EM 410: Industrial Engineering by 87PTFg

VIEWS: 7 PAGES: 81

									                Eng. Nkumbwa, R. L.
               Copperbelt University
               School of Technology
                       2010- Zambia




Eng. Nkumbwa                           1
    Principles of Manufacturing Technology

       What is Manufacturing Technology or
       Manufacturing Engineering Systems
       Manufacturing is the use of machines, tools and
        labor to make things for use or sale.
       The term may refer to a range of human activity,
        from handicraft to high tech, but is most commonly
        applied to industrial production, in which raw
        materials are transformed into finished goods on a
        large scale.

2                                            Eng. Nkumbwa
                  Principles of
            Manufacturing Technology

       Such finished goods may be used for
        manufacturing other, more complex
        products, such as:
        –   Household appliances
        –   Automobiles
        –   Other products sold to wholesalers, who in turn
            sell them to retailers, who then sell them to end
            users - the "consumers".

3                                                Eng. Nkumbwa
4   Eng. Nkumbwa
    Understanding Manufacturing Systems
                Engineering

       Modern manufacturing includes all intermediate
        processes required for the production and
        integration of a product's components.

       Some industries, such as
        –   semiconductor electronics
            and steel manufacturers
        –   use the term fabrication instead.

5                                               Eng. Nkumbwa
    Understanding Manufacturing Systems
                Engineering

       The manufacturing sector is closely connected
        with engineering and industrial design or
        industrial engineering.
       Examples of major manufacturers include:
        –   North America include:
              General Motors Corporation,
              General Electric,
              Pfizer.
              Examples in Europe include :
                   – Volkswagen Group,
                   – Siemens, and Michelin.
                   – Examples in Asia include
               Toyota, Samsung, and Bridgestