Counseling Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgendered Youth by t2dOT6Bk


									Child Welfare History
   Foster Care to
 Adoption History
     Tensions Throughout Child Welfare
    These tensions include:

   parents’ rights vs children’s needs
   saving children/youth vs supporting families
   federal vs state vs local responsibility
   public vs voluntary financing and service
            Child Welfare History
   developmental vs protective services

   in-home vs foster family vs institutional care

   appropriate boundaries between the child welfare,
    family service, juvenile justice, mental health, domestic
    violence, substance abuse and mental retardation
           Child Welfare History
   Individualized modes of interventions vs
    uniform standards and treatment, i.e., evidence
    based practices

   Formal specialized professional services vs
    informal, natural helping networks

   social costs vs benefits of providing varying
    levels of care
           Child Welfare History
   All of these issues appear and reappear in the
    major historical documents on the American
    child welfare system.

   The one theme that never disappears is the
    search for a panacea, a solution to the problems
    of children and youth whose parents are unable
    to provide adequate care.
Child Welfare History 17th & 18th Centuries

   Early American settlers were preoccupied with issues of freedom
    and survival for themselves and their new country.

   The demands of exploring, settling, and cultivating vast expanses
    of land were enormous, and because of the small size of the
    population, contributing members of society were at a premium.

   The family was the basic economic unit, and all members were
    expected to contribute to the work of the household.
             Child Welfare History

   The concept of childhood, as it is currently understood,
    was unknown except for very young children.

   Although there was a high birthrate, approximately
    two-thirds of all children died before the age of four.
    Those who lived past this age were expected to start
    contributing labor as soon as possible by helping with
    household and farming chores, caring for younger
    siblings, and so forth.
           Child Welfare History

   Children moved quickly from infant status to serving
    essential economic functions for their families.

   Children were perceived as a scarce and valued
    resource for the nation, but little attention was paid
    to individual differences or needs, and the concept of
    children’s rights was nonexistent.
           Child Welfare History

    Although there was no child welfare system as
    such in those early days, two groups of children
    were presumed to require attention from the
    public authorities, one viewed as deserving, one
    as not deserving
   orphans
   children of paupers
           Child Welfare History
Because of the high maternal mortality rates and high adult male death
rates caused by the vicissitudes of life in the new world, large numbers
of children were orphaned at a relatively young age and required
special provisions for their care.

Children of paupers were also assumed to require special care because
of the high value placed on work and self-sufficiency and the
concomitant fear that these children would acquire the “bad habits” of
their parents if they were not taught a skill and good working habits at
an early age.

Parents who could not provide adequately for their children were
deprived of the right to plan for their children and were socially
           Child Welfare History
  Children and dependent adults were treated alike and were
   generally handled in one of four ways:
1. Outdoor relief, a public assistance program for poor
   families and children consisting of a meager dole paid
   by the local community to maintain families in their
   own homes
2. Farming-out, a system whereby individuals or groups
   of paupers were auctioned off to citizens who agreed to
   maintain the paupers in their homes for a contracted
          Child Welfare History

3. Almshouses or poorhouses established and
  administered by public authorities in large urban
  areas (or the care of destitute children and adults

4. Indenture, a plan for apprenticing children to
  households where they would be cared for and
  taught a trade, in return for which they owed
  loyalty, obedience, and labor until the costs of
  their rearing had been worked off.
                Child Welfare History
   In addition to these provisions under the public authorities, dependent
    children were cared for by a range of informal provisions arranged
    through relatives, neighbors, or church officials.

   A few private institutions for orphans were also established during this
    early colonial period. The first such orphanage in the United States
    was the Ursuline Convent, founded in New Orleans in 1727 under the
    auspices of Louis XV of France.

   Prior to 1800 most dependent children were cared for in almshouses
    and/or by indenture until the age of eight or nine, and then they were
    indentured until they reached majority.
            Child Welfare History
   Thus, the social provisions for dependent children
    during the first two centuries of American history can
    be characterized as meager arrangements made on a
    reluctant, begrudging basis to guarantee a minimal level
    of subsistence.

