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									                               北京联合大学应用文理学院



  今日食品科学课程期(末)评分标准及标准答案
                         (2008—2009 学年 第 1 学期)
生物技术/食品质量与安全 专业 2005 年级 本 专科□

A 卷 B 卷□ C 卷□


 开课单位: 生物学系                    班级或班数: 2         命题人:   惠伯棣


一、 英译中题(本大题共 1 个小题,80 个填空,每个填空 0.25 分,共 20 分)
1、请将下列英文的中文译文填入空格中
Score   English                  Chinese
 0.25   Laboratory apparatus     实验室器皿
 0.25   Beaker                   烧杯
 0.25   Bottle                   瓶
 0.25   Flask                    烧杯
 0.25   Round-bottom flask       园底烧瓶
 0.25   Plain-bottom flask       平底烧瓶
 0.25   Filter flask             抽滤瓶
 0.25   Conical flask            锥形瓶
 0.25   Triangle flask           三角瓶
 0.25   Test tube                试管
 0.25   Test tube with cap       具塞试管
 0.25   Centrifuge tube          离心管
 0.25   Eppendorf tube           EP管
 0.25   Tube rack                试管架
 0.25   Test tube clamp          试管夹
 0.25   Thermometer              温度计
 0.25   Para-film                石蜡膜
 0.25   Scissors                 剪刀
 0.25   Cutter                   切割刀
 0.25   Lab log                  实验纪录
 0.25   Label                    标签
 0.25   Stand                    铁架台
 0.25   Ring                     铁圈
 0.25   Butterfly clamp          蝴蝶夹
 0.25   Clamp holder             支架
 0.25   Universal clamp          万能夹
 0.25   Volumetric cylinder      量筒



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                                   北京联合大学应用文理学院


0.25   Graduated cylinder               量筒
0.25   Funnel                           漏斗
0.25   Filter funnel                    过滤漏斗
0.25   Buchner Funnel                   布氏漏斗
0.25   Separation funnel with stopper   分液漏斗
0.25   Wash bottle                      洗瓶
0.25   Bensen burner                    本生灯
0.25   Alcohol burner                   酒精灯
0.25   Crucible with cover              坩埚及盖
0.25   Crucible tongs                   坩埚钳
0.25   B. pipette                       巴斯得滴管
0.25   Dropping pipette                 滴管
0.25   Graduated pipette                移液管
0.25   Foodstuff                        食材
0.25   Almond                           杏仁
0.25   Apple                            苹果
0.25   Apple Juice                      苹果汁
0.25   Apricot                          杏
0.25   Bacon                            咸肉
0.25   Bakery                           陪考食品
0.25   Bamboo shoot                     竹笋
0.25   Banana                           香蕉
0.25   Barbecued pork                   叉烧
0.25   Bean sprout                      豆芽
0.25   Beef                             牛肉
0.25   Beer                             啤酒
0.25   Bitter                           黑啤酒
0.25   Blueberry                        蓝莓
0.25   Brandy                           白兰地
0.25   Bread                            面包
0.25   Brown rice                       糙米(硬米)
0.25   Brown sugar                      砂糖
0.25   Butter                           黄油
0.25   Cake                             蛋糕
0.25   Canned foods                     罐头食品
0.25   Carp                             鲤鱼
0.25   Cereals                          谷物
0.25   Cheese                           奶酪
0.25   Cherry                           樱桃
0.25   Chestnut                         栗子
0.25   Chicken                          鸡肉
0.25   Chicken breast                   鸡胸肉
0.25   Chicken ham                      鸡火腿


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                                          北京联合大学应用文理学院


   0.25      Chicken leg                        大鸡腿
   0.25      Chicken wing                       鸡翅膀
   0.25      Chilly                             辣椒
   0.25      Chocolate                          巧克力
   0.25      Cider                              苹果汁/苹果酒
   0.25      Cocoa                              可可
   0.25      Coconut                            椰子
   0.25      Coconut milk                       椰奶
   0.25      Cod                                鳕鱼
   0.25      GMO                                转基因生物



