Renaissance (Rebirth) 1450 � 1600 by RZgf0cH

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A New Vision of Humanity
  Renaissance (Rebirth)

      1450 – 1600



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               Curiosity is Genius
 Renaissance was a time of rebirth of knowledge. Cultures, art
  and architecture from past eras were revisited and
  incorporated into the Renaissance. The Renaissance evolved
  from a time of strict belief based on the Church, to a time of
  curiosity and opening up to other ideas that were not just
  based on the Catholic Church.

  Geniuses such as Leonardo Da Vinci can be recognized as a
  true Renaissance man because of his inquiry. Being a curious
  person, he explored and experimented with a lot of concepts,
  such as flying. He also reflects the ‘rebirth of knowledge’ by
  incorporating some of the Ancient Roman ideas. The basic
  concept of a dome derived from Ancient Roman architecture
  which was explored by other architects. Da Vinci took this
  knowledge and included it into his own designs. Leonardo Da
  Vinci is very well known as the painter of the all around famous,
  ‘Mona Lisa.’ But he was not just a painter. He was a scientist as
  well. An inventor.
 While trying to find the formula of having the same area of a square
  and a given circle, Leonardo Da Vinci was able to use this knowledge
  to draw his people to scale. Although his calculations failed, it helped
  him with his paintings. In the painting, ‘Baptism of Christ,’ by Andrea
  del Verrocchio who was Da Vinci’s master, Andrea del Verrochio let
  Leonardo paint one of the angels, as it was common for the master to
  allow their apprentices to paint sections of a master’s painting. The
  angel Leonardo drew stands out from the rest of the painting, with its
  intricate detail. In Leonardo’s own painting, the ‘Virgin of the Rocks,’
  the Virgin and babies are all to scale with details such as the shape of
  their muscles clearly shown.

  He was able to paint with such accuracy because he was also a scientist.
  He liked to open up corpses and study their anatomy. Da Vinci has
  numerous sketches of bodies and their insides. They clearly show muscles
  and tendons, and how they look like in different positions. Apart from
  dissecting corpses, Leonardo also spent time outside carefully studying
  people’s body movements such as hands. He sketched them in their
  different positions and drew with a lot of detail. Therefore, this helped him
  with his paintings such as the very famous ‘Mona Lisa.’ If the painting is
  studied carefully, her hands are in a carefully placed and elegant
  position with the bottom hand supporting the top hand.
 Leonardo Da Vinci also asked a lot of questions about other
  concepts, such as flying. He spent a lot of time observing birds and
  their flight as well. After studying them, he invented devices that
  would help man fly. Based on theory, knowledge and observation he
  constructed the actual devices and while some of them failed, some
  of them worked as well. In fact, he invented a parachute, something
  that we now have today. Leonardo Da Vinci was indeed a very
  curious person. And his curiosity led him to becoming a genius. A true
  Renaissance man.
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           St. Peter's Basilica
 St. Peter's Basilica is a Late Renaissance
  church located within the Vatican City.

 It is regarded as one of the holiest Christian
  sites.

 It has the largest interior of any Christian
  church in the world, holding 60,000 people.
 It is the burial site of Saint Peter, who was
  one of the twelve apostles of Jesus and first
  Bishop of Rome.

 Saint Peter's tomb, along with many other
  Popes is directly below the altar of the
  basilica.

 Construction of the present basilica began
  on April 18, 1506 and was completed on
  November 18, 1626.
                                  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/St._Peter's_Basilica
The Italian Renaissance
 It originated in Italy around 1300 AD.

 These new ideas were well-received and
  flourished throughout Italy.

 By 1500, these new ideas had also reached
  Northern parts of Europe.
Understanding the Beginnings of the
Renaissance:
 To understand the beginnings of the
  Renaissance, you must go back
  approximately 800 years, to the fall of the
  Roman Empire.
 For 1,000 years, Rome ruled most of Europe,
  bringing advancements in technology,
  learning and government.
 Once Rome fell to invaders in 542 CE,
  Western Europe fell into a stagnant period
  known as the Middle Ages.
 Society regressed; People did not venture
  far from their small villages.

 Local lords ruled by force and intimidation.

 Learning took place only in religious houses.

