Mobile and Pervasive Computing

Document Sample
Mobile and Pervasive Computing Powered By Docstoc
					SESSION : Mobile Computing and Wireless
      Communications -- Overview

•Framework for discussion
•Business drivers: M-Business, M-
Government, M-Life
•Mobile Applications
Platforms to support mobile commerce
   Wireless middleware
Wireless Networks
   Cellular networks: from 1 to 3G Networks
   Wireless LANs
   Satellites




                 Amjad Umar
                    Amjad Umar
                          Overview
 •Growing rapidly with many diverse applications
 •Many strengths but a few weaknesses
    •Different aspects of mobility:
    •People (customers, suppliers, employees)
    •Devices (laptops, palm pilots, beepers, PDA, sensors)
    •Networks: wireless
 •Mobile devices and wireless networks are not always same
Mobile    Wireless   Sample Applications
Devices   Networks
No        No         Stationary workstations in office
No        Yes        Wireless LANs to connect office workers in an unwired building
Yes       No         Using a portable computer in a hotel or conference room
Yes       Yes        Cellular phones, Palm Pilots, portable offices,



                                Amjad Umar
                   The Jargon


          M-Business, M-Government

     M-Commerce P-Commerce V-Commerce

    M-SCMs M-CRMs SMS MMS M-Portal

Symbian WAP   MMIT WML VXML J2ME BREW

     Mobile IP MANET OMA ITU ETSI FCC

 Zigbee UWB FSO Bluetooth WLL DECT HomeRF

  Wi-Fi GPRS UMTS 802.11 802.16 802.15 WSN

          OFDM FEC TDMA CDMA




                   Amjad Umar
                   Framework for Discussion
Drivers

                                                        •Wireless Business,
                Mobile Business, Government, and Life   Regulations, and
                                                        Standards
                    Mobile Computing Applications


                                                        •Architectures and
                                                        Integration
                     Mobile Computing Platforms
                   (Wireless Middleware, Mobile IP)
                                                        •Wireless Security


                           Wireless Networks            •Management and
                  (Wireless LANs, Cellular Networks,    Support
                   Satellites, Wireless Local Loops)


     Enablers

                                       Amjad Umar
       Mobile Computing Applications
• Enable the business initiatives by supporting mobility of
   – Customers
   – Suppliers and Businesses
   – Employees
• Mobile computing applications
   – Wireless messaging (e.g., SMS)
   – Mobile ecommerce (M-Commerce) and its variants
        • Positional commerce (p-commerce) .
        • Voice commerce (v-commerce).
        • Television commerce (T-Commerce)
    – Mobile ebusiness applications (MEBAs), e.g., M-CRM, M-portal
    – Specialized applications
        • Location sensitive apps
        • Wireless sensor network apps
        • Mobile agent apps
• Two views:
   – Mobile applications are fundamentally new applications.
   – Mobility is another dimension of the existing applications
                              Amjad Umar
Mobile Computing Applications Categorization


                             B2B
             C2B, B2C                   B2E, E2B
 Consumer                  Business                  Employees



                                     B2G, G2B


             C2G, G2C
                                          E2G, G2E
  Citizens                Government                    Employees


                               G2G


                        Amjad Umar
            Mobile Computing Platforms
                                                     Server
Mobile Device                                        (Web Server, eMail server,
(Cell Phone, PDA, Pocket PC)                         Mainframe)

     Application                                             Application

      Middleware                                             Middleware
       Services                 Mobile                        Services
                                Computing
  Local      Network            Platform                 Local     Network
 Platform    Transport                                  Platform   Transport
 Services    Services                                   Services   Services



                         Physical Wireless Network
                   (Antennas, Transceivers, Base Stations,
                     Cellular Networks, 802.11 LANs,
                     Satellites)

                                      Amjad Umar
    Internet as the Network Platform
                                                                          www.sun.com


arts.um.edu                                               IP                    75.10.17.3
                                                          WAN3
 108.2.11.7            IP
                       WAN2                                               www.IBM.com
                                               Switch
  cs.um.edu                                    /Gateway                    75.10.17.1

  108.2.11.5                  Switch/Gateway
                                                               Switch/Gateway

                                  IP
                                                                      Bank1.co..uk
                                  WAN1
                                  (Typically
                                  ATM,                                83.13.17.3
                                  Frame Relay,
       Level3.co..uk              X.25)

        83.13.17.4


     •DNS (Domain Name Services) translates cs.um.edu to 108.2.11.5
     •Telnet cs.um.edu = Telnet 108.2.11.5
     •FTP cs.um.edu = FTP 108.2.11.5

