,
 Gurwitz JH, Chan KA. Health plan
 TE, Ghali WA.Coding algorithms                                                                                                                 Z49.0–Z49.2, Z94.0, Z99.2
    defining comorbidities in can
for administrative databases ICD-9-                                                                                       Enhanced ICD-9-CM: 403.01, 403.11, 403.91, 404.02, 404.03, 404.12,
efficiently identify serious myopathy
   CM and ICD-10 administrative                                                                                          404.13, 404.92, 404.93, 582.x, 583.0–583.7, 585.x, 586.x, 588.0, V42.0,
     and rhabdomyolysis. J Clin
        data. Med Care. 2005                                                                                                                          V45.1, V56.x
 Epidemiol. 2005 Feb;58(2):171-4.
         Nov;43(11):1130-9.




Robbins JD, Kim JJ, Zdon G, Chan A retrospective analysis of administrative claims was performed using a large            To identify eligible CKD patients in the claims database, new patients
 WW, Jones J. Resource use and managed care database. In 2001, enrollment in the plan was approximately 15               initiated on dialysis therapy, were selected using ICD-9-CM procedure
patient care associated with chronic million average covered lives on any given day. Nearly one third (5 million) of       codes (39.95, 54.98), ICD-9-CM diagnostic codes (996.56, 996.68,
 kidney disease in a managed care        these lives had medical claims that were adjudicated through one data           V45.1, V56, V56.1, V56.2, V56.0, V56.31, V56.32, V56.8), CPT (90921,
setting. J Manag Care Pharm. 2003     processing system, and they represent the data that was the focus of this              90925, 90935, 90937, 90940, 90945, 90947, 90997, 90999), and
        May-Jun;9(3):238-47.                             research. The final sample consisted of                          HCPCS codes (A4690, A4820, A4900, A4901, A4905, E1510, E1590,
                                                                     2,114 patients.                                            E1592, E1594, E1632, E1635) indicative of dialysis therapy.


  So L, Evans D, Quan H. ICD-10         A simple random sample from four teaching hospitals was used to select 4,008                              Acute Renal Failure
   coding algorithms for defining           patients' charts to be reviewed. These records were patients who were                              ICD-9: 584.x, 586.x, 788.5
 comorbidities of acute myocardial         discharged between July and December 2003 in the province of Alberta,                              ICD-10: N17.x, N19.x, R34.x
 infarction. BMC Health Serv Res.        Canada. Of these 4,008 records, there were 193 patients with AMI, based on
         2006 Dec 15;6:161              their chart information. Authors included these 193 patients for assessment of                           Chronic Renal Failure
                                             validity of ICD-9 and ICD-10 data in recording the nine comorbidities                       ICD-9: 585.x, 403.x, 404.x, 996.7, v451
                                                                                                                                           ICD-10: N18.x, T82.4, Z49.2, Z99.2
               Citation                                   Sample Description (Setting, Population)                            Verbatim Definition of Outcome as Stated in Source
  Andrade SE, Graham DJ, Staffa
 Stevens LA, Fares G, Fleming J, The study population included all people who were 40 years of age or older and           CKD, defined as estimated GFR <60 ml/min per 1.73 m2, among
    JA, Schech SD, Shatin D, La
  Martin D, Murthy K, Qiu J, Stark had at least one laboratory test performed between April 1, 2002, and March 31,                patients in whom serum creatinine was measured.
 PC, Uhlig Goodman MJ, Levey
 Grenade L,K, Van Lente F,Platt R, 2003, at the Laboratory Corporation of America (LabCorp) regional laboratory
     AS. Low Chan KA. Health plan
 Gurwitz JH, rates of testing and      located in Columbus, OH. This laboratory serves a population of 35 million in Acute renal failure; chronic renal failure; renal failure (unspecified); renal
     diagnostic codes usage can
    administrative databasesin a        the Ohio, West Virginia, Illinois, northern Indiana, and western Pennsylvania  sclerosis (unspecified); disorder resulting from impaired renal function,
efficiently identify serious myopathy regions. LabCorp provides approximately 20% of the medical laboratory testing
   commercial clinical laboratory:                                                                                                                 hematuria, renal
     and rhabdomyolysis. J Clin
    evidence for lack of physician       to this region. A total of 277,111 individuals had 4,015,562 tests in 489,389  agenesis, and dysgenesis; proteinuria; abnormal kidney function test;
 Epidemiol. 2005 chronic kidney
    awareness of Feb;58(2):171-4.      visits that were performed and processed at the Columbus, OH, laboratory of           urinary complications 584–588, 599.7, 791.0, 794.4, 997.5
 disease. J Am Soc Nephrol. 2005                                            LabCorp.
         Aug;16(8):2439-48.




 Vermeulen MJ, Tu JV, Schull MJ. Patients admitted to Ontario hospitals with a most responsible diagnosis of AMI                                    Acute renal failure
ICD-10 adaptations of the Ontario    from April 1, 2002 to March 31, 2004 in the CIHI hospital discharge abstract                       ICD-9 revision code: 584.x, 586.x, 788.5
    acute myocardial infarction             database were selected. 37,271 AMI patients were included.                              ICD-10 revision coded (Canada): N17.x, N19, R34
mortality prediction rules performed
  as well as the original versions.                                                                                       Chronic renal failure ICD-9 revision code: 585.x, 403.x, 404.x, 996.7,
      J Clin Epidemiol. 2007                                                                                                                              V451
          Sep;60(9):971-4.                                                                                                  ICD-10 revision coded (Canada): I12, I13, N18.x, T82.4, Z99.2


Waikar SS, Wald R, Chertow GM, Authors analyzed linked administrative and laboratory data from individuals who             Authors identified patients with administrative codes for ARF by the
 Curhan GC, Winkelmayer WC, were admitted to three academic teaching hospitals in Boston, MA: Brigham and               presence of ICD-9-CM codes 584.5, 584.6, 584.7, 584.8, or 584.9 in any
 Liangos O, Sosa MA, Jaber BL. Women’s Hospital (BWH), Massachusetts General Hospital (MGH) and Caritas-                                          of the listed diagnoses.
     Validity of International     St. Elizabeth’s Medical Center (CSEMC). 99,629 discharges from three
Classification of Diseases, Ninth              teaching hospitals in Boston, MA were included.                           ARF-D was identified by the additional presence of any of the following
  Revision, Clinical Modification                                                                                       ICD-9-CM codes for hemodialysis: Procedure code 39.95 (hemodialysis)
Codes for Acute Renal Failure. J                                                                                         or diagnosis codes V45.1 (renal dialysis status), V56.0 (extracorporeal
     Am Soc Nephrol. 2006                                                                                                     dialysis), or V56.1 (fitting and adjustment of dialysis catheter).
       Jun;17(6):1688-94.
               Citation                               Sample Description (Setting, Population)                               Verbatim Definition of Outcome as Stated in Source
 Winkelmayer WC, Schneeweiss S, Medicare beneficiaries in Pennsylvania who were also enrolled in that state’s
  Andrade SE, Graham DJ, Staffa                                                                                       The following diagnosis groups were identified from all medical claims
    JA, Schech SD, AR, Avorn J,
   Mogun H, PatrickShatin D, La      Pharmaceutical Assistance Contract for the Elderly (PACE) in 1999 and/or 2000 using ICD-9 codes from all healthcare encounters (Medicare Part A and
 Grenade L, Goodman MJ, Platt R, formed the available source population. The PACE and the embedded PACE
    Solomon DH. Identification of                                                                                      Part B; i.e., inpatient and outpatient claims) within 12 months before
 Gurwitz JH, Chan KA. Health plan
individuals with CKD from Medicare Needs Enhancement Tier are state-run pharmacy benefits programs that pay admission: chronic renal insufficiency (CRI), diabetic nephropathy (DN),
    administrative databases can
   claims data: a validation study.     for medications for low- and middle-income elderly persons (annual gross         hypertensive nephropathy (HypN), acute renal failure (ARF), and
efficiently identify serious myopathy income ≤$23,500 if single, $31,500 if married). Detailed chart abstraction was
       Am J Kidney Dis. 2005                                                                                                          miscellaneous other renal disease (MISC).
     and rhabdomyolysis. J Clin
          Aug;46(2):225-32.                                    available for 2,022 individual.
 Epidemiol. 2005 Feb;58(2):171-4.                                                                                     The presence of each diagnosis group was compared with reference to
                                                                                                                     the gold standard for CKD of eGFR less than 60 mL/min/1.73 m2 (<1.00
                                                                                                                                                    mL/s/1.73 m²).




 Wu CL, Anderson GF, Herbert R,         Using a 5% nationally random sample of the Medicare population from                             Acute renal failure: 584.X or 586.X
 Lietman SA, Fleisher LA. Effect of 1994–1999, authors identified all patients who underwent total hip replacement.
postoperative epidural analgesia on    The Medicare program creates a research database containing 5% of all
  morbidity and mortality after total Medicare beneficiaries by randomly selecting individuals based on the final 2
     hip replacement surgery in       digits of the beneficiary’s social security number with the final 4 digits of the
   medicare patients. Reg Anesth      social security number assigned randomly. From the 5% random sample of
Pain Med. 2003 Jul-Aug;28(4):271-      1994–1999 Medicare claims data, authors identified 23,136 patients who
                 8.                                          underwent total hip replacement.

 Wu CL, Sapirstein A, Herbert R,     A 5% nationally random sample of the Medicare population from 1997–2001                            Acute renal failure, 584.X or 586.X
   Rowlingson AJ, Michaels RK,        was obtained and used for the analysis. The Medicare program creates a
Petrovic MA, Fleisher LA. Effect of research database containing 5% of all Medicare beneficiaries. This database
postoperative epidural analgesia on contains a nationally representative random sample of Medicare beneficiaries
 morbidity and mortality after lung     and information on all inpatient hospital, skilled nursing facility, home
 resection in Medicare patients. J    healthcare, outpatient hospital, and physician encounters incurred. 1,741
 Clin Anesth. 2006 Nov;18(7):515-       patients who underwent segmental excision of the lung and received
                20.                                postoperative epidural analgesia were included.
                Citation                                Sample Description (Setting, Population)                              Verbatim Definition of Outcome as Stated in Source
     Xue JL, Daniels F, DJ, Staffa Data on patients in the Medicare 5% sample and a related Medicare Enrollment ARF was determined on the basis of ICD-9-CM diagnosis codes, coded
  Andrade SE, GrahamStar RA,
    JA, Schech SD, Shatin D, La
 Kimmel PL, Eggers PW, Molitoris       Denominator File were obtained from the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid      as either the principal or a secondary diagnosis. In the ICD-9-CM, ARF
 Grenade L, Goodman MJ, Platt R,
    BA, Himmelfarb J, Collins AJ.        Services. The Medicare 5% Sample Beneficiary Standard Analytical File        is defined as “the sudden, severe onset of inadequate kidney function.”
  Incidence Chan KA. Health plan
 Gurwitz JH,and mortality of acute     contains data on Medicare beneficiaries who have particular digits in the last   Five subcodes (584.5, 584.6, 584.7, 584.8, and 584.9) under a main
    administrative databases can
       renal failure in Medicare      two positions of their social security numbers. For the years 1992–2001, there                   code (584) are used to designate ARF.
efficiently identify serious myopathy
 beneficiaries, 1992 to 2001. J Am              were 5,403,015 hospital discharges in the study population.
Soc and rhabdomyolysis. J Clin
      Nephrol. 2006 Apr;17(4):1135-
 Epidemiol. 2005 Feb;58(2):171-4.
                   42.
               Citation               Limitations to HOI Definition Mentioned in the Discussion          Prevalence/Incidence
  Andrade SE, Graham DJ, Staffa                          None related to HOI                                     NR
    JA, Schech SD, Shatin D, La
 Grenade L, Goodman MJ, Platt R,
 Gurwitz JH, Chan KA. Health plan
    administrative databases can
efficiently identify serious myopathy
     and rhabdomyolysis. J Clin
 Epidemiol. 2005 Feb;58(2):171-4.

  Bi P, Parton KA, Whitby M. Co-                           None related to HOI                                   NR
 existing conditions for deaths from
infectious and parasitic diseases in
   Australia. Int J Infect Dis. 2004
           Mar;8(2):121-5.



Clarke P, Leal J, Kelman C, Smith                          None related to HOI                                   NR
M, Colagiuri S. Estimating the cost
  of complications of diabetes in
  Australia using administrative
 health-care data. Value Health.
  2008 Mar-Apr;11(2):199-206.




Clinard F, Sgro C, Bardou M, Hillon Limitations due to spontaneous reporting of HOI including lack               NR
     P, Dumas M, Kreft-Jais C,       of identification of the reaction as being drug related, the fact
  Escousse A, Bonithon-Kopp C.         that the adverse effect induced by a given drug is too well
 Association between concomitant     known, the media coverage of the reaction, and time elapse
 use of several systemic NSAIDs         since marketing or the severity of the ADR. It cannot be
and an excess risk of adverse drug    excluded that the associations authors found between the
 reaction. A case/non-case study      number of NSAIDs and some ADRs could be due to over-
          from the French            reporting of side effects in the presence of several NSAIDs.
    Pharmacovigilance system
 database. Eur J Clin Pharmacol.
      2004 Jun;60(4):279-83.
               Citation               Limitations to HOI Definition Mentioned in the Discussion            Prevalence/Incidence
  Andrade SE, Graham Mack CD,
  Endorf FW, Klein MB, DJ, Staffa       A principal limitation of this and other large administrative              NR
      Jurkovich GJ, Shatin D, La
    JA, Schech SD, Rivara FP.         databases is the lack of specific indicators of patient condition.
 Grenade L, Goodman MJ, Platt R,
 Necrotizing soft-tissue infections:
 Gurwitz JH, Chan KA. Health plan
  differences in patients treated at
    administrative databases can
burn centers and non-burn centers.
efficiently identify serious myopathy
    J Burn Care Res. 2008 Nov-
     and rhabdomyolysis. J Clin
           Dec;29(6):933-8.
 Epidemiol. 2005 Feb;58(2):171-4.
  Fischer MJ, Brimhall BB, Parikh Although DRG and ICD-9-CM codes for ARF have been used in                        NR
  CR. Uncomplicated acute renal       many recent studies, this methodology is potentially limited by
failure and post-hospital care: a not               error and disease misclassification
   so uncomplicated illness. Am J
    Nephrol. 2008;28(3):523-30.