 Europeans grew up ignorant, illiterate, and
  superstitious.

 Peasants and serfs did not find life beautiful
  or intriguing.
 They lived in miserable conditions with little
  hope of improving their lives.

 If you were born a peasant, you would
  most likely die a peasant.

 Their main goal in life was finding eternal
  salvation.

 Life on Earth was a journey to suffer
  through, in order to reach Heaven.
New Beliefs at the End of the Middle
Ages:
 As Western Europe slowly emerged from
  the Middle Ages, new ideas and beliefs
  about life and its purpose began to spread.
 This school of thought, known as
  humanism, was based on the belief that
  life on Earth had a point of its own.
 It did not have to be a miserable pit-stop
  on the way to Heaven.
 According to humanists, life was beautiful
  and should be enjoyed.
The Rise of Merchants at the End of the
Middle Ages:
 The Black Death, wiped out hundreds of
  thousands of Europeans.
 This caused a huge shortage of workers.
 Wages rose as a result of a high demand
  for workers (laborers).
 The standard of living rose as the wages
  improved.
 This lead to the rise of wealthy merchants,
 They would provide the money, resources
  and the incentive for the Renaissance
The Renaissance brought Changes in
Society:
 It was a cultural movement.

 The social changes that took place during
  the Renaissance were slow, but steady.

 By the end of the Renaissance every
  aspect of European society had
  undergone some type of transformation.

 Individuals had become for confident and
  felt more empowered
Humanism was a key Component of
the Renaissance:
 It was also an the intellectual movement.
 It was based on the study of classical Greek
  and Roman cultures.
 Humanists believed that your
  accomplishments were important and
  defined who you were as a person.
 It instilled an attitude of ‘Live for Today’.
 The merchant class liked this idea because
  they were tired of being considered less
  important than ruling nobles (privileged
  class, born rich).
Humanism and Renaissance Art:
 New techniques in art created astounding
  works of art.

 A technique known as Perspective made
  scenes appear three dimensional.

 Careful shading make objects look round
  and real, rather than flat.

 Using human models helped artists portray
  the human body far more accurately than
  in Medieval art.
 Renaissance art glorified the human body.
 It placed importance of the individual and
  were secular (non-religious).
 The works of the four great masters, Leonardo
  da Vinci, Raphael, Michelangelo, and
  Donatello set the standard for Renaissance
  art.
 They were students of humanism and their
  works focused on the individual.
 Davinci’s Mona Lisa portrays a simple woman,
  wearing a simple smile.
 Artists turned to the classics of Ancient Greece
  and Rome for inspirations.
Pre-Renaissance Art:
 Early Medieval art was Romanesque style
 Romanesque paintings are naive; the
  characters have unrealistic features and
  showed no emotion
 By 1100 AD, Medieval art had become
  Gothic
 Gothic architecture can be recognized by
  the pointed arches on buildings
 Gothic art shows more concern for realism
  and emotion
    Pre-Renaissance Art:
Early Middle Ages: Romanesque Art
                 Late Middle Ages:
             Gothic Art and Architecture




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This painting, commonly known as the Triptych of Beffi, from the
name of the nearby town, was attributed to a follower of Taddeo
di Bartolo (Siena, 1362/63 -1422)
 Gothic Architecture became popular in
  the late Medieval Period. It was most
  commonly used for cathedrals and
  churches in Europe.

 Westminster Abbey is a large, Gothic
  church.

 It is the traditional place of coronation and
  burial site for English monarchs.
What did Humanism contribute to
Western Culture?
 Intellectuals began to spread scientific
  knowledge throughout Europe despite the
  Church’s opposition to it.

 Humanists had great interests in history,
  philosophy, art and literature.

 They looked backwards, at the cultures of
  Ancient Greece and Rome for inspiration.
 The children of wealthy merchants and nobles
  started reading humanist philosophy.

 According to Humanism, education should
  stimulate student’s creative powers.

 Students were taught poetry, history, and public
  speaking.
 Before the Humanist movement, the Church
  successfully controlled all aspects of our lives.