二、选择填空题(本大题共 17 个小题,64 个选择填空,每个空 0.25 分,共
16 分)

2、We are living in the ( c ) age of biology. The largest and best-equipped community of scientists in
history is beginning to solve biological ( a ) that once seemed unsolvable. We are moving ever closer to
understanding how a single cell becomes a plant or animal; how plants trap solar energy and store that
energy in food; how organisms network in biological communities such as forests; and how the great
diversity of life on Earth evolved from the first microbes. Exploring life has never been more exhilarating.
a. puzzles
b. problems
c. golden
d. starting


3、Until the past decade, most biologists divided the diversity of life into five main groups, or kingdoms.
The most familiar two are the plant and animal kingdoms. But new methods, such as comparisons of DNA
among organisms, have led to an ongoing reassessment of the number and boundaries of ( b ). Various
classification schemes are now based on six, eight, or more kingdoms. But as the debate continues on the
kingdom level, there is broader consensus that the kingdoms of life can now be assigned to three even
higher levels of classification called ( c ).

The three domains are named Bacteria, Archaea, and Eukarya. The first two domains, Bacteria and
Archaea, recognize two very different groups of organisms that have prokaryotic cells. In the
five-kingdom system, these prokaryotes were combined in a single kingdom. But newer evidence
suggests that the organisms known as archaea are actually more closely related to eukaryotes than they
are to bacteria.

a. species
b. kingdoms
c. domains
d. family




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                                          北京联合大学应用文理学院


4、
Score   No.   English                     No.       Chinese
0.25    1     Apple Pie                   1         苹果派
0.25    2     Assorted Pickles            2         泡菜什锦
0.25    3     Baked Bun                   4         盐焗鸡
0.25    4     Baked Chicken in Salt       3         烤馒头
5、
Score   No.   English                 No.         Chinese
0.25    1     Chinese cuisine         2           烧饼
0.25    2     Sesame Cake             1           中餐
0.25    3     Appetizers              3           头盘
0.25    4     Apple in Hot Toffee     4           拔丝苹果
6、
Score   No.   English                         No.    Chinese
0.25    1     Baked Corn Cake                 1      贴饼子
0.25    2     Baked potato                    3      葱油饼
0.25    3     Baked Scallion Pancake          2      烘马铃薯
0.25    4     Baked Wheat Cake                4      火烧
7、
Score   No.   English                                  No.    Chinese
0.25    1     BBQ Chicken Leg                          4      皮蛋豆腐
0.25    2     Beancurd                                 2      豆腐
0.25    3     Beancurd Omelette                        3      锅塌豆腐
0.25    4     Beancurd with Preserved Eggs             1      烧烤鸡腿
8、
Score   No.   English                                  No.    Chinese
0.25    1     Beef                                     2      牛肉汉堡包
0.25    2     Beef Burger                              1      牛肉
0.25    3     Beef Seasoned with Soy Sauce             4      红烩牛肉
0.25    4     Beef Stew                                3      酱牛肉
9、
Score   No.   English                                         No.     Chinese
0.25    1     Beijing Roast Duck                              4       白切鸡
0.25    2     Birthday Bun with Bean Paste Filling            3       酸汤桂鱼
0.25    3     Boiled Mandarin Fish in Sour-Soup               2       寿桃
0.25    4     Boiled Chicken with Sauce                       1       北京烤鸭
10、
Score   No.   English               No.       Chinese
0.25    1     Boiled dumplings      3         盐水鸭
0.25    2     Boiled egg            4         豆花
0.25    3     Boiled salted duck    1         水饺
0.25    4     Braised beancurd      2         煮蛋
11、
Score   No.   English                                             No.   Chinese
0.25    1     Braised Beef with Potatoes                          2     红酒烩鸡
0.25    2     Braised Chicken with Red Wine                       3     德州扒鸡
0.25    3     Braised Chicken, Dezhou Style                       1     牛肉炖土豆
0.25    4     Braised Mushroom and Bamboo Shoots                  4     烧二冬




