World Bank Africa Regional ECD Initiative - PowerPoint by YZ6bgS05

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									Early Childhood Development
Building Strong Foundations to Achieve EFA




      Michelle J. Neuman & Marito H. Garcia
             APEIE Workshop - Dakar
                December 18, 2008
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1. Why is ECD essential for achieving EFA?




                                             2
      Education for All Goals
      and Millennium Development Goals

              EFA Goals                                      MDGs

1.   Expand and improve comprehensive          1.   Eradicate extreme poverty and
     early childhood care and education,            hunger
     especially for the most vulnerable and
     disadvantaged children
                                               2.   Achieve universal primary
2.   Universal primary education by 2015            education
3.   Learning and life skills programs for
     youth and adults                          3.   Promote gender equality and
4.   50% increase in adult literacy rates by        empower women
     2015
5.   Gender parity by 2005 and gender          4.   Reduce child mortality, and other
     equality by 2015                               health goals
6.   Improving quality of education




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     Young children in Africa are vulnerable

   High under-5 mortality rates (176 per 1000), most from preventable diseases

   40% of children under age 5 are moderately or severely stunted

   71 million children (61% of children under age 5) do not reach their full
    potential due to poverty and poor health, nutrition, and care

   Children in emergency, conflict and post-conflict situations highly vulnerable

   Children often begin school late, repeat grades, drop out early, and perform
    poorly. 38 million children are out of school


 HIGH QUALITY ECD PROGRAMS CAN MAKE A DIFFERENCE.



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Early years are a window of opportunity


   Sensing        Language
  Pathways                                    Higher
(vision, hearing)                             Cognitive Function




 -6   -3     0   3   6   9     1       4        8    12            16
           Months                              Years
                         AGE

                         C. Nelson, in From Neurons to Neighborhoods, 2000 5
       Early childhood, nutrition and education

    Nutrition and Education        Early Childhood Participation
    Reinforce Each Other           Improves Later Education



Iron, nutrition, deworming and
psycho-social stimulation impact         Access to primary school
on learning                              Retention in primary school
                                         Gender equity in education
 Combining nutrition and
education has larger and longer-         Lower repetition
lasting impact                           Better language development
                                         Higher achievement




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        Acting early pays off
    ‘It is a rare public policy initiative that promotes fairness and social justice and
    at the same time promotes productivity in the economy and in society at large.
    Investing in disadvantaged young children is such a policy.’

                                            James Heckman, Nobel economics prizewinner

o     Early interventions yield higher economic returns as a preventive
      measure compared with remedial services later

o     The earlier the investment, the greater the return – to the child,
      the community and the society

o     Long-term, cost/benefit ratios can be as high as 1 to 17

o     Returns greatest for poorest and most disadvantaged

                                         Source: EFA Global Monitoring Report, 2007
                                                                                         7
Source: Heckman & Carneiro (2003) Human Capital Policy   8
Pre-primary participation can help improve
primary completion rates
                                                                          Seychelles
          120


                                                                    Mauriti us
                                  South Afri ca
          100                                       Cape Verde
                                  Namibi a

                       Ni geria      Zimbabwe
           80       Tog o
                         Gabon                    Kenya
                   Zambia
                                Lesotho
                  Ug anda                Ghana
                       Tanzania
           60 Sierra Leone
                    Benin
                 Senegal      Sudan
                                Eq uatorial Guinea
               Mauritania
                Ethiopia
                 Rwanda
           40 Dj ibouti
                Burundi
                 Ni ger
           Central African Repu                 Liberia
           20                                                                          Rsq = 0.3920
             -10    0    10   20      30     40     50    60   70   80   90      100


                Preprimary GER
                                                                                                      9
                        …but Africa lags behind in pre-primary enrolment

                                           44% increase between 1999 and 2004
                                           Regional GER is 12% vs. 37% globally


                        80
                                                                                     Developed/transition countries
                        70
Gross enrolment ratio




                        60
 in pre-primary (%)




                                                                                     Latin America/Caribbean

                        50

                        40
                                                                                     East Asia/Pacific
                        30                                                           South and West Asia