 Although it demanded total obedience,
  Europeans under humanist influence began to
  question the Church‘s practises.
 The Humanist belief was that people were
  able to reason well on their own, without the
  influence of the Church.
 The belief also rejected the idea of being
  controlled or brainwashed by the Church.
 In other words, people should be given the
  right to have individual freedom of thought.
 They believed God should not be our central
  concern.
 They preached for tolerance and peace
  instead of also engaging in religious wars.
Printing in the Renaissance:
 Invented by Johannes Gutenberg
 The printing press revolutionized
  Renaissance society the same way TV and
  the internet have influenced the 20th and
  21st centuries.
 For the first time books were cheap enough
  for the masses; learning and new ideas
  spread like wildfire throughout Europe.
 The printing pressing enabled ideas to
  spread across Europe.
Scientific Progress During the Renaissance:
 Church taught that the Earth was flat and that
  it was at the center of the universe!
 Any new idea which had conflicted with the
  biblical texts was forbidden (punishable by
  death!)
 Scientists learned about human anatomy by
  dissecting corpses.
 This lead to the advancement in medicine.
 Dissecting corpses was forbidden by the
  church.
  Martin LUTHER and The Reformation:
 Martin Luther started a movement to reform the
  Catholic Church.

• He believed the church had become too rich,
  powerful and corrupt!

Criticism of the Church:
 Members of the clergy did not honour their vows of
  poverty and chastity.
 The Pope and bishops lived in luxury and behaved
  like powerful noblemen.
 Priests were ignorant, neglected their duties and were
  left unsupervised.
Pope Leo X & the Selling of Indulgences:
 When the Church attached the sale of
  indulgences, Luther became increasingly
  enraged at this practice.
 Indulgences meant that a person could buy
  their way out of purgatory or hell.
 Church leaders commonly launched
  indulgence campaigns to finance large
  building projects (such as the building of St.
  Peter's in Rome).
 In 1517, Martin Luther nailed the 95 theses onto
  the wooden doors of the church.
 He revealed the corruption going on inside
  church walls.
His Letter stressed out the following issues:

1. The Catholic Church believes that we only
   get into heaven by faith plus good works*

  *Showing that you are a good Christian by
  helping the poor, helping your neighbor in
  need, encouraging others, volunteering etc.


 The bible teaches us that we go to heaven
  strictly by faith in Jesus Christ.
2. The Bible is the living true authority of God,
  not the Pope.
3. People can read and interpret the bible
  for themselves instead of relying on the
  priests or bishops to do it for them.
4. People did not need to buy their rights to
  heaven.
5. All people are created equal through the
  eyes of God.
6. He encouraged worshiping God through
  praise and singing.
Luther Excommunicated:
 Martin Luther was excommunicated by the Pope
  in 1520 after he publicly burned the Papal Decree
  (letters issued by the Pope).

 In 1521, Holy Roman Emperor Charles V put him
  on trial and condemned him as a heretic and an
  outlaw of the church.

 They didn't execute him because that would've
  made him a martyr.

 Frederick the Wise, of Saxony made a deal with
  the Catholic Church resulting in Martin Luther's
  safe passage to his home at Wartburg Castle.
 While in exile, he rewrote the bible in German.
 During the months he stayed there, he
  witnessed many social changes as a result
  of his revolution.

 Martin Luther's statement, "Salvation is
  achieved through Jesus Christ alone" broke
  the Catholic Church forever.




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The Church’s Reaction to the
Reformation:
 In 1545, Pope Paul III assembled a council
  (meeting with important Church officials) in
  the city of Trent to discuss how to deal with
  the Reformation.


The council made the following
  decisions at this meeting:
 Priests had to be supervised and educated
  in colleges.
 Published an Official Latin Bible.
 Created new religious orders like the Jesuits.
 Jesuits were educated priests that taught
  and spread the Roman Catholic faith
  throughout the world.
•Heretics would be prosecuted in courts set up
courts called the inquisition.

•Protestants were considered heretics.

•Enemies of the Church were put on trial and
sentenced to death.

•This council also decided to get rid of the selling
of indulgences because it was bad for the
Church’s image.

•The church made a list of banned books.

•These “BAD” books were listed in THE INDEX.
The Effects of the Counter-Reformation:
 The Council of Trent revived enthusiasm for
  the Roman Catholic Church.

 The highly-educated Jesuits challenged
  Protestant preachers.

 The Protestant movement was weakened.

								
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