                                  Amjad Umar
                              Wireless Web
Wireless
Browser
                 4
                                        http                2      Content
                           Wireless             Web
           Wireless        Gateway      5       Server           (XML/HTML)
           Network
                                1                               Back-end
                                                            3   Systems
      Web                     http              Web
                              over                              and
      Browser                                   Gateway
                              wired Internet                    Darabases


      1. Access from Web browser to Web Server over wired Internet
      2. Access to Web contents from HTML/XML files
      3. Access to non-Web content through a Web gateway
      4. Access from cellular phone over a wireless network
      5. Access from wireless gateway to Web Server over wired Internet

                                      Amjad Umar
         WAP(Wireless Application Protocol)
•Intended for data entry/display on cellular phones
•“An open, global specification that empowers mobile users with wireless devices to
easily access and interact with information and services instantly.” www.wapforum.org
•Complete protocol stack similar to Internet protocols but optimized for wireless
information pull and push transport layer and above; across multiple wireless technologie




                                       Amjad Umar
          WIRELESS NETWORKS

Different type of wireless networks support mobile
  computing applications and platforms
• Cellular networks
    – 1G to 5G
•   Wireless LANs (802.11)
•   Bluetooth
•   Satellite systems
•   Fixed Wireless Local loops
•   Mobile Adhoc Networks

                       Amjad Umar
                               Wireless Networks



  Wireless LANs                 Wireless MANs               Wireless WANs



                               Wireless                 Cellular    Satellite      Paging
Personal          Business     Local Loops              Networks    Systems        Networks
Area              LANs         (Fixed Wireless)
Networks

Example1:         Example1:      Example1:        Example1:        Example1:       Example1:
Bluetooth         802.11b        LMDS             GSM, 9.6 Kbps,   Motorola
                  11 Mbps,
                                                                                   FLEX,
1 Mbps,                          37 Mbps,         wide coverage    Iridium
10 Meters         100 Meters                                                       1.2 Kbps
                                 2-4 Km                            up to 64 Mbps
                                                  Example2:        globally
Other examples:   Other          Example2:        3G, 2 Mbps,                      Example2:
wireless sensor   examples:      FSO              wide coverage    Example 2:      ReFLEX,
networks, UWB     802.11g,       1.25 Gbps                         Deep space      6.4Kbps
                  HiperLAN2      1-2 KM                            communication




                                           Amjad Umar
           Local Area Networks (LANs)       Metropolitan Area Networks       Wide Area Networks (WANs)
                                            (MANs)
Wired      Wired LANs                       Wired MANs                       Wired WANs
           Ethernet (10-100 Mbps, 150 to    FDDI (100 Mbps, 50 Kilometers)   ATM (44 Mbps to 140 Mbps)
           500 meters)                                                       Frame Relay (44 Mbps)
           Token Ring (4 -16 Mbps, 200 to
           500 meters)
Wireless   Wireless LANs                    Wireless MANs                    Wireless WANs
           Bluetooth (1 Mbps, 10 meters)    wireless local loops (10 Mbps,   Current GSM systems at
           IEEE 802.11 LANs (2-11 Mbps,     100 Kilometers)                  9.6Kbps, future 3G systems at 2
           100 meters)                                                       Mbps




           Issues unique to wireless
           •Frequency allocation
           •Multiple Access
           •Location


                                             Amjad Umar
                                    A Sample Wireless School
Link to
Public Ethernet

                                             C                               D
        T1
        or                                                                              LAN Server
        DSL                                                   Wireless LAN
                              Wireless LAN
                               Cell                            Cell
                                        Y                                    Z

                    Centrex
        Router
                                                                                 Wired Ethernet LAN
•X, Y, Z are                                     Wireless LAN
access points                                     Cell
 for the wireless                                                   X
 Ethernet LANs
•A, B, C, D are                              A                B
student laptops
                                                 Amjad Umar
                       Bluetooth
• Founders: Ericsson, IBM, Intel, Nokia, Toshiba; May 98
• Currently: Over 850 companies, V1.0 spec issued 7/99
• Small form factor, low-cost, short range radio link between
  mobile PCs, phones and other portable devices
• Relatively fast, short packets
• Software for service and device discovery
• Typical application: cellular phone to PDA or earphone
• Forecast: 79% of digital handsets and > 200 million PCs
  will use Bluetooth by 2002 -- Dataquest