  García-Rodríguez LA, Massó-                               None related to HOI                                    NR
   González EL, Wallander MA,
    Johansson S. The safety of
 rosuvastatin in comparison with
other statins in over 100,000 statin
     users in UK primary care.
  Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf.
     2008 Oct;17(10):943-52.
               Citation               Limitations to HOI Definition Mentioned in the Discussion                     Prevalence/Incidence
  Andrade UG, Clarke DJ, Staffa
Gerdtham SE, GrahamP, Hayes A,                           None related to HOI                                                 NR
    JA, Schech SD, Estimating the
 Gudbjornsdottir S. Shatin D, La
  cost of L, Goodman MJ, Platt R,
 Grenadediabetes mellitus-related
 Gurwitz JH, Chan KA. Health plan
events from inpatient admissions in
    administrative databases can
    Sweden using administrative
efficiently identify serious myopathy
         hospitalization data.
     and rhabdomyolysis. J Clin
        Pharmacoeconomics.
 Epidemiol. 2005 Feb;58(2):171-4.
          2009;27(1):81-90.

 Heller JA, Weinberg A, Arons R,                           None related to HOI                                               NR
Krishnasastry KV, Lyon RT, Deitch
JS, Schulick AH, Bush HL Jr, Kent
 KC. Two decades of abdominal
 aortic aneurysm repair: have we
made any progress? J Vasc Surg.
    2000 Dec;32(6):1091-100.

Hellman RN, Decker BS, Murray M. The hypertensive nephrosclerosis (HN) diagnostic category may                               NR
 Elevated serum creatinine and a        have a frequency that is spuriously elevated. Through coding
      normal urinalysis: a short        error, this diagnostic category may have erroneously included
differential diagnosis in the etiology   patients whose primary diagnosis is actually renal vascular
      of renal failure. Ren Fail.          disease or renal artery stenosis. Consequently, the renal
         2006;28(5):389-94.            vascular disease and renal artery stenosis diagnostic categories
                                                          may be under-represented.

                                         A large percentage of patients are found in the “ARF
                                   unspecified” diagnostic category. Unfortunately, a lack of initial
                                     coding precision has relegated a large percentage of these
                                          patients to a mostly undefined diagnostic category.
   Kern EF, Maney M, Miller DR,     Study may overestimate the sensitivity of diagnosis codes to          Prevalence of CKD was 31.6% in the veteran
Tseng CL, Tiwari A, Rajan M, Aron      identify individuals with CKD, while underestimating the                      sample with diabetes.
 D, Pogach L. Failure of ICD-9-CM specificity. Individuals covered by healthcare plans in addition to
   codes to identify patients with  Medicare fee-for-service and VA during the year of the study
comorbid chronic kidney disease in may have had missing claims, possibly diminishing ability to find
 diabetes. Health Serv Res. 2006     encounters with a renal-related code. Age or gender bias in
        Apr;41(2):564-80.          coding renal diagnoses might alter the sensitivity and specificity
                                      of algorithm to identify younger individuals, or women with
                                                           diabetes and CKD.
               Citation               Limitations to HOI Definition Mentioned in the Discussion                     Prevalence/Incidence
  Li B, Evans Graham DJ, Staffa
  Andrade SE,D, Faris P, Dean S,         Authors assessed comorbidity measures in two different                              NR
    JA, Schech SD, adjustment
      Quan H. Risk Shatin D, La         periods, 1997–2000 for ICD-9 and 2001–2004 for ICD-10.
 Grenade L, Goodman MJ, Platt R,
    performance of Charlson and
 Elixhauser Chan KA. Health plan
 Gurwitz JH,comorbidities in ICD-9
      and ICD-10 databases can
    administrativeadministrative
efficiently identify serious myopathy
              databases.
     and rhabdomyolysis. J Clin
 BMC Health Serv Res. 2008 Jan
 Epidemiol. 2005 Feb;58(2):171-4.
               14;8:12.
   Li SQ, Cunningham J, Cass A.                          None related to HOI                            Of 378,832 recorded deaths, renal disease was
 Renal-related deaths in Australia                                                                    coded as the underlying cause for 7,888 (2.1%) and
   1997-1999. Intern Med J. 2004                                                                        as an associated cause for an additional 28 012
          May;34(5):259-65.                                                                                                 (7.4%).




  Liangos O, Wald R, O'Bell JW,        The primary limitation of this study was dependence on ICD-9- Approximately 1.9% of hospitalizations in the United
   Price L, Pereira BJ, Jaber BL.      CM codes to ascertain the diagnosis of ARF. As administrative States included a discharge diagnosis of ARF during
  Epidemiology and outcomes of         coding is dependent on accurate documentation by healthcare                 the study period of 2001.
 acute renal failure in hospitalized   professionals and hospital “coders,” there is an unquestionable
    patients: a national survey.                       potential for misclassification.
   Clin J Am Soc Nephrol. 2006
          Jan;1(1):43-51.
               Citation               Limitations to HOI Definition Mentioned in the Discussion       Prevalence/Incidence
  Andrade MR, Hashemzadeh M,
  MovahedSE, Graham DJ, Staffa                             None related to HOI                                NR
     JA, MM. Significant increase
 Jamal Schech SD, Shatin D, La in
 Grenade L, Goodman MJ, Platt R,
  the prevalence of non-rheumatic
 Gurwitz JH, Chan KA. Health with
aortic valve disease in patientsplan
    administrative databases can
       type 2 diabetes mellitus.
efficiently identify serious myopathy
Exp Clin Endocrinol Diabetes. 2007
      and rhabdomyolysis. J Clin
          Feb;115(2):105-7.
 Epidemiol. 2005 Feb;58(2):171-4.
   Moyneur E, Bookhart BK, Mody                            None related to HOI                                NR
  SH, Fournier AA, Mallett D, Duh
 MS. The economic impact of pre-
   dialysis epoetin alpha on health
care and work loss costs in chronic
    kidney disease: an employer's
    perspective. Dis Manag. 2008
           Feb;11(1):49-58.
 O'Connor AB, Lang VJ, Lurie SJ,        Data are derived from hospital billing records, which might           NR
Lambert DR, Rudmann A, Robbins                          contain errors in coding.
     B, Bordley DR. The effect of
     nonteaching services on the
  distribution of inpatient cases for
 internal medicine residents. Acad
     Med. 2009 Feb;84(2):220-5.