   The arrangements were designed to insure that
    chil-dren were taught the values of industriousness and
    hard work and received a strict religious upbringing.
    Provisions were made at the lowest cost possible for
    the local community, in part because of the widespread
    concern that indolence and depravity not be rewarded.
              Child Welfare History

   Parents who were unable to provide for their children were
    thought to have abrogated their parental rights, and children
    were perceived primarily as property that could be disposed of
    according to the will of their owners—parents, masters, and/or
    public authorities who assumed the costs of their care.

   The goal was to make provisions for dependent children that
    would best serve the interests of the community, not the
    individual child.
                    Nineteenth Century
   Massive social changes occurred in the United States during the
    nineteenth century, all of which influenced the nature of
    provisions for dependent children. The importation of large
    numbers of slaves and the eventual abolition of slavery first
    reduced the number of requests for indentured white children
    and later created opposition to a form of care for white children
    that was no longer permitted for blacks.

   The emergence of a bourgeois class of families in which the
    labor of children and wives was not required at home permitted
    upper-income citizens to turn their attention to the educational
    and developmental needs of their own children as well as the
    orphaned, poor, and delinquent.
                    Nineteenth Century

   The large-scale economic growth of the country after the Civil
    War helped to expand the tax base and to free funds for the
    development of private philanthropies aimed at improving the
    lives of the poor. The massive wave of immigrants from
    countries other than England created a large pool of needy
    children, primarily Catholic and Jewish, from diverse cultural

   Finally, the Industrial Revolution changed the entire economic
    and social fabric of the nation. New industry required different,
    more dangerous types of labor from parents and youth and
    created a new set of environmental hazards and problems for
    low-income families.
                  Rise of Institutions

   Perhaps the most significant change in the pattern of care for
    dependent children during the early nineteenth century was
    the dramatic increase in the number of orphanages, especially
    during the I830s.

   These facilities were established under public, voluntary, and
    sectarian auspices and were designed to care for children
    whose parents were unable to provide adequately for them, as
    well as for true orphans.
                   Rise of Institutions
   A major expansion in almshouse care occurred in the years
    succeeding the publication of these reports. But what was not
    foreseen by the early advocates of the use of almshouses were
    the physical and social risks to children posed by housing
    them with all classes of dependent adults. Although facilities in
    some of the larger cities established separate quarters for
    children, most were mixed almshouses caring for young
    children, “derelicts,” the insane, the sick, the blind, the deaf,
    the retarded, the delinquent, and the poor alike.

   By mid-century, investigations of the living conditions of
    children in poorhouses had started, creating strong pressure
    for the development of alternative methods of care.
                   Rise of Institutions

   State after state issued similar reports, characterizing
    almshouses as symbols of human wretchedness and political
    corruption and calling for special provisions for the care of
    young children in orphanages under public or private auspices.

   But reform came slowly, in part because public funds had
    been invested in the poorhouses and in part because there
    were no readily available alternatives for the large number of
    children housed in these facilities.
                    Rise of Institutions

   Black dependent children who were not sold as slaves were cared for
    primarily in the local almshouses. They were explicitly excluded from most
    of the private orphanages established prior to the Civil War.
    Conse-quently, several separate facilities for black children were founded
    during this period, the first of which was the Philadelphia Association for
    the Care of Colored Children established by the Society of Friends in 1822.

   To insure the survival of these facilities, their founders attempted to
    separate the orphanages from the abolitionist movement, with which they
    were identified. However, the shelter in Philadelphia was burned by a
    white mob in 1838 and the Colored Orphan Asylum in New York was set
    on fire during the Draft Riot of 1863.
        The Beginnings of Foster Care
   With the recognition of the condition of children cared for in
    mixed almshouses, the stage was set for a number of reform
    efforts. One such effort began in 1853 with the founding of
    the Children’s Aid Society in New York by Charles Loring
    Brace. By the end of the century, Children’s Aid Societies had
    been established in most of the other major eastern cities.

   Brace was strongly committed to the idea that the best way to
    save poor children from the evils of urban life was to place
    them in Christian homes in the country, where they would
    receive a solid moral training and learn good work habits.
                                  Orphan Trains
                                     Between 1854 and 1929 100,000-200,000
                                      children were placed in new families via the
                                      Orphan Trains.

•Children were taken in small groups of 10 to 40,
under the supervision of at least one adult, and
traveled on trains to selected stops along the way,
where they were taken by families in that area.
         The Beginnings of Foster Care
   Consequently, Loring Brace recruited large numbers of free foster homes
    in the Midwest and upper New York State and sent trainloads of children
    to these localities By 1879 the Children’s Aid Society in New York City
    had sent 40,000 homeless destitute children to homes in the country

   A somewhat parallel development was the establishment of the Children’s
    Home Society movement. These societies were statewide child-placing
    agencies under Protestant auspices, also designed to provide free foster
    homes for dependent children. The first such society was established in
    Illinois in 1883. By 1916 there were thirty-six Children’s Home Societies
    located primarily in Midwestern and southern states .
          The Expansion of Services

   Until the last quarter of the nineteenth century state
    intervention in a child’s life occurred, for the most
    part, only when the child threatened the social order.
    Dominant members of society feared that dependent
    children would grow up without the moral guidance
    and education necessary to enable them to become
    productive members of society. Children violating the
    law posed not only an immediate threat but also the
    fear that, without intervention, they would grow up
    to be adult criminals.
          The Expansion of Services

   During the latter part of the last century the focus of
    concern began to change. Voluntary organizations
    founded during this period recognized that families
    had an obligation to provide for their children’s basic
    needs. If they did not, it was argued, society had the
    right and obligation to intervene. Thus, the concept
    of minimal social standards for child rearing was
         The Expansion of Services

   The founding of the New York Society for the
    Prevention of Cruelty to Children in 1874
    signaled the beginning of this broader concept
    of societal intervention on the child’s behalf.
    Similar societies were quickly established in
    other areas of the country, and by 1900 there
    were more than 250 such agencies the New
    York society was established in the wake of
    the notorious case of “little Mary Ellen”.
         The Expansion of Services

   A friendly visitor, named Etta Wheeler from
    the child’s neighborhood was horrified by the
    abusive treatment the child had received from
    her caretaker and sought help from several
    child welfare institutions to no avail. Finally
    she turned to Henry Bergh, president of the
    Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to
    Animals, who promptly brought the case to
    court, requesting that the child be removed
    from her caretaker immediately.
Photo of Mary Ellen Wilson
          The Expansion of Services

   Newspaper accounts of the early meetings of the
    society indicate that the founders saw their primary
    function as prosecuting parents, not providing direct
    services to parents or children; in fact, the society was
    denied tax-exempt status by the State of New York in
    1900 because its primary purpose was defined as law
    enforcement, not the administration of charity.
    However, this agency as well as the other early child
    protection societies quickly turned their interests to
    all forms of child neglect and exploitation, not
    confining their activities merely to the prevention of
    physical abuse of children in their own homes.
         The Expansion of Services

   The establishment of the Charity Organization
    Society movement, starting in 1877, also
    contributed to the expansion of services to
    children. They were opposed to monetary
    giving and to any public sector involvement in
    the relief of destitution; government was not
    to be trusted to provide a “dole,” which would
    encourage laziness and moral decay.
          The Expansion of Services
   In order to accomplish this mission, the societies
    enlisted the aid of “friendly visitors”—the forerunner
    of the modern social worker—whose responsibilities
    were to seek out the poor, investigate their need, and
    certify them as worthy for private help. They were to
    provide a role model, advice, and moral instruction to
    the poor in order that they could rid themselves of
    poverty. These ideas had a profound influence on the
    orientation of the early social workers in the family
    service field.
          The Expansion of Services

   However, what the friendly visitors discovered was
    that much poverty was the result of societal forces far
    beyond the individual’s control. Many children were
    destitute not because their parents were lazy or
    immoral, but because jobs were not available,
    breadwinners were incapacitated by industrial
    accidents, or parents had died. While the friendly
    visitors continued to minister to the poor on a case-
    by-case basis, their recognition of the social roots of
    poverty converged with the philosophy underlying
    the establishment of the first settlement houses at the
    end of the nineteenth century.
           The Expansion of Services

   The settlement house movement was a middle-class
    movement designed to humanize the cities. It emphasized
    total life involvement, de-centralization, experimental modes
    of intervention, and learning by doing. Their programs
    included “developmental” services such as language classes,
    day-care centers, playgrounds, family life education, and so
    forth. Convinced of the worth of the individuals and
    immigrant groups they served and the importance of cultural
    pluralism in America, they saw the causes of many social
    problems in the environment and sought regulations to
    improve them.
              20th Century Time Line