                          Amjad Umar
                  Bluetooth




                                       PSTN




        Access
        Point

                                       Cellular
                                       Network
Wired
LAN              Bluetooth Piconet
                 (1 Mbps, 10 meters)
                 Amjad Umar
                  Wireless Local Loops

          Telephone
                                                             Inter-
Computers                                                    Exchange
                      Wireless                Toll
                                              Connecting
                                                             Switch
PBX, TV               Local
                      Loop                    Trunks

                                                           Intertoll
                                                           Trunks

   Telephone
                                    Local
                                                                Inter-
                                    Control
                                                                Exchange
                        Wired       Office      Toll
                                                Connecting
                                                                Switch
                        Local
                        Loop                    Trunks

                                 Amjad Umar
             A Cellular Network
Cell 1




                             Mobile               Public
                             Telephone            Switched
                             Switching            Telephone
         Cell 2              Center               Network
                             (MTSC)               (PSTN)


                           HLR       VLR




                   Mobile User              Base Transceiver Station (BTS)
                  Cordless connection    HLR = Home Location Register

                  Wired connection       VLR = Visitor Location Register
                        Amjad Umar
Cellular networks: What is 3G Anyway?
• 1G: First generation wireless cellular: Early 1980s
   – Analog transmission, primarily speech
• 2G: Second generation wireless cellular: Late 1980s
   –   Digital transmission
   –   Primarily speech and low bit-rate data
   –   High-tier: GSM, IS-95 (CDMA), etc
   –   Low-tier (PCS): Low-cost, low-power, low-mobility e.g. PACS
• 2.5G: 2G evolved to medium rate (< 100kbps) data
• 3G: future: Broadband multimedia
   – 144 kbps - 384 kbps for high-mobility, high coverage
   – 2 Mbps for low-mobility and low coverage



                              Amjad Umar
                     Evolution to 3G
Data Rates
    2 Mbps

    1 Mbps                                               3G
                                                    (144Kbps to 2Mbps)

   100 Kbps
                                             2.5G
                                          (10-150Kbps)
    10 Kbps
                              2G
                              (9.6Kbps)
    1 Kbps
                    1G
                 (<1Kbps)


              1980              1990             2000          2010
                                         Years
                            Amjad Umar
                  Wireless LANs
• First generation of products at about 1-2 Mbps
   – Lucent’s WaveLAN, RadioLAN, etc.
   – factor of 10 less bandwidth than current Ethernet
• Next generation of products at 10-11 Mbps
   – factor of 10 less bandwidth than 100 Mbps Ethernet
• IEEE 802.11 standard –
   – very successful at present (wi-Fi)
   – Can deliver up to 64 mbps
• Important niche and enterprise applications (e.g.
  hospitals)
• Increasing horizontal market interest (e.g. SOHO)
                          Amjad Umar
Satellite Communications




         Amjad Umar
           Other issues

Integration

Security

Management and support

Regulations and standards

Wireless Business and Industry

              Amjad Umar
                  Wireless            Wireless Data   Wireless       Wireless
Reference
                  Telephone           Network         Management     Consulting
Model
                  Business            Business        Business       Business


7. Application
                                      Applications
                  Wireless            (e.g., SMS,
                                      email,           Wireless      Systems
                  Telephony                            Application   Consulting
6. Presentation                       Wireless Web,
                  Applications                         and
                  and                 Mobile EC/EB)
                                                       Platform
5. Session        Services                             Management

4. Transport                           IP Data
                    PSTN
                    Routing            Network
                                       Routing
3. Network                                              Wireless
                                                                     Wireless
                                                        Network
                      Physical Network Elements                      Network
                                                        Management
2. Data Layer                                                        Consulting
                       (Cellular networks,
                                                                     and
                       Wireless LANs,                    Call        Engineering
                       Satellites,                       Switching
1. Physical                                                          Services
                       Wireless Local Loops)

                                      Amjad Umar
                          Summary
• Mobile applications is a tremendous area of growth
• Business drivers such as M-Business are significant
• Mobile computing platforms have to handle special cases:
    – Slow line speeds (19.2 Kbps)
    – Congestions are usual
    – More error prone
• Different types of wireless networks
    –   Cellular
    –   Wireless LANs
    –   Satellites
    –   Wireless local loops
    –   Many emerging areas: sensor networks, Mobile Adhoc Networks, Free
        Space Optics

• Many issues in Architectures, security and management
• Standards work is also progressing in many areas


                              Amjad Umar

				
DOCUMENT INFO
Shared By:
Categories:
Tags:
Stats:
views:8
posted:7/27/2012
language:English
pages:25