http://www.join2day.net/abc/M/michelangelo/michelangelo7.JPG A New Vision of Humanity Renaissance (Rebirth) 1450 – 1600 http://www.worldgreatestsites.com/pics/st-peters-basilica_interior.jpg http://ignoranceabroad.billpetro.com/wp-content/uploads/michelangelo_david_head.jpg http://www.paintingsite.net/images/renaissance_history_monalisa.jpg Curiosity is Genius Renaissance was a time of rebirth of knowledge. Cultures, art and architecture from past eras were revisited and incorporated into the Renaissance. The Renaissance evolved from a time of strict belief based on the Church, to a time of curiosity and opening up to other ideas that were not just based on the Catholic Church. Geniuses such as Leonardo Da Vinci can be recognized as a true Renaissance man because of his inquiry. Being a curious person, he explored and experimented with a lot of concepts, such as flying. He also reflects the ‘rebirth of knowledge’ by incorporating some of the Ancient Roman ideas. The basic concept of a dome derived from Ancient Roman architecture which was explored by other architects. Da Vinci took this knowledge and included it into his own designs. Leonardo Da Vinci is very well known as the painter of the all around famous, ‘Mona Lisa.’ But he was not just a painter. He was a scientist as well. An inventor. While trying to find the formula of having the same area of a square and a given circle, Leonardo Da Vinci was able to use this knowledge to draw his people to scale. Although his calculations failed, it helped him with his paintings. In the painting, ‘Baptism of Christ,’ by Andrea del Verrocchio who was Da Vinci’s master, Andrea del Verrochio let Leonardo paint one of the angels, as it was common for the master to allow their apprentices to paint sections of a master’s painting. The angel Leonardo drew stands out from the rest of the painting, with its intricate detail. In Leonardo’s own painting, the ‘Virgin of the Rocks,’ the Virgin and babies are all to scale with details such as the shape of their muscles clearly shown. He was able to paint with such accuracy because he was also a scientist. He liked to open up corpses and study their anatomy. Da Vinci has numerous sketches of bodies and their insides. They clearly show muscles and tendons, and how they look like in different positions. Apart from dissecting corpses, Leonardo also spent time outside carefully studying people’s body movements such as hands. He sketched them in their different positions and drew with a lot of detail. Therefore, this helped him with his paintings such as the very famous ‘Mona Lisa.’ If the painting is studied carefully, her hands are in a carefully placed and elegant position with the bottom hand supporting the top hand. Leonardo Da Vinci also asked a lot of questions about other concepts, such as flying. He spent a lot of time observing birds and their flight as well. After studying them, he invented devices that would help man fly. Based on theory, knowledge and observation he constructed the actual devices and while some of them failed, some of them worked as well. In fact, he invented a parachute, something that we now have today. Leonardo Da Vinci was indeed a very curious person. And his curiosity led him to becoming a genius. A true Renaissance man. http://www.google.ca/imgres?imgurl=http://www.leonardo-da-vinci-biography.com/images/leonardo-da-vinci- anatomy.4.jpg&imgrefurl=http://samanthahumanitiesgreen.blogspot.com/2009/10/curiosity-is-genius.html&usg=__ExPDlNc9v6AO2ILYzG_z1- J- tart=6&zoom=1&um=1&itbs=1&tbnid=KloETa3buGM6rM:&tbnh=103&tbnw=123&prev=/images%3Fq%3Drenaissance%2Bart%2Banatomy%26um% 3D1%26hl%3Den%26safe%3Dactive%26sa%3DN%26tbs%3Disch:1 St. Peter's Basilica St. Peter's Basilica is a Late Renaissance church located within the Vatican City. It is regarded as one of the holiest Christian sites. It has the largest interior of any Christian church in the world, holding 60,000 people. It is the burial site of Saint Peter, who was one of the twelve apostles of Jesus and first Bishop of Rome. Saint Peter's tomb, along with many other Popes is directly below the altar of the basilica. Construction of the present basilica began on April 18, 1506 and was completed on November 18, 1626. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/St._Peter's_Basilica The Italian Renaissance It originated in Italy around 1300 AD. These new ideas were well-received and flourished throughout Italy. By 1500, these new ideas had also reached Northern parts of Europe. Understanding the Beginnings of the Renaissance: To understand the beginnings of the Renaissance, you must go back approximately 800 years, to the fall of the Roman Empire. For 1,000 years, Rome ruled most of Europe, bringing advancements in technology, learning and government. Once Rome fell to invaders in 542 CE, Western Europe fell into a stagnant period known as the Middle Ages. Society regressed; People did not venture far from their small villages. Local lords ruled by force and intimidation. Learning took place only in religious houses. Europeans grew up ignorant, illiterate, and superstitious. Peasants and serfs did not find life beautiful or intriguing. They lived in miserable conditions with little hope of improving their lives. If you were born a peasant, you would most likely die a peasant. Their main goal in life was finding eternal salvation. Life on Earth was a journey to suffer through, in order to reach Heaven. New Beliefs at the End of the Middle Ages: As Western Europe slowly emerged from the Middle Ages, new ideas and beliefs about life and its purpose began to spread. This school of thought, known as humanism, was based on the belief that life on Earth had a point of its own. It did not have to be a miserable pit-stop on the way to Heaven. According to humanists, life was beautiful and should be enjoyed. The Rise of Merchants at the End of the Middle Ages: The Black Death, wiped out hundreds of thousands of Europeans. This caused a huge shortage of workers. Wages rose as a result of a high demand for workers (laborers). The standard of living rose as the wages improved. This lead to the rise of wealthy merchants, They would provide the money, resources and the incentive for the Renaissance The Renaissance brought Changes in Society: It was a cultural movement. The social changes that took place during the Renaissance were slow, but steady. By the end of the Renaissance every aspect of European society had undergone some type of transformation. Individuals had become for confident and felt more empowered Humanism was a key Component of the Renaissance: It was also an the intellectual movement. It was based on the study of classical Greek and Roman cultures. Humanists believed that your accomplishments were important and defined who you were as a person. It instilled an attitude of ‘Live for Today’. The merchant class liked this idea because they were tired of being considered less important than ruling nobles (privileged class, born rich). Humanism and Renaissance Art: New techniques in art created astounding works of art. A technique known as Perspective made scenes appear three dimensional. Careful shading make objects look round and real, rather than flat. Using human models helped artists portray the human body far more accurately than in Medieval art. Renaissance art glorified the human body. It placed importance of the individual and were secular (non-religious). The works of the four great masters, Leonardo da Vinci, Raphael, Michelangelo, and Donatello set the standard for Renaissance art. They were students of humanism and their works focused on the individual. Davinci’s Mona Lisa portrays a simple woman, wearing a simple smile. Artists turned to the classics of Ancient Greece and Rome for inspirations. Pre-Renaissance Art: Early Medieval art was Romanesque style Romanesque paintings are naive; the characters have unrealistic features and showed no emotion By 1100 AD, Medieval art had become Gothic Gothic architecture can be recognized by the pointed arches on buildings Gothic art shows more concern for realism and emotion Pre-Renaissance Art: Early Middle Ages: Romanesque Art Late Middle Ages: Gothic Art and Architecture http://geometryonline.pbworks.com/f/1266865520/architecture%205.gif This painting, commonly known as the Triptych of Beffi, from the name of the nearby town, was attributed to a follower of Taddeo di Bartolo (Siena, 1362/63 -1422) Gothic Architecture became popular in the late Medieval Period. It was most commonly used for cathedrals and churches in Europe. Westminster Abbey is a large, Gothic church. It is the traditional place of coronation and burial site for English monarchs. What did Humanism contribute to Western Culture? Intellectuals began to spread scientific knowledge throughout Europe despite the Church’s opposition to it. Humanists had great interests in history, philosophy, art and literature. They looked backwards, at the cultures of Ancient Greece and Rome for inspiration. The children of wealthy merchants and nobles started reading humanist philosophy. According to Humanism, education should stimulate student’s creative powers. Students were taught poetry, history, and public speaking. Before the Humanist movement, the Church successfully controlled all aspects of our lives. Although it demanded total obedience, Europeans under humanist influence began to question the Church‘s practises. The