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                                            北京联合大学应用文理学院


12、
Score    No.   English                                             No.     Chinese
0.25     1     Braised Shanghai Greens and Mushrooms               1       北菇扒菜心
0.25     2     Bread                                               4       包子
0.25     3     Brown bread                                         2       面包
0.25     4     Bun                                                 3       黑面包
13、
Score    No.   English              No.         Chinese
0.25     1     Buttered toast       2           蝴蝶酥
0.25     2     Butterfly Cookies    1           奶油土司
0.25     3     Crispy rice          3           锅巴
0.25     4     cheese cake          4           酪饼
14、
Score    No.   English                  No.      Chinese
0.25     1     Chef's Salad             1        厨师沙拉
0.25     2     Chicken Curry            2        咖喱鸡
0.25     3     Chocolate Cookies        4        巧克力木司
0.25     4     Chocolate Mousse         3        巧克力曲奇
15、
Score    No.   English          No.         Chinese
0.25     1     Cold Dishes      1           冷餐
0.25     2     Cold Noodles     3           粥
0.25     3     Congee           2           凉面
0.25     4     Crispy Pigeon    4           脆皮乳鸽
16、
Score    No.   English                                     No.     Chinese
0.25     1     Crispy Sugar-Coated Fruit on a Stick        3       咖喱鸡
0.25     2     Curry Beef                                  4       油条
0.25     3     Curry Chicken                               1       冰糖葫芦
0.25     4     Deep-Fried Dough Sticks                     2       咖喱牛肉
17、
Score    No.   English                                         No.       Chinese
0.25     1     Deep-Fried Eggplant with Pork Stuffing          1         炸肉茄合
0.25     2     Deep-Fried Fermented beancurd                   2         炸臭豆腐
0.25     3     Deep-Fried Steamed bread                        3         炸馒头
0.25     4     Desserts                                        4         甜食
18、
Score    No.   English                                             No.     Chinese
0.25     1     Donuts                                              4       萝卜干
0.25     2     Double Boiled Lamb Soup                             2       清炖羊肉
0.25     3     Dough Drop and Assorted Vegetable Soup              3       疙瘩汤
0.25     4     Dried turnip                                        1       多纳圈



三、填空题(本大题共 2 个小题,12 个空,每个空 1 分,共 12 分)
19. The polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is a method for making many copies of a specific segment of
DNA without using intact cells. The starting material is a solution of DNA containing the nucleotide
sequence ’targeted’ for copying. The scientist adds a heat-resistant DNA polymerase, a supply of all four
nucleotides, and primers. The primers are short, synthetic molecules of single-stranded DNA that are


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                                        北京联合大学应用文理学院


complementary to the ends of the targeted DNA. The primers are needed because the DNA polymerase
can only add nucleotides to a preexisting DNA chain. (1) The DNA is briefly heated to separate its strands
and then (2) cooled to allow the primers to bind by hydrogen bonding to the ends of the target sequence,
one primer on each strand. (3) Then the DNA polymerase extends the primers, using the longer DNA
strands as templates. Within about 5 minutes, the target DNA sequence has been doubled. The solution is
then heated again, starting another cycle of strand separation, primer binding, and DNA synthesis. The
cycle runs again and again, duplicating the targeted sequence many time.


20、When the energy-yielding nutrients, that is, carbohydrates, fats, and proteins, are oxidized in the
body, energy is captured in a chemical compound known as ATP, which will then release the energy slowly
so that it can be used for physical activity, heat production, and metabolic processes. Enzymes, vitamins,
and minerals, as well as water, are needed in order for these oxidation reactions to take place.