   1909 – First White House Conference on Children
   1912 – Creation of US Children’s Bureau
   1935 - Social Security Act, Title IV, ADC; and Title V,
    Child Welfare Services Program
   1961 – Social Security Amendment, AFDC – Foster Care
   1962 – Social Security Amendment (75%-25% match for
    funding social services for current, former, and potential
    welfare recipients)
   1967 – Social Security Amendments
   Title IVB (Child Welfare Services Program, originally
    authorized under Title V)
              20th Century Time Line

   1974 – Child Abuse Prevention and Treatment Act, P.L. 93-247
    (Amended in 1978, 1984, 1988, 1992, 1996, 2003)

   1975 – Title XX of the Social Security Act

   1978 – Indian Child Welfare Act

   1980 – Adoption Assistance and Child Welfare Act, P.L. 96-272
    (Title IVE)

   1993 - Family Preservation and Support Services Program
        20th to 21st Century Time Line

   1994 – Multiethnic Placement Act

   1996 - Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunities Act ,
    P.L. 104-193

   1997 – Adoption and Safe Families Act (ASFA), P.L. 105-89

   1999 – Chaffee Foster Care Independence Act

   2000 – Child Abuse Prevention and Enforcement Act

   2001 – Promoting Safe and Stable Families Amendment
                21st Century Themes
   Safety
   Permanency Goal Setting
   Well-Being
   CFSR Reviews in States
   Foster Parents Adopting Children
   Adoption Incentives
   Adoption Opportunities
   Adoption Openness
   Youth Permanency
   Cultural Competency
   Family Based Services
   Community Based Services
      Array of Children, Youth and
             Family Services

   In Home Services
   Out-of-Home Services
   Child Welfare Services
               In Home Services
   Services designed to ensure that children and youth
    remain safe in their home and prevent them from
    entering the foster care system: Services to preserve

   Family Support/Preservation Services: counseling,
    parent skills training, substance abuse treatment,
    recreational services, linkages to community-based
           Out-of-Home Services
   Driven by ASFA 1997 legislation

   Strong emphasis on safety, permanency, and well-being,
    especially permanency

   Time limited with ASFA; 15 of last 22 months in

   Reunify with family, find other permanent arrangement
    or terminate parental rights and free for adoption
                Trial andFamily Foster Care

                                       Orphanages and
                                       Boarding schools

Tennessee Preparatory School for Dependent Children
           Out-of-Home Services
   Community-based services in family’s own

   Least restrictive placement setting

   Frequent visitation to family

   Intensive work with family, building on strengths and

   Respect for culture and traditions of the family
          Out-of-Home Services
   Kinship Foster Care: informal and formal
   Family Foster Boarding Homes
   Therapeutic Foster Boarding Homes
   Agency Operated Boarding Homes (SILP)
   Group Homes
   DRC/RTC (campus programs)
   RTF
          Child Welfare Services
   Abuse and Neglect Investigations
   Independent Living Services –Chaffee Act
   Adoption
   Legal Services
   Parent and Children’s Rights
   Child Performer Permits
     Adoption History Time Line
Prior to 1851, adoption was an informal process

1851, Massachusetts passed the first modern adoption
law, recognizing adoption as a social and legal operation
based on child welfare rather than adult interests.
Historians consider the 1851 Adoption of Children Act an
important turning point because it directed judges to
ensure that adoption decrees were “fit and proper.” How
this determination was to be made was left entirely to
judicial discretion.
    Adoption History Time Line

1868, Massachusetts Board of State
Charities began paying for children to
board in private family homes: in 1869, an
agent was appointed to visit children in
their homes. This was the beginning of
placing-out, a movement to care for
children in families rather than
    Adoption History Time Line
1872 New York State Charities Aid
Association was organized. It was one of
the first organizations in the country to
establish a specialized child-placement
program, in 1898. By 1922, homes for more
than 3300 children had been found. The
first major outcome study, How Foster
Children Turn Out (1924), was based on
the work of this agency.
    Adoption History Time Line

1891, Michigan was the first state to require
that “the [the judge] shall be satisfied as to
the good moral character, and the ability to
support and educate such child, and of the
suitableness of the home, or the person or
persons adopting such child.”
           Adoption History Time Line
   1910-1930, The first specialized adoption agencies were founded, including
    the Spence Alumni Society, the Free Synagogue Child Adoption Committee,
    the Alice Chapin Nursery (all in New York) and the Cradle in Evanston,

   1912-1921, Baby farming, commercial maternity homes, and adoption ad
    investigations took place in Boston, New York, Baltimore, Chicago, and
    other cities.