     Powell H, Lim LL, Heller          The administrative data were limited to hospital discharge             NR
RF.Accuracy of administrative data    codes only. Further, the medical record review was limited to
 to assess comorbidity in patients      the one admission. Review of medical records is only as
 with heart disease. an Australian                     accurate as the reviewer.
perspective. J Clin Epidemiol. 2001
         Jul;54(7):687-93.
               Citation               Limitations to HOI Definition Mentioned in the Discussion             Prevalence/Incidence
  Andrade SE, Graham DJ, Staffa
Quan H, Sundararajan V, Halfon P,         The ICD-9-CM and ICD-10 coding algorithms were not                        NR
    JA, Schech SD, B, Luthi La
    Fong A, BurnandShatin D,JC,        assessed in the same data (i.e., ICD-9-CM in year 2001 and
  Saunders Goodman MJ, Platt R, ICD-10 in year 2002). A second limitation is that the validity of
 Grenade L, LD, Beck CA, Feasby
 Gurwitz JH, Chan KA. Health plan
 TE, Ghali WA.Coding algorithms         the coding algorithms, and specifically their sensitivity and
    defining comorbidities in can
for administrative databases ICD-9-     specificity relative to a criterion standard (e.g., chart review
efficiently identify serious myopathy
   CM and ICD-10 administrative         data), remains to be determined. The third limitation is that
     and rhabdomyolysis. J Clin
        data. Med Care. 2005          authors restricted the ICD-10 codes selected to the fourth digit
 Epidemiol. 2005 Feb;58(2):171-4. (i.e., the first letter and 3 numerical codes) to generalize coding
         Nov;43(11):1130-9.
                                                         algorithms to other countries.



Robbins JD, Kim JJ, Zdon G, Chan                             None related to HOI                                    NR
 WW, Jones J. Resource use and
patient care associated with chronic
 kidney disease in a managed care
setting. J Manag Care Pharm. 2003
        May-Jun;9(3):238-47.



  So L, Evans D, Quan H. ICD-10         The first limitation was low frequencies for comorbidities in the           NR
   coding algorithms for defining          chart review data, making it difficult to draw inferences to a
 comorbidities of acute myocardial        broader population. Secondly, having chart review data from
 infarction. BMC Health Serv Res.        only teaching hospitals might generate a non-random sample,
         2006 Dec 15;6:161                  as it might have fewer healthy patients than a sample that
                                       included patients from non-teaching hospitals. Thirdly, gathering
                                         chart review data from the first year ICD-10 was implemented
                                             might result in a sample with high coding error. Fourthly,
                                        possible provincial and temporal changes in the occurrence of
                                              AMI, mortality, and comorbidities were not controlled.
               Citation               Limitations to HOI Definition Mentioned in the Discussion                   Prevalence/Incidence
  Andrade SE, Graham DJ, Staffa
 Stevens LA, Fares G, Fleming J, Use of kidney disease codes was ascertained only from codes                                NR
    JA, Schech SD, Shatin D, La
  Martin D, Murthy K, Qiu J, Stark                that were submitted to the laboratory.
 PC, Uhlig Goodman MJ, Levey
 Grenade L,K, Van Lente F,Platt R,
     AS. Low Chan KA. Health plan
 Gurwitz JH, rates of testing and
     diagnostic codes usage can
    administrative databasesin a
efficiently identify serious myopathy
   commercial clinical laboratory:
     and rhabdomyolysis. J Clin
    evidence for lack of physician
    awareness of Feb;58(2):171-4.
 Epidemiol. 2005 chronic kidney
 disease. J Am Soc Nephrol. 2005
         Aug;16(8):2439-48.




 Vermeulen MJ, Tu JV, Schull MJ. Authors could not validate the coding algorithms against chart                             NR
ICD-10 adaptations of the Ontario data, nor could they evaluate the ICD-9 and ICD-10 algorithms
    acute myocardial infarction                         contemporaneously.
mortality prediction rules performed
  as well as the original versions.
      J Clin Epidemiol. 2007
          Sep;60(9):971-4.


Waikar SS, Wald R, Chertow GM, Use of in-hospital serum creatinine values also may have led to        Authors compiled data on 99,629 discharges from
 Curhan GC, Winkelmayer WC,       misclassification of ARF as a diagnostic standard. Patients with   three teaching hospitals in Boston, MA. Altogether,
 Liangos O, Sosa MA, Jaber BL. a single spuriously high or low serum creatinine may have been         4.2% of discharges received a code for ARF, and
     Validity of International         misclassified as having ARF. Also, lack of access to              0.4% received the combined diagnosis and
Classification of Diseases, Ninth preadmission serum creatinine values may have prevented the                   procedure codes for ARF-D.
  Revision, Clinical Modification             identification of some true cases of ARF.
Codes for Acute Renal Failure. J
     Am Soc Nephrol. 2006
       Jun;17(6):1688-94.
               Citation               Limitations to HOI Definition Mentioned in the Discussion           Prevalence/Incidence
  Andrade SE, Graham DJ, Staffa
 Winkelmayer WC, Schneeweiss S,        First, the index date for definition of CKD was not assigned               NR
    JA, Schech SD, AR, Avorn J,
   Mogun H, PatrickShatin D, La        randomly, but tied to a specific medical event, AMI. Authors
 Grenade L, Goodman MJ, Platt R,
    Solomon DH. Identification of        stated they did not know whether using these algorithms
 Gurwitz JH, Chan KA. Health plan
individuals with CKD from Medicare independent of a specific event or in connection with another
    administrative databases can
   claims data: a validation study.     relevant clinical event would yield similar characteristics of
efficiently identify serious myopathy
       Am J Kidney Dis. 2005             ascertainment. because coding of diseases and medical
     and rhabdomyolysis. J Clin
          Aug;46(2):225-32.             conditions is related to physician practice patterns that are
 Epidemiol. 2005 Feb;58(2):171-4. known to vary substantially even within small areas, they cannot
                                        rule out that patterns and practices of diagnostic coding for
                                              Medicare patients also may vary geographically.




 Wu CL, Anderson GF, Herbert R,          There may be inconsistent or incomplete diagnostic or                    NR
 Lietman SA, Fleisher LA. Effect of procedural coding, in part because of restrictions in the number
postoperative epidural analgesia on   of available diagnostic or procedural coding slots available.
  morbidity and mortality after total
     hip replacement surgery in
   medicare patients. Reg Anesth
Pain Med. 2003 Jul-Aug;28(4):271-
                 8.