四、阅读与理解题(本大题共 4 个小题,共 20 分)
21、Science and technology are interdependent. New technologies, such as more powerful microscopes
and computers, advance science. And scientific discoveries can lead to new technologies. In most cases,
technology applies scientific discoveries to the development of new goods and services. For example, it
was 50 years ago that two scientists, lames Watson and Francis Crick, discovered the structure of DNA
through the process of science. Their discovery eventually led to a variety of DNA technologies, including
the genetic engineering of microorganisms to mass-produce human insulin and the use of DNA
fingerprinting for investigating crimes. Perhaps Watson and Crick envisioned that their discovery would
someday inform new technologies, but that probably did not motivate their research, nor could they have
predicted exactly what the applications would be. The direction technology takes depends less on the
curiosity that drives basic science than it does on the current needs of humans and the changing climate
of culture.
Technology has improved our standard of living in many ways, but it is a double-edged sword. Technology
that keeps people healthier has enabled the population to grow more than tenfold in the past three
centuries, to double to 6 billion in just the past 40 years. The environmental consequences are sometimes
devastating. Acid rain, deforestation, global warming, nuclear accidents, toxic wastes, and extinction of
species are just a few of the repercussions of more and more people wielding more and more technology.
Science can help us identify such problems and provide insight about what course of action may prevent
further damage. But solutions to these problems have as much to do with politics, economics, culture, and
the values of societies as with science and technology. Now that science and technology have become
such powerful functions of society, every thoughtful citizen has a responsibility to develop a reasonable
amount of scientific and technological literacy.
Question 1: What is relationship between science and technology? (3 points)
Answer:
Science and technology are interdependent. (1 point)
New technologies advance science although they may have both positive and negative results. (1 point)
Scientific discoveries can lead to new technologies. Technology applies new scientific discoveries to
develop new products. (1 point)
Question 2: Science and technology, which one would you think more important for society? (1 point)
Answer:
Science is more important for society because it is able to solve problems eventually. (1 point)


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                                        北京联合大学应用文理学院


22、Like many concepts in science, the basic idea of biological evolution can be traced back to the ancient
Greeks. About 2500 years ago, the Greek philosopher Anaximander promoted the idea that life arose in
water and that simpler forms of life preceded more complex ones. However, the Greek philosopher
Aristotle, whose views had an enormous impact on Western culture, generally held that species are fixed,
or permanent, and do not evolve. Judeo-Christian culture fortified this idea with a literal interpretation of
the biblical book of Genesis, which tells the story of each form of life being individually created. The idea
that all living species are static in form and inhabit an Earth that is only about 6000 years old dominated
the cultural climate of the Western world for centuries.
In the mid-1700s, the study of fossils, which are the imprints or remnants of organisms that lived in the
past, began to take form as a branch of science. The study of fossils led French naturalist Georges Buffon
to suggest that Earth might be much older than 6000 years. He also observed some telling similarities
between specific fossils and certain living animals. In 1766, Buffon proposed the possibility that a species
represented by a particular fossil form could be an ancient version of a group of similar living species.
Then, in the early 1800s, French naturalist Jean Baptiste Lamarck suggested that the best explanation for
this relationship of fossils to current organisms is that life evolves. Lamarck explained evolution as a
process of adaptation, the refinement of characteristics that equip organisms to perform successfully in
their environments. An example of evolutionary adaptation is the powerful beak of a bird that feeds by
cracking tough seeds.
The evolutionary view of life came into focus in 1859 when British biologist Charles Darwin published The
Origin of Species. His book developed two main points. First, Darwin marshaled the available evidence in
support of the evolutionary view that species living today descended from ancestral species. Darwin called
this process "descent with modification." It is an insightful euphemism for "evolution," as it captures the
duality of life's unity (descent) and diversity (modification). In the Darwinian view, for example, the
diversity of bears is based on different modifications of a common ancestor from which all bears
descended. As the second main point in The Origin of Species, Darwin proposed a mechanism for descent
with modification. He called this process natural selection. Before we examine how natural selection works
and how Darwin derived the idea, let's place the Darwinian revolution in its historical setting.
The Darwinian view of life contrasts sharply with one that sees a relatively young Earth populated by
millions of unrelated species. The Origin of Species was truly radical for its time. Not only did it challenge
prevailing scientific views; it also shook the deepest roots of Western culture.