Humanist belief was that people were able to reason well on their own, without the influence of the Church. The belief also rejected the idea of being controlled or brainwashed by the Church. In other words, people should be given the right to have individual freedom of thought. They believed God should not be our central concern. They preached for tolerance and peace instead of also engaging in religious wars. Printing in the Renaissance: Invented by Johannes Gutenberg The printing press revolutionized Renaissance society the same way TV and the internet have influenced the 20th and 21st centuries. For the first time books were cheap enough for the masses; learning and new ideas spread like wildfire throughout Europe. The printing pressing enabled ideas to spread across Europe. Scientific Progress During the Renaissance: Church taught that the Earth was flat and that it was at the center of the universe! Any new idea which had conflicted with the biblical texts was forbidden (punishable by death!) Scientists learned about human anatomy by dissecting corpses. This lead to the advancement in medicine. Dissecting corpses was forbidden by the church. Martin LUTHER and The Reformation: Martin Luther started a movement to reform the Catholic Church. • He believed the church had become too rich, powerful and corrupt! Criticism of the Church: Members of the clergy did not honour their vows of poverty and chastity. The Pope and bishops lived in luxury and behaved like powerful noblemen. Priests were ignorant, neglected their duties and were left unsupervised. Pope Leo X & the Selling of Indulgences: When the Church attached the sale of indulgences, Luther became increasingly enraged at this practice. Indulgences meant that a person could buy their way out of purgatory or hell. Church leaders commonly launched indulgence campaigns to finance large building projects (such as the building of St. Peter's in Rome). In 1517, Martin Luther nailed the 95 theses onto the wooden doors of the church. He revealed the corruption going on inside church walls. His Letter stressed out the following issues: 1. The Catholic Church believes that we only get into heaven by faith plus good works* *Showing that you are a good Christian by helping the poor, helping your neighbor in need, encouraging others, volunteering etc. The bible teaches us that we go to heaven strictly by faith in Jesus Christ. 2. The Bible is the living true authority of God, not the Pope. 3. People can read and interpret the bible for themselves instead of relying on the priests or bishops to do it for them. 4. People did not need to buy their rights to heaven. 5. All people are created equal through the eyes of God. 6. He encouraged worshiping God through praise and singing. Luther Excommunicated: Martin Luther was excommunicated by the Pope in 1520 after he publicly burned the Papal Decree (letters issued by the Pope). In 1521, Holy Roman Emperor Charles V put him on trial and condemned him as a heretic and an outlaw of the church. They didn't execute him because that would've made him a martyr. Frederick the Wise, of Saxony made a deal with the Catholic Church resulting in Martin Luther's safe passage to his home at Wartburg Castle. While in exile, he rewrote the bible in German. During the months he stayed there, he witnessed many social changes as a result of his revolution. Martin Luther's statement, "Salvation is achieved through Jesus Christ alone" broke the Catholic Church forever. http://pleasanthillbaptistchurch.com/yahoo_site_admin/assets/images/salvation.128155724_std.jpg The Church’s Reaction to the Reformation: In 1545, Pope Paul III assembled a council (meeting with important Church officials) in the city of Trent to discuss how to deal with the Reformation. The council made the following decisions at this meeting: Priests had to be supervised and educated in colleges. Published an Official Latin Bible. Created new religious orders like the Jesuits. Jesuits were educated priests that taught and spread the Roman Catholic faith throughout the world. •Heretics would be prosecuted in courts set up courts called the inquisition. •Protestants were considered heretics. •Enemies of the Church were put on trial and sentenced to death. •This council also decided to get rid of the selling of indulgences because it was bad for the Church’s image. •The church made a list of banned books. •These “BAD” books were listed in THE INDEX. The Effects of the Counter-Reformation: The Council of Trent revived enthusiasm for the Roman Catholic Church. The highly-educated Jesuits challenged Protestant preachers. The Protestant movement was weakened.
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