   1916, Lewis Terman's revision of the Binet scale popularized the intelligence
    quotient, or I.Q. Worries about the “feeble-minded” mentality of children
    available for adoption, and trends toward measuring their mental potential
    as one part of the adoption process, usually with mental tests, grew out of
    the eugenics movement in the early part of the century.
           Adoption History Time Line

   1917, Minnesota passed first law mandating social investigation of all
    adoptions (including home studies) and providing for the confidentiality of
    adoption records.

   1919, The Russell Sage Foundation published the first professional child-
    placing manual; U.S. Children's Bureau set minimum standards for child-
    placing; Jessie Taft authored an early manifesto for therapeutic adoption,
    “Relation of Personality Study to Child Placing.”

   1919-1929, The first empirical field studies of adoption gathered basic
    information about how many adoptions were taking place, of whom, and by
           Adoption History Time Line
   1934, The state of Iowa began administering mental tests to all children
    placed for adoption in hopes of preventing the unwitting adoption of
    retarded children (called “feeble-minded” at the time). This policy inspired
    nature-nurture studies at the Iowa Child Welfare Station that eventually
    served to challenge hereditarian orthodoxies and promote policies of early
    family placement.

   1935, Social Security Act included provision for aid to dependent children,
    crippled children's programs, and child welfare, which eventually led to a
    dramatic expansion of foster care; American Youth Congress issued “The
    Declaration of the Rights of American Youth”; Justine Wise Polier was
    appointed to head the Domestic Relations Court of Manhattan. She became
    an important early critic of matching in adoption.
           Adoption History Time Line
   1937-1938, First Child Welfare League of America initiative that
    distinguished minimum standards for permanent (adoptive) and temporary
    (foster) placements.

   1939, Valentine P. Wasson published The Chosen Baby, a landmark in the
    literature on telling children about their adopted status.

   1944, In Prince v. Massachusetts, a case involving Jehovah's Witnesses, the
    U.S. Supreme Court upheld the state's power as parens patriae to restrict
    parental control in order to guard “the general interest in youth's well

   1948, The first recorded transracial adoption of an African-American child
    by white parents took place in Minnesota.
           Adoption History Time Line

   1949, New York was the first state to pass a law against black market
    adoptions, which proved unenforceable in practice.

   1953, Uniform Adoption Act first proposed. Few states ever adopted it; Jean
    Paton founded Orphan Voyage, the first adoptee search support network.

   1953-1954, Child Welfare League of America conducted nationwide survey of
    adoption agency practices.

   1953-1958, The first nationally coordinated effort to locate adoptive homes
    for African American children, the National Urban League Foster Care and
    Adoptions Project.
           Adoption History Time Line
   1954, Helen Doss published The Family Nobody Wanted; Jean Paton
    published The Adopted Break Silence, the first book to offer a variety of
    first-person adoption narratives and promote the notion that adoptees had a
    distinctive identity.

   1955, Child Welfare League of America national conference on adoption in
    Chicago announced that the era of special needs adoption had arrived;
    Congressional inquiry into interstate and black market adoptions. Bertha
    and Harry Holt adopted eight Korean War orphans after a special act of
    Congress allowed them to do so; Pearl S. Buck accused social workers and
    religious institutions of sustaining the black market and preventing the
    adoption of children in order to preserve their jobs; Adopt-A-Child founded
    by the National Urban League and fourteen New York agencies to promote
    African-American adoptions.
           Adoption History Time Line
   1957, International Conference on Intercountry Adoptions issued report on
    problems of international adoptions; U.S. adoption agencies sponsored
    legislation to prohibit or control proxy adoptions.

   1958, Child Welfare League of America published Standards of Adoption
    Service (revised in 1968, 1973, 1978, 1988, 2000); Indian Adoption Project

   1959, UN Assembly adopted Declaration of the Rights of the Child,
    endorsed in 1960 by Golden Anniversary White House Conference on
    Children and Youth.