Question 1: What were the basic ideas of species arisen by the Greek philosopher Aristotle and
Judeo-Christian culture? (3 points)
Answer:
a.   Aristotle: species were fixed. (1 point)
b.   Judeo-Christian culture:
    Species were individually created. (1 point)
    Species were static in form. (1 point)
Question 2: What was major difference between Darwin’ s and Larmark’s view? (4 points)
Answer:
a. Lamarck:
    Life evolves. (1 point)
    Evolution was a process of adaptation. (1 point)
b. Darwin:


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                                         北京联合大学应用文理学院


    Species living today descended and modified from ancestral species. (1point)
    Mechanism for descent with modification was natural selection. (1 point)


23、The word ‘science’ is derived from a Latin verb meaning "to know." Science is a way of knowing. It
developed from our curiosity about ourselves and the world around us. This basic human drive to
understand is manifest in two main scientific approaches: discovery science and hypothesis-driven science.
Most scientists practice a combination of these two forms of inquiry.
The observations of discovery science engage inquiring minds to ask questions and seek explanations.
Ideally, such investigation consists of what is called the scientific method. As a formal process of inquiry,
the scientific method consists of a series of steps, but few scientists adhere rigidly to this prescription.
While it would be misleading to reduce science to a stereo-typed method, we can identify the key element
of the method that drives most modern science. It is called hypothetic-deductive reasoning, or more
simply hypothesis-driven science.
A hypothesis is a tentative answer to some question - an explanation on trial. It is usually an educated
guess. We all use hypotheses in solving everyday problems. Let's say, for example, that your flashlight
fails during a camp-out. That's an observation. The question is obvious: Why doesn't the flashlight work?
A reasonable hypothesis based on past experience is that the batteries in the flashlight are dead.
The deductive in hypothetic-deductive reasoning refers to the use of deductive logic to test hypotheses.
Deduction contrasts with induction, which, remember, is reasoning from a set of specific observations to
reach a general conclusion. In deduction, the reasoning flows in the opposite direction, from the general
to the specific. From general premises, we extrapolate to the specific results we should expect if the
premises are true. If all organisms are made of cells (premise 1), and humans are organisms (premise 2),
then humans are composed of cells (deductive prediction about a specific case).
In the process of science, the deduction usually takes the form of predictions about what outcomes of
experiments or observations we should expect if particular hypothesis (premise) is correct. We then test
the hypothesis by performing the experiment to see whether or not the results are as predicted. This
deductive testing takes the form of "If. . . then" logic:
    Observation: My flashlight doesn't work.
    Question: What's wrong with my flashlight?
    Hypothesis: The flashlight's batteries are dead.
    Prediction: This hypothesis is correct,
    Experiment: and I replace the batteries with new ones,
    Predicted result:: then the flashlight should work.
Let's say the flashlight still doesn't work. We can test an alternative hypothesis if new flashlight bulbs are
available. We could also blame the dead flashlight on campground ghosts playing tricks, but that
hypothesis is untestable and therefore outside the realm of science.