                        20                                                           Arab States

                                                                                     Sub-Saharan Africa
                        10

                         0
                             1971   1976    1981    1986     1991      1999      2004

                                                           Source: EFA Global Monitoring Report, 2007       10
Trinidad/Tobago
      Colombia
      Viet Nam
                                                    Equity: Poverty limits
     Venezuela
          India
                                                    access to ECD
        Lesotho
           Haiti
                                                     Higher attendance for children from
      Mongolia
     Nicaragua                                      richer households
         Kenya
     Cameroon
     Philippines                                     Lower attendance among poor who
   Sierra Leone
    Madagascar                                      would benefit most
     Azerbaijan
      Myanmar
         Bolivia                                     Other factors that limit access:
          Egypt
                                                    - Lack of mother’s secondary education
       Senegal
                                                    - Living in rural households
       Rwanda
        Uganda                                      - Lack of birth certificate
     Tajikistan
       Lao PDR             Poorer households
 U. R. Tanzania            Richer households
   D. R. Congo
          Niger
                                                        Source: EFA Global Monitoring Report, 2007
                   0    20      40       60    80
                                                                                                     11
                       Attendance rates (%)
Improve quality  Promote school readiness
 o The quality of interaction between carer and child is the
   single most important determinant of program success




    Promoting school readiness also means making schools
     ready for children
                           Source: EFA Global Monitoring Report, 2007   12
    Trends in ECD provision in Africa
   Integrated ECD services
        Eritrea (5 ministries)
        Senegal (Case des Tout-Petits)

   Pre-primary classes (Grade R, kindergarten)
        Ghana, Kenya, Liberia, Lesotho, Nigeria, South Africa, Zimbabwe

   Community-based centers
        The Gambia, Guinea, Kenya, Malawi

   Parenting, nutrition, and stimulation for under 3s
        Madagascar, Uganda

   Training and curriculum development
        Kenya - NACECE, DICECE
        Kenya, Uganda, Zanzibar – Madrasa Resource Center

   National ECD policy development
        Burkina Faso, Ghana, Malawi, Mauritania, Niger, Nigeria, Senegal, Uganda,
         South Africa – completed
        Liberia, Rwanda, Tanzania, Zambia - underway

                                                                                 13
     2. Africa Regional ECCD Initiative




Funding: Africa Region Education Program Development Fund (EPDF)
                                                              14
ECCD in Africa: 1998-2008
   Builds on more than a decade of work within the World
    Bank Africa Region Human Development Department
    on ECCD including:

           ECCD portfolio strengthened education, nutrition, and social
            protection sectors of 14 countries

           ECD Virtual University (ECDVU) built capacity of emerging
            leaders and ECCD networks in 10 countries

           Three African International ECCD Conferences supported
            knowledge sharing among 34 countries

           Publications, including Africa’s Future, Africa’s Challenge:
            ECCD in Sub-Saharan Africa, etc.




                                                                           15
     Main Activities: 2008-2010
1.   Provide country-level analytic support to design/implement
     ECCD components within education sector programs
     Guinea, Liberia, Mali, Niger, Nigeria, Senegal, Tanzania/Zanzibar, Zambia


2.   Generate knowledge of cost-effective ECCD programs through
     impact evaluations
         Eritrea, The Gambia, Madagascar, Mozambique, Nigeria

3.   Exchange ECCD policy and program experiences regionally
           Technical workshop for 8 country teams
           4th African international conference in collaboration with ADEA

4.   Build capacity of leaders to design and implement cost-
     effective ECCD and nutrition programs




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         3. Issues for discussion
o   How to mainstream ECD into education
    policy and planning?

   How to foster cross-sectoral
    collaboration, while supporting
    leadership of Ministry of Education?

   How to address access, quality, and
    equity – target most disadvantaged?

   Helping countries obtain sustainable
    funding for scaling up ECCD


   How to combine traditional child rearing practices and cultural beliefs with
    evidence based approaches  build on existing strengths and resources




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