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									Plant Propagation
18.00: Apply different methods
of plant propagation as related
to horticultural plant production
             Propagation


• The multiplication of a kind or species.
• Reproduction of a species.
       Sexual Propagation


• Propagation from seeds.
• Pollen is transferred from the anther to
  the stigma.
• Fertilization occurs and seeds are
  produced.
     Germination Rates

• Percent of seeds that sprout
  – 75 out of 100=75%
• Rate is affected by seed viability,
  temperature and moisture.
• Rates vary depending on plant and
  quality of seed.
                 Seeds
• Plant depth depends on the size of
  seeds
  – larger seeds are planted deeper
  – water small seeds from bottom by soaking

     Embryo
                                Seed Coat


   Endosperm
    Seedlings (small plants)


• Transplant when first true leaves appear
• Reduce humidity and water and make
  environment more like outside to
  “harden off” plants
Seeds to Seedlings
     Advantages of Sexual
        Reproduction

• Fast way to get many plants
• Easy to do
• Economical
   Disadvantages of Sexual
        Reproduction

• Some plants, especially hybrids, do not
  reproduce true to parents
• Some plants are difficult to propagate
  from seeds
     Asexual Reproduction
• Uses growing plant parts other than
  seeds
• Types of asexual reproduction:
  – cuttings
  – layering
  – division or separation
  – budding
  – grafting
  – tissue culture
     Rooting from Cuttings
• Rooting media should be about 4 inches
  deep
• Best time of day is early mornings
  because plants have more moisture
• Types of cuttings:
  – stem
  – leaf
  – root
           Stem Cuttings

• Using a small piece of stem to
  reproduce plants
• using hormones and dipping in
  fungicides help speed up rooting
            Leaf cuttings


• Using small pieces of leaves to
  reproduce new plants
• from herbaceous plants
• vein must be cut
Stem Cuttings-Step 1




  Gather all materials needed
Stem Cuttings-Step 2




  Cut 3 to 4 inch shoot from
           stem tip
Stem Cuttings-Step 3




 Remove lower leaves from the
           shoot
Stem Cuttings-Step 4




   Dip cut surface in rooting
           hormone
Stem Cuttings-Step 5




  Thoroughly moisten rooting
           medium
Stem Cuttings-Step 6




  Stick one or more cuttings in
          rooting media
Stem Cuttings-Step 7




Cover with plastic wrap or place on
a mist bench in a warm area away
       from direct sunlight.
Stem Cuttings-Step 8




  Once rooted, cuttings can be
    separated carefully and
         transplanted
           Root Cuttings


• Using small pieces of roots to reproduce
  plants
• should be three inches apart in rooting
  area
                Layering


• Scarring a small area of stem to
  produce new plants
  – air layering
  – trench layering
Trench Layering
      Division or Separation
• Cutting or pulling apart plant structures
  for reproduction
  – bulbs
  – corms
  – rhizomes
  – tubers
  – runners
  – stolons
  – suckers
Bulbs
               Grafting
• Joining separate plant parts together so
  that they form a union and grow
  together to make one plant.




           Wedge                    Approach
           Graft                    Graft
           Grafting Terms


• Scion-the piece of plant at the top of the
  graft
• Rootstock-the piece of the plant at the
  root or bottom of the graft
       Methods of Grafting


• If the scion and rootstock are the same
  size
  – wedge
  – splice
  – whip and tongue
  – approach
       Methods of Grafting


• If the scion is smaller than the rootstock
  – cleft
  – side
  – notch
  – bark inlay
               Budding
• A form of grafting when a bud is used
  – patch budding
  – T-budding
  – Chip Budding




                                   Chip
                                   Budding
How to perform T-budding


         Step 2
                           Step 4




Step 1
                  Step 3
           Tissue Culture


• Using a small amount of plant tissue to
  grow in a sterile environment
• The most plants in a short time
• True to parent plant
     Advantages of Asexual
          Production

• Plants mature in a shorter time
• Budding is faster than grafting
• In trench layering, a plant forms at each
  node on a covered stem
• Some plants do not produce viable seed
• New plants are the same as the parent
  plant
   Disadvantages of Asexual
         Reproduction

• Some require special equipment and
  skills, such as grafting
• Cuttings detach plant parts from water
  and nutrient source
• Some plants are patented making
  propagation illegal
The Uses of Biotechnology in
       Horticulture
    What is Biotechnology?
• The use of cells or components (parts)
  of cells to produce products or
  processes
              Methods


• Tissue culture or micropropagation
• Cloning
• Genetic Engineering
          Tissue Culture
• Uses terminal shoots or leaf buds in a
  sterile or aseptic environment on agar
  gel or other nutrient-growing media to
  produce thousands of identical plants
               Cloning


• Genetically generating offspring from
  non-sexual tissue
      Genetic Engineering

• Movement of genetic information in the
  form of genes from one cell to another
  cell to modify or change the genetic
  make-up
   Benefits of Biotechnology


• Produce many identical plants in a short
  time
• Increase disease and insect resistance
• Increase tolerance to heat and cold
• Increase weed tolerance
     Benefits of Biotechnology


•   Increase tolerance to drought
•   Improve environment
•   Increase production
•   Other genetic changes

								
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