 Wu CL, Sapirstein A, Herbert R,         One of the concerns for using administrative databases for               NR
   Rowlingson AJ, Michaels RK,        medical research is the accuracy of the data used, due in part to
Petrovic MA, Fleisher LA. Effect of      the retrospective nature of the data, ambiguities in coding,
postoperative epidural analgesia on   misclassification, uncoded factors such as disease severity, and
 morbidity and mortality after lung    the limited number of diagnosis codes that can be entered into
 resection in Medicare patients. J      some databases. In general, ICD-9-CM–coded complications
 Clin Anesth. 2006 Nov;18(7):515-     and comorbid conditions in databases tend to be underreported.
                20.
                Citation              Limitations to HOI Definition Mentioned in the Discussion                      Prevalence/Incidence
  Andrade SE, GrahamStar RA,
     Xue JL, Daniels F, DJ, Staffa    Although use of ICD-9-CM codes for identification of ARF has     For 1992–2001, the overall incidence rate of ARF
    JA, Schech SD, Shatin D, La
 Kimmel PL, Eggers PW, Molitoris       been shown to be valid by a previous study (Winterstein AG      was 23.8 cases per 1,000 discharges, with rates
 Grenade L, Goodman MJ, Platt R,
    BA, Himmelfarb J, Collins AJ.      2004), sensitivity was low (15%), suggesting that ARF that is    increasing by approximately 11% per year. The
  Incidence Chan KA. Health plan
 Gurwitz JH,and mortality of acute         recorded in Medicare claims is likely underreported.      overall in-hospital death rate was 4.6% in discharges
    administrative databases can
       renal failure in Medicare                                                                      without ARF, 15.2% in discharges with ARF coded
efficiently identify serious myopathy
 beneficiaries, 1992 to 2001. J Am                                                                    as the principal diagnosis, and 32.6% in discharges
Soc and rhabdomyolysis. J Clin
      Nephrol. 2006 Apr;17(4):1135-                                                                            with ARF as a secondary diagnosis.
 Epidemiol. 2005 Feb;58(2):171-4.
                   42.
               Citation                                Reviewer Notes                                                            Clinician Comments
  Andrade SE, Graham DJ, Staffa          Senior author is a physician (Google search).            Inclusion criteria are appropriate but they do not capture chronic renal failure.
    JA, Schech SD, Shatin D, La                                                                 Authors do a poor job in applying exclusion criteria to increase specificity. Other
 Grenade L, Goodman MJ, Platt R,                                                              possible markers to increase study sensitivity and specificity include: measurements
 Gurwitz JH, Chan KA. Health plan                                                              of serum creatinine, which are high in acute renal failure; measurements of blood
    administrative databases can                                                                 urea nitrogen, which are high in acute renal failure; renal dosing of medications
efficiently identify serious myopathy                                                           (medications which are renally cleared are given at a lower dose in patients with
     and rhabdomyolysis. J Clin                                                               acute renal failure); initiation of hemodialysis; and length of stay, which is unlikely to
 Epidemiol. 2005 Feb;58(2):171-4.                                                                            be less than 72 hours in patients with acute renal failure.

  Bi P, Parton KA, Whitby M. Co-                             NR                               Inclusion criteria are appropriate. Authors do a poor job in applying exclusion criteria
 existing conditions for deaths from                                                             to increase specificity. Other possible markers to increase study sensitivity and
infectious and parasitic diseases in                                                          specificity include: measurements of serum creatinine, which are high in renal failure;
   Australia. Int J Infect Dis. 2004                                                          measurements of blood urea nitrogen, which are high in renal failure; renal dosing of
           Mar;8(2):121-5.                                                                      medications (medications which are renally cleared are given at a lower dose in
                                                                                                patients with renal failure); initiation of hemodialysis; and length of stay, which is
                                                                                                        unlikely to be less than 72 hours in patients with acute renal failure.

Clarke P, Leal J, Kelman C, Smith        Senior author is a physician (Google search).        Inclusion criteria are appropriate. Authors do a poor job in applying exclusion criteria
M, Colagiuri S. Estimating the cost                                                              to increase specificity. Other possible markers to increase study sensitivity and
  of complications of diabetes in                                                             specificity include: measurements of serum creatinine, which are high in renal failure;
  Australia using administrative                                                              measurements of blood urea nitrogen, which are high in renal failure; renal dosing of
 health-care data. Value Health.                                                                medications (medications which are renally cleared are given at a lower dose in
  2008 Mar-Apr;11(2):199-206.                                                                   patients with renal failure); initiation of hemodialysis; and length of stay, which is
                                                                                                        unlikely to be less than 72 hours in patients with acute renal failure.



Clinard F, Sgro C, Bardou M, Hillon Four groups of cases were defined by two senior medical       Inclusion criteria are appropriate but they do not capture chronic renal failure.
     P, Dumas M, Kreft-Jais C,       pharmacologists trained in Pharmacovigilance coding.       Authors do a poor job in applying exclusion criteria to increase specificity. Other
  Escousse A, Bonithon-Kopp C.       Validation of the association between the HOI and the    possible markers to increase study sensitivity and specificity include: measurements
 Association between concomitant                 drug exposure was performed.                  of serum creatinine, which are high in acute renal failure; measurements of blood
 use of several systemic NSAIDs                                                                  urea nitrogen, which are high in acute renal failure; renal dosing of medications
and an excess risk of adverse drug                                                              (medications which are renally cleared are given at a lower dose in patients with
 reaction. A case/non-case study                                                              acute renal failure); initiation of hemodialysis; and length of stay, which is unlikely to
          from the French                                                                                    be less than 72 hours in patients with acute renal failure.
    Pharmacovigilance system
 database. Eur J Clin Pharmacol.
      2004 Jun;60(4):279-83.
               Citation                                    Reviewer Notes                                                        Clinician Comments
  Andrade SE, Graham Mack CD,
  Endorf FW, Klein MB, DJ, Staffa       First author and senior author are physicians; 2 more                                 Inclusion criteria are vague.
      Jurkovich GJ, Shatin D, La
    JA, Schech SD, Rivara FP.                        physicians on the author list.
 Grenade L, Goodman MJ, Platt R,
 Necrotizing soft-tissue infections:
 Gurwitz JH, Chan KA. Health plan
  differences in patients treated at
    administrative databases can
burn centers and non-burn centers.
efficiently identify serious myopathy
    J Burn Care Res. 2008 Nov-
     and rhabdomyolysis. J Clin
           Dec;29(6):933-8.
 Epidemiol. 2005 Feb;58(2):171-4.
  Fischer MJ, Brimhall BB, Parikh     All three authors are physicians (Google search done for   Inclusion criteria are appropriate. Authors do a poor job in applying exclusion criteria
  CR. Uncomplicated acute renal                      second and senior authors).                     to increase specificity. Other possible markers to increase study sensitivity and
failure and post-hospital care: a not                                                            specificity include: measurements of serum creatinine, which are high in acute renal
   so uncomplicated illness. Am J                                                                  failure; measurements of blood urea nitrogen, which are high in acute renal failure;
    Nephrol. 2008;28(3):523-30.                                                                     renal dosing of medications (medications which are renally cleared are given at a
                                                                                                  lower dose in patients with acute renal failure); initiation of hemodialysis; and length
                                                                                                 of stay, which is unlikely to be less than 72 hours in patients with acute renal failure.