   1961, The Immigration and Nationality Act incorporated, for the first time,
    provisions for the international adoption of foreign-born children by U.S.
           Adoption History Time Line
   1960, Psychiatrist Marshall Schechter published a study claiming that
    adopted children were 100 times more likely than their non-adopted
    counterparts to show up in clinical populations. This sparked a vigorous
    debate about whether adoptive kinship was itself a risk factor for mental
    disturbance and illness and inspired a new round of studies into the
    psychopathology of adoption.

   1962-1965, Special conference on child abuse, led by Katherine Oettinger,
    chief of the Children's Bureau, generated proposals for new laws requiring
    doctors to notify law enforcement and most states adopted such legislation.

   1963, National Institute of Child Health and Human Development
    established as part of the National Institutes of Health; U.S. Children's
    Bureau moved from Social Security Administration to Welfare
           Adoption History Time Line
   1964, H. David Kirk published Shared Fate: A Theory of Adoption and
    Mental Health, the first book to make adoption a serious issue in the
    sociological literature on family life and mental health.

   1965, The Los Angeles County Bureau of Adoptions launched the first
    organized program of single parent adoptions in order to locate homes for
    hard-to-place children with special needs.

   1966, The National Adoption Resource Exchange, later renamed the
    Adoption Resource Exchange of North America (ARENA), was established
    as an outgrowth of the Indian Adoption Project.

   1969, President Nixon created the Office of Child Development in HEW to
    coordinate and administer Head Start and U.S. Children's Bureau functions.
           Adoption History Time Line
   1970, Adoptions reached their century-long statistical peak at approximately
    175,000 per year. Almost 80 percent of the total were arranged by agencies.

   1971, Florence Fisher founded the Adoptees Liberty Movement Association
    “to abolish the existing practice of sealed records” and advocate for
    “opening of records to any adopted person over eighteen who wants, for any
    reason, to see them.”

   1972, National Association of Black Social Workers opposed transracial
    adoptions; Stanley v. Illinois substantially increased the rights of unwed
    fathers in adoption by requiring informed consent and proof of parental
    unfitness prior to termination of parental rights.
           Adoption History Time Line
   1973, Roe v. Wade legalized abortion; Beyond the Best Interests of the Child
    articulated the influential concept of “psychological parent,” which
    prioritized continuity of nurture and speedy and permanent decisions in
    legal proceedings related to child placement and adoption.

   1976, Concerned United Birthparents founded

   1978, Indian Child Welfare Act passed by Congress.

   1980, Adoption Assistance and Child Welfare Act offered significant funding
    to states that supported subsidy programs for special needs adoptions and
    devoted resources to family preservation, reunification, and the prevention
    of abuse, neglect, and child removal.
           Adoption History Time Line

   1980, Adoption Assistance and Child Welfare Act offered significant funding
    to states that supported subsidy programs for special needs adoptions and
    devoted resources to family preservation, reunification, and the prevention
    of abuse, neglect, and child removal.

   1989, UN Convention on the Rights of the Child

   1993, Hague Convention on the Protection of Children and Co-operation in
    respect to Intercountry Adoption
           Adoption History Time Line
   1994, Multiethnic Placement Act was the first federal law to concern itself
    with race in adoption. It prohibited agencies receiving federal funds from
    denying transracial adoptions on the sole basis of race, but permitted the
    use of race as one factor, among others, in foster and adoptive placements.
    A 1996 revision to this law, the Inter-Ethnic Adoption Amendment, made it
    impermissible to employ race at all.

   1996, Bastard Nation founded. Its mission statement promoted “the full
    human and civil rights of adult adopted persons,” including access to sealed

   1997, Adoption and Safe Families Act stressed permanency planning for
    children and youth.
           Adoption History Time Line
   1998, Oregon voters passed Ballot Measure 58, allowing adult adopted
    persons access to original birth certificates. This legal blow to
    confidentiality and sealed records was stalled by legal challenges to the
    measure's constitutionality, which eventually failed. The measure has been
    in effect in Oregon since June 2000.

   2000, The Child Citizenship Act of 2000 allowed foreign-born adopted
    persons to become automatic American citizens when they entered the
    United States, eliminating the legal burden of naturalization for
    international adoptions; Census 2000 included “adopted son/daughter” as a
    kinship category for the first time in U.S. history.


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