Multimedia: Making It
Chapter 12: The Internet and
How It Works
The origin of the Internet.
The World Wide Web and HTML.
Dynamic HTML and XML.
Multimedia on the Web.
The Origin of the Internet
The Internet began as a research network
funded by the Advanced Research Projects
Agency (ARPA) of the U.S. Defense
Department in 1969.
In 1989, the National Science Foundation
(NSF) took over the management of the
A network is a cluster of computers.
In a network, the server computer provides
network services to the client computers on that
Several LANs can be interconnected using
gateways and routers to form a wide area
LANs and WANs can be connected to the Internet
through a server that provides Internet software
and physical data connection.
The Domain Naming System (DNS) assigns
names and addresses to computers linked
to the Internet.
Top-level domains (TLDs) were established
as categories to accommodate Internet
The two-letter US domain is based on
The IP address or Internet address is made
up of four numbers separated by periods.
.net network providers
.org non-profit organizations
two-letter country codes
More Top-Level Domains
.aero air-transport industry
.info unrestricted use
.name individual registrations
.pro accountants, lawyers, physicians
Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) and
Internet Protocol (IP) are the protocols for
communication on the Internet.
A stream of data that is sent over the Internet
is first broken down into packets by the TCP.
Data packets include the receiving computer's
address, a sequence number, error correction
information, and a small piece of data.
IP is responsible for sending the packet to its
destination along a route.
A telephone dial-up account and modem,
a cable modem, or a Digital Subscriber
Line (DSL) is required for network
An ISP (Internet Service Provider) offers
one or more Points of Presence (POPs) to
connect to the ISP's server.
The PPP (Point-to-Point Protocol) and the
TCP/IP software are required to connect to
the Internet through an ISP.
The amount of data expressed in terms of bits
per second (bps) is referred to as bandwidth.
The greater the bandwidth, the lesser will be the
time taken to upload or download data.
Low-bandwidth modem connections are a
bottleneck for sending multimedia across the
Bandwidth bottlenecks can be avoided
using the following options:
Compress data before transmitting.
Oblige users to download data only once,
and then store that data on the system's
Design multimedia elements to be efficiently
Design alternate low-bandwidth and high-
bandwidth navigation paths to
accommodate all users.
Implement incremental streaming methods.
Each Internet service is implemented on an
Internet server by dedicated software known as a
Daemons are agent programs that run in the
background and wait to act on requests.
It supports services such as Hypertext Transfer
Protocol (HTTP) and Post Office Protocol (POP).
The other services provided by the Internet
include https, ftp, gopher, usenet, telnet,
Internet Relay Chat (IRC), Simple Mail Transport
Protocol (SMTP), and mud.
Recognizable documents and formats are
required to work with multimedia on the
MIME (Multipurpose Internet Mail
Extensions) type is a standard list of file
It identifies the nature and purpose of the
The World Wide Web and HTML
The World Wide Web was designed by Tim
It is a protocol for linking multiple documents
located on computers anywhere within the
The Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP) provides
rules for a simple transaction between two
computers on the Internet.
Hypertext Markup Language (HTML) is a
document format for presenting structured text
mixed with inline images.
Dynamic HTML and XML
Dynamic Web pages can be created using
programs written in Java.
XML (eXtensible Markup Language) is
used to format and delivery Web pages
Multimedia on the Web
Designing effective multimedia for the Web
Presenting text, images, audio, and animation
in a user-friendly interface that balances
Understanding how to deliver multimedia
content for HTML browsers and plug-in/player
The Internet connects private companies, organizations,
universities, and individuals.
The Internet is a cluster of computers.
ISPs provide network connections through a dial-up account, a
cable modem, or a Digital Subscriber Line (DSL).
The Domain Name System (DNS) manages the identities of
computers connected to the Internet.
HTTP provides rules for contacting, requesting, and sending
documents encoded with the Hypertext Markup Language (HTML).
dynamic Web pages.