Question 1: What are two main scientific approaches for basic human drive to understand? (2 points)
Answer:
a. Discovery science (1 point)
b. Hypothesis-driven science (1 point)
Question 2: What is the function of hypothesis in hypothesis-driven science study? (3 points)
Answer:
a. Answer to question (1 point)


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                                       北京联合大学应用文理学院


b. Explanation on trial (1 point)
c. Guess (1 point)
Question 3: What was the example given in paragraph to explain deductive logic? (1 point)
Answer:
Human is made of cells. (1 point)
Question 4: What was the example given in paragraph to explain hypothesis- driven science study? (1
point)
Answer:
Flashlight fail (1 point)
24、France in the late 1790s was at war and having difficulty feeding its people. Napoleon's fighting forces
had a diet of putrid meat and other items of poor quality. The foods available couldn't be stored or
transported except in a dry state. Recognizing an important problem prize was announced offering
12,OOO francs and fame to anyone inventing a useful method of food preservation.
Nicolas Appert, a French confectioner. working in a simple kitchen. observed that food heated in. sealed
containers was preserved if the container was not reopened or the seal did not leak. He modestly called
the process "the art of Appertizing". Appert received the award from Napoleon after spending ten years
proving his discovery.
It should be appreciated that the cause of spoilage of food was unknown, The great scientists of the day
were summoned to evaluate Appert’s process and offer explanations for its apparent success. The
conclusion reached was that the process was successful because in some mysterious and magical fashion,
air combined with food in a sealed container, preventing putrefaction. This was quite incorrect.
Nevertheless, the canning process was discovered and practiced for the next 5O years with some success,
but in the darkness of ignorance.
Appert began work on his process in 1795. Peter Durand received patents in England in 1810 for glass and
metal containers for packaging foods to be canned. The tin-plated metal containers were called
"conisters" from which the term "can" is assumed to be derived. Early metal containers were bulky, crude
and difficult to seal. By 1823 a can with a hole in the top was invented, allowing the food to be heated in
boiling water baths with the hole covered with a loose lid. The lid was soldered into place after the heat
treatment. Hole-in-top cans are in use presently for canned evaporated milk, although the cans are sealed
prior to heating.
By 1824 Appert had developed schedules for processing some 50 different canned foods. Meats and stews
processed by Appert were carried by Sir Edward Perry in 1824 in his search for a northwest passage to
India. Several cans of food from this voyage were obtained from the National Maritime Museum in London
in 1938 and opened. The food was found non-toxic for animals. Interestingly there were isolated from
these canned products bacteria which had been dormant for at least 114 years. Given proper environment
and substrate, they grow!
In the 1820s canning plants appeared in the United States in Boston and New York. By 1830 sweet corn
was being processed in Maine. By 1840 canneries began appearing throughout the United States.
Question 1 What was observation called ‘the art of Appertizing’ ? (1 point)
Answer:
Food heated in sealed containers was preserved if the container was not reopened or the seal did not leak.
(1 point)
Question 2 Did heating treatment kill all bacteria in canned food production? (1 point)
Answer: No. Some of bacteria were dormant. (1 point)


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                                       北京联合大学应用文理学院



五、问答题(本大题共 3 个小题,每小题 4 分,共 12 分)
25、What is important to you in a job?
Answer:
A specific reward other than a paycheck (1 point), for example, challenge (1 point), the feeling of
accomplishment (1 point), and knowing that you have made a contribution (1 point).


26、Why do you want to work for this organization?
Answer:
Cite its reputation (1 point), the opportunities it offers (1 point), and the working conditions (1 point).
Stress that you want to work for this organization, not just any organization (1 point).


27、Why should we employ you?
Answer:
Point to your academic preparation (1 point), job skills (1 point), and enthusiasm about working for the
firm (1 point), ability to learn and to become productive quickly (1 point).



六、写作题(本大题共 1 个小题,每小题 20 分,共 20 分)
28、Writing my chronological CV in 500 words. Following information should be included:
o Personal Information
        o Name (2 points)
        o Age (1 point)
        o Sex (1 point)
        o Address (3 points)
o Education
        o High school (3 points)
        o University (1 point)
o Prizes and Awarding (1 point)
o Research interests (2 points)
o Skills and experiences (1 point)
o Occupational benefits (1 point)
o Personality and humanity (3 points)
o Hobbies (1 point)
每个语法错误、用词错误、拼写错误扣除 0.5 分。




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