  García-Rodríguez LA, Massó-        Two authors (LAGR and EMG) identified patients recorded Inclusion criteria are appropriate. Authors do a poor job in applying exclusion criteria
   González EL, Wallander MA,          in the GPRD during the period from April 1, 2003 (when     to increase specificity. Other possible markers to increase study sensitivity and
    Johansson S. The safety of        rosuvastatin was first introduced in the UK) to December specificity include: measurements of serum creatinine, which are high in renal failure;
 rosuvastatin in comparison with                               31, 2005.                       measurements of blood urea nitrogen, which are high in renal failure; renal dosing of
other statins in over 100,000 statin                                                             medications (medications which are renally cleared are given at a lower dose in
     users in UK primary care.               First author and senior author are physicians.      patients with renal failure); initiation of hemodialysis; and length of stay, which is
  Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf.                                                                            unlikely to be less than 72 hours in patients with acute renal failure.
     2008 Oct;17(10):943-52.
               Citation                                     Reviewer Notes                                                         Clinician Comments
  Andrade UG, Clarke DJ, Staffa
Gerdtham SE, GrahamP, Hayes A, The hospitalization model included indicator variables for          Inclusion criteria are appropriate. Authors do a poor job in applying exclusion criteria
    JA, Schech SD, Estimating the 10 major diabetes-related events that were defined using
 Gudbjornsdottir S. Shatin D, La                                                                      to increase specificity. Other possible markers to increase study sensitivity and
  cost of L, Goodman MJ, Platt R,
 Grenadediabetes mellitus-related       ICD-9 and ICD-10 codes. The events were identified (i)     specificity include: measurements of serum creatinine, which are high in renal failure;
 Gurwitz JH, Chan KA. Health plan
events from inpatient admissions in      using principle diagnosis field from hospital inpatient   measurements of blood urea nitrogen, which are high in renal failure; renal dosing of
    administrative databases can
    Sweden using administrative        records; (ii) using principle cause of death, where death     medications (medications which are renally cleared are given at a lower dose in
efficiently identify serious myopathy records were available; and (iii) through DRG codes in the
         hospitalization data.                                                                       patients with renal failure); initiation of hemodialysis; and length of stay, which is
     and rhabdomyolysis. J Clin
        Pharmacoeconomics.                                 case of amputation.                               unlikely to be less than 72 hours in patients with acute renal failure.
 Epidemiol. 2005 Feb;58(2):171-4.
          2009;27(1):81-90.
                                             Senior author is a physician (Google search).
 Heller JA, Weinberg A, Arons R,         First author and senior author are physicians; 5 more     Inclusion criteria are appropriate. Authors do a poor job in applying exclusion criteria
Krishnasastry KV, Lyon RT, Deitch                     physicians on the author list.                  to increase specificity. Other possible markers to increase study sensitivity and
JS, Schulick AH, Bush HL Jr, Kent                                                                  specificity include: measurements of serum creatinine, which are high in renal failure;
  KC. Two decades of abdominal                                                                     measurements of blood urea nitrogen, which are high in renal failure; renal dosing of
  aortic aneurysm repair: have we                                                                    medications (medications which are renally cleared are given at a lower dose in
 made any progress? J Vasc Surg.                                                                     patients with renal failure); initiation of hemodialysis; and length of stay, which is
      2000 Dec;32(6):1091-100.                                                                               unlikely to be less than 72 hours in patients with acute renal failure.

Hellman RN, Decker BS, Murray M. Initially, no attempt was made to distinguish between acute         Good job mixing up inclusion criteria to evaluate sensitivity of different methods.
 Elevated serum creatinine and a       and chronic renal failure, but subsequent analysis did
      normal urinalysis: a short        include acute and chronic renal failure diagnosis as
differential diagnosis in the etiology               identified by ICD-9 codes.
      of renal failure. Ren Fail.      "No attempt was made in this study to retrospectively
         2006;28(5):389-94.                           review individual charts."

                                       First author is a physician, one more physician on the
                                                              author list.



   Kern EF, Maney M, Miller DR,                                  NR                                Inclusion criteria are appropriate. Authors do a good job in applying exclusion criteria
Tseng CL, Tiwari A, Rajan M, Aron                                                                     to increase specificity. Other possible markers to increase study sensitivity and
 D, Pogach L. Failure of ICD-9-CM                                                                  specificity include: measurements of serum creatinine, which are high in renal failure;
   codes to identify patients with                                                                 measurements of blood urea nitrogen, which are high in renal failure; renal dosing of
comorbid chronic kidney disease in                                                                    medications (medications which are renally cleared are given at a lower dose in
 diabetes. Health Serv Res. 2006                                                                     patients with renal failure); initiation of hemodialysis; and length of stay, which is
        Apr;41(2):564-80.                                                                                    unlikely to be less than 72 hours in patients with acute renal failure.
               Citation                                     Reviewer Notes                                                         Clinician Comments
  Li B, Evans Graham DJ, Staffa
  Andrade SE,D, Faris P, Dean S,              Senior author is a physician (Google search).        Inclusion criteria are appropriate. Authors do a poor job in applying exclusion criteria
      Quan H. Risk Shatin D, La
    JA, Schech SD, adjustment                                                                         to increase specificity. Other possible markers to increase study sensitivity and
 Grenade L, Goodman MJ, Platt R,
    performance of Charlson and                                                                    specificity include: measurements of serum creatinine, which are high in renal failure;
 Elixhauser Chan KA. Health plan
 Gurwitz JH,comorbidities in ICD-9                                                                 measurements of blood urea nitrogen, which are high in renal failure; renal dosing of
      and ICD-10 databases can
    administrativeadministrative                                                                     medications (medications which are renally cleared are given at a lower dose in
efficiently identify serious myopathy
              databases.                                                                             patients with renal failure); initiation of hemodialysis; and length of stay, which is
     and rhabdomyolysis. J Clin
 BMC Health Serv Res. 2008 Jan                                                                               unlikely to be less than 72 hours in patients with acute renal failure.
 Epidemiol. 2005 Feb;58(2):171-4.
               14;8:12.
   Li SQ, Cunningham J, Cass A.                                    NR                                 Broad application of inclusion criteria is good but authors don't apply exclusion
 Renal-related deaths in Australia                                                                                                          criteria.
   1997-1999. Intern Med J. 2004
          May;34(5):259-65.




  Liangos O, Wald R, O'Bell JW,         Chronic kidney disease (403.11, 403.91, 404.13, 404.92, Inclusion criteria are appropriate. Authors do a good job in applying exclusion criteria
   Price L, Pereira BJ, Jaber BL.       404.93, 250.40 to 250.43, 581.0 to 581.3, 581.81, 581.89,                                to increase specificity.
  Epidemiology and outcomes of          581.9, 582, 582.1, 582.2, 582.81, 582.89, 582.9, 583.0 to
 acute renal failure in hospitalized            583.6, 583.81, 583.89, 583.9, and V42.0)
    patients: a national survey.
   Clin J Am Soc Nephrol. 2006            First author and senior author are physicians (Google
          Jan;1(1):43-51.                                        search).
               Citation                                   Reviewer Notes                                                         Clinician Comments
  Andrade MR, Hashemzadeh M,
  MovahedSE, Graham DJ, Staffa                       First author is a physician.                Inclusion criteria are appropriate. Authors do a poor job in applying exclusion criteria
     JA, MM. Significant increase
 Jamal Schech SD, Shatin D, La in                                                                   to increase specificity. Other possible markers to increase study sensitivity and
 Grenade L, Goodman MJ, Platt R,
  the prevalence of non-rheumatic                                                                specificity include: measurements of serum creatinine, which are high in renal failure;
 Gurwitz JH, Chan KA. Health with
aortic valve disease in patientsplan                                                             measurements of blood urea nitrogen, which are high in renal failure; renal dosing of
    administrative databases can
       type 2 diabetes mellitus.                                                                   medications (medications which are renally cleared are given at a lower dose in
efficiently identify serious myopathy
Exp Clin Endocrinol Diabetes. 2007                                                                 patients with renal failure); initiation of hemodialysis; and length of stay, which is
      and rhabdomyolysis. J Clin
          Feb;115(2):105-7.                                                                                unlikely to be less than 72 hours in patients with acute renal failure.
 Epidemiol. 2005 Feb;58(2):171-4.
   Moyneur E, Bookhart BK, Mody                                  NR                              Inclusion criteria are appropriate. Authors do a good job in applying exclusion criteria
  SH, Fournier AA, Mallett D, Duh                                                                                                 to increase specificity.
 MS. The economic impact of pre-
   dialysis epoetin alpha on health
care and work loss costs in chronic
    kidney disease: an employer's
    perspective. Dis Manag. 2008
           Feb;11(1):49-58.
 O'Connor AB, Lang VJ, Lurie SJ,        All reported data except the coverage assignment were    Inclusion criteria are appropriate. Authors do a poor job in applying exclusion criteria
Lambert DR, Rudmann A, Robbins                derived from the hospitals’ billing databases.        to increase specificity. Other possible markers to increase study sensitivity and
     B, Bordley DR. The effect of                                                                specificity include: measurements of serum creatinine, which are high in renal failure;
     nonteaching services on the                    All 7 authors are physicians.                measurements of blood urea nitrogen, which are high in renal failure; renal dosing of
  distribution of inpatient cases for                                                              medications (medications which are renally cleared are given at a lower dose in
 internal medicine residents. Acad                                                                 patients with renal failure); initiation of hemodialysis; and length of stay, which is
     Med. 2009 Feb;84(2):220-5.                                                                            unlikely to be less than 72 hours in patients with acute renal failure.

     Powell H, Lim LL, Heller       All 21 comorbid conditions were mapped to corresponding Inclusion criteria are appropriate. Authors do a poor job in applying exclusion criteria
RF.Accuracy of administrative data ICD-9-CM diagnosis codes, through review of ICD-9- CM          to increase specificity. Other possible markers to increase study sensitivity and
 to assess comorbidity in patients                       volumes 1 and 2.                      specificity include: measurements of serum creatinine, which are high in renal failure;
 with heart disease. an Australian                                                             measurements of blood urea nitrogen, which are high in renal failure; renal dosing of
perspective. J Clin Epidemiol. 2001 Comorbidity data were extracted from the medical records     medications (medications which are renally cleared are given at a lower dose in
         Jul;54(7):687-93.                        by two specially trained nurses.               patients with renal failure); initiation of hemodialysis; and length of stay, which is
                                                                                                         unlikely to be less than 72 hours in patients with acute renal failure.
                                     Comorbidities recorded in the administrative data (based
                                      on the secondary diagnosis codes) were compared with
                                     those recorded in the medical record data using two-way
                                        tables. The percentages of false-positive and false-
                                     negative diagnoses were calculated for each comorbidity
                                    using the medical record data as the ‘gold standard.’ Mean
                                              percent agreement was also calculated.

                                            Senior author is a physician (Google search).
               Citation                                    Reviewer Notes                                                        Clinician Comments
  Andrade SE, Graham DJ, Staffa
Quan H, Sundararajan V, Halfon P, 56,585 patients in the ICD-9-CM data and 58,805 patients Inclusion criteria are appropriate. Authors do a poor job in applying exclusion criteria
    JA, Schech SD, B, Luthi La
    Fong A, BurnandShatin D,JC,       in the ICD-10 data; 17 Charlson comorbidities and the 30    to increase specificity. Other possible markers to increase study sensitivity and
  Saunders Goodman MJ, Platt R,
 Grenade L, LD, Beck CA, Feasby                Elixhauser comorbidities were evaluated.        specificity include: measurements of serum creatinine, which are high in renal failure;
 Gurwitz JH, Chan KA. Health plan
 TE, Ghali WA.Coding algorithms                                                                measurements of blood urea nitrogen, which are high in renal failure; renal dosing of
    defining comorbidities in can
for administrative databases ICD-9-     First author and senior author are physicians; 7 more    medications (medications which are renally cleared are given at a lower dose in
efficiently identify serious myopathy
   CM and ICD-10 administrative                      physicians on the author list.              patients with renal failure); initiation of hemodialysis; and length of stay, which is
     and rhabdomyolysis. J Clin
        data. Med Care. 2005                                                                             unlikely to be less than 72 hours in patients with acute renal failure.
 Epidemiol. 2005 Feb;58(2):171-4.
         Nov;43(11):1130-9.




Robbins JD, Kim JJ, Zdon G, Chan       Current Procedural Terminology (CPT), or Health Care      Inclusion criteria are appropriate. Authors do a poor job in applying exclusion criteria
 WW, Jones J. Resource use and         Financing Agency (HCFA) Common Procedure Coding              to increase specificity. Other possible markers to increase study sensitivity and
patient care associated with chronic                 System (HCPCS) codes.                       specificity include: measurements of serum creatinine, which are high in renal failure;
 kidney disease in a managed care                                                                measurements of blood urea nitrogen, which are high in renal failure; renal dosing of
setting. J Manag Care Pharm. 2003                                                                  medications (medications which are renally cleared are given at a lower dose in
        May-Jun;9(3):238-47.                                                                       patients with renal failure); initiation of hemodialysis; and length of stay, which is
                                                                                                           unlikely to be less than 72 hours in patients with acute renal failure.


  So L, Evans D, Quan H. ICD-10        Two reviewers with coding and medical training reviewed Inclusion criteria are appropriate. Authors do a poor job in applying exclusion criteria
   coding algorithms for defining        the charts and determined the presence of the nine       to increase specificity. Other possible markers to increase study sensitivity and
 comorbidities of acute myocardial                          comorbidities.                     specificity include: measurements of serum creatinine, which are high in renal failure;
 infarction. BMC Health Serv Res.                                                              measurements of blood urea nitrogen, which are high in renal failure; renal dosing of
         2006 Dec 15;6:161                  Senior author is a physician (Google search).        medications (medications which are renally cleared are given at a lower dose in
                                                                                                 patients with renal failure); initiation of hemodialysis; and length of stay, which is
                                                                                                         unlikely to be less than 72 hours in patients with acute renal failure.
               Citation                                  Reviewer Notes                                                         Clinician Comments
  Andrade SE, Graham DJ, Staffa
 Stevens LA, Fares G, Fleming J, Sensitivity, specificity, and predictive value were computed Inclusion criteria are appropriate. Authors do an OK job in applying exclusion criteria
    JA, Schech SD, Shatin D, La
  Martin D, Murthy K, Qiu J, Stark for the study sample and subgroups defined by risk factors    to increase specificity. Other possible markers to increase study sensitivity and
 PC, Uhlig Goodman MJ, Levey
 Grenade L,K, Van Lente F,Platt R,                      for CKD and CVD.                      specificity include: measurements of serum creatinine, which are high in renal failure;
     AS. Low Chan KA. Health plan
 Gurwitz JH, rates of testing and                                                             measurements of blood urea nitrogen, which are high in renal failure; renal dosing of
     diagnostic codes usage can
    administrative databasesin a      First author and senior author are physicians (Google     medications (medications which are renally cleared are given at a lower dose in
efficiently identify serious myopathy
   commercial clinical laboratory:                           search).                           patients with renal failure); initiation of hemodialysis; and length of stay, which is
     and rhabdomyolysis. J Clin
    evidence for lack of physician                                                                      unlikely to be less than 72 hours in patients with acute renal failure.
    awareness of Feb;58(2):171-4.
 Epidemiol. 2005 chronic kidney
 disease. J Am Soc Nephrol. 2005
         Aug;16(8):2439-48.




 Vermeulen MJ, Tu JV, Schull MJ.           Senior author is a physician (Google search).        Inclusion criteria are appropriate. Authors do a poor job in applying exclusion criteria
ICD-10 adaptations of the Ontario                                                                  to increase specificity. Other possible markers to increase study sensitivity and
    acute myocardial infarction                                                                 specificity include: measurements of serum creatinine, which are high in renal failure;
mortality prediction rules performed                                                            measurements of blood urea nitrogen, which are high in renal failure; renal dosing of
  as well as the original versions.                                                               medications (medications which are renally cleared are given at a lower dose in
      J Clin Epidemiol. 2007                                                                      patients with renal failure); initiation of hemodialysis; and length of stay, which is
          Sep;60(9):971-4.                                                                                unlikely to be less than 72 hours in patients with acute renal failure.


Waikar SS, Wald R, Chertow GM,         Maintenance hemodialysis and peritoneal dialysis were                               Excellent validation techniques.
 Curhan GC, Winkelmayer WC,            defined by the presence of a dialysis code (procedure
 Liangos O, Sosa MA, Jaber BL.         codes 39.95 or 54.98 and/or diagnosis codes V45.1 or
     Validity of International             V56.x) without an ARF (584.x) diagnosis code.
Classification of Diseases, Ninth
  Revision, Clinical Modification      First author and senior author are physicians (Google
Codes for Acute Renal Failure. J                              search).
     Am Soc Nephrol. 2006
       Jun;17(6):1688-94.
               Citation                                    Reviewer Notes                                                        Clinician Comments
  Andrade SE, Graham DJ, Staffa
 Winkelmayer WC, Schneeweiss S,          First author and senior author are physicians; 2 more                              Excellent validation techniques.
    JA, Schech SD, AR, Avorn J,
   Mogun H, PatrickShatin D, La                       physicians on the author list.
 Grenade L, Goodman MJ, Platt R,
    Solomon DH. Identification of
 Gurwitz JH, Chan KA. Health plan
individuals with CKD from Medicare
    administrative databases can
   claims data: a validation study.
efficiently identify serious myopathy
       Am J Kidney Dis. 2005
     and rhabdomyolysis. J Clin
          Aug;46(2):225-32.
 Epidemiol. 2005 Feb;58(2):171-4.




 Wu CL, Anderson GF, Herbert R,               CPT codes (for hip arthroplasty) provided.         Inclusion criteria are appropriate. Authors do a poor job in applying exclusion criteria
 Lietman SA, Fleisher LA. Effect of                                                                 to increase specificity. Other possible markers to increase study sensitivity and
postoperative epidural analgesia on      First author and senior author are physicians; 1 more   specificity include: measurements of serum creatinine, which are high in renal failure;
  morbidity and mortality after total                 physicians on the author list.             measurements of blood urea nitrogen, which are high in renal failure; renal dosing of
     hip replacement surgery in                                                                    medications (medications which are renally cleared are given at a lower dose in
   medicare patients. Reg Anesth                                                                   patients with renal failure); initiation of hemodialysis; and length of stay, which is
Pain Med. 2003 Jul-Aug;28(4):271-                                                                          unlikely to be less than 72 hours in patients with acute renal failure.
                 8.

 Wu CL, Sapirstein A, Herbert R,        Current Procedural Terminology code (for postoperative   Inclusion criteria are appropriate. Authors do a poor job in applying exclusion criteria
   Rowlingson AJ, Michaels RK,                       epidural analgesia) provided.                  to increase specificity. Other possible markers to increase study sensitivity and
Petrovic MA, Fleisher LA. Effect of                                                              specificity include: measurements of serum creatinine, which are high in renal failure;
postoperative epidural analgesia on      First author and senior author are physicians; 3 more   measurements of blood urea nitrogen, which are high in renal failure; renal dosing of
 morbidity and mortality after lung                   physicians on the author list.               medications (medications which are renally cleared are given at a lower dose in
 resection in Medicare patients. J                                                                 patients with renal failure); initiation of hemodialysis; and length of stay, which is
 Clin Anesth. 2006 Nov;18(7):515-                                                                          unlikely to be less than 72 hours in patients with acute renal failure.
                20.
                Citation                                   Reviewer Notes                                                      Clinician Comments
     Xue JL, Daniels F, DJ, Staffa
  Andrade SE, GrahamStar RA,             Revenue codes are documented for reimbursement        Inclusion criteria are appropriate. Authors do a good job in applying exclusion criteria
    JA, Schech SD, Shatin D, La
 Kimmel PL, Eggers PW, Molitoris         purposes, with coding accuracy having been verified      to increase specificity. Other possible markers to increase study sensitivity and
 Grenade L, Goodman MJ, Platt R,
    BA, Himmelfarb J, Collins AJ.                    before payment was made.                  specificity include: measurements of serum creatinine, which are high in renal failure;
  Incidence Chan KA. Health plan
 Gurwitz JH,and mortality of acute                                                             measurements of blood urea nitrogen, which are high in renal failure; renal dosing of
    administrative databases can
       renal failure in Medicare        The ESRD database that is maintained by the US Renal      medications (medications which are renally cleared are given at a lower dose in
efficiently identify serious myopathy
 beneficiaries, 1992 to 2001. J Am         Data System Coordinating Center also was used.        patients with renal failure); initiation of hemodialysis; and length of stay, which is
Soc and rhabdomyolysis. J Clin
      Nephrol. 2006 Apr;17(4):1135-                                                                      unlikely to be less than 72 hours in patients with acute renal failure.
 Epidemiol. 2005 Feb;58(2):171-4.
                   42.                     The senior author is a physician (Google search).
Legend
Acronym   Definition
ABS       Australian Bureau of Statistics
ADR       Adverse Drug Reaction
ALT       Alanine Aminotransferase
ARF       Acute Renal Failure
ARF-D     Acute Renal Failure that requires Dialysis
CCI       Canadian Classification of Health Interventions
CCP       Canadian Classification of Procedure
CIHI      Canadian Institute for Health Information
CKD       Chronic Kidney Disease
CPT       Current Procedural Terminology
CRI       Chronic Renal Insufficiency
CVD       Cardiovascular Disease
DAD       Discharge Abstract Data
DHCFP     Massachusetts Division of Health Care Finance and Policy
DN        Diabetic Nephropathy
DRG       Diagnosis-Related Group
EPO       Epoetin alfa
ESRD      End-Stage Renal Disease
EST       Erythropoiesis-Stimulating Therapy
GFR       Glomerular Filtration Rate
HCPCS     Healthcare Common Procedure Coding System
HN        Hypertensive Nephrosclerosis
HOI       Health Outcome of Interest
HypN      Hypertensive Nephropathy
ICD       International Classification of Diseases
ICU       Intensive Care Unit
NDR       National Diabetes Register
NIS       Nationwide Inpatient Sample
NPV       Negative Predictive Value
NSAID     Non-steroidal Anti-inflammatory Drugs
NSTI      Necrotizing Soft-Tissue Infections
NTSs      Nonteaching Services
PACE      Pharmaceutical Assistance Contract for the Elderly
PPV       Positive Predictive Value
PTF       Patient Treatment Files
RF        Renal Failure
ULN       Upper Limit of Normal
VA        Veterans Administration
VHA       Veterans Health Administration

				
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posted:7/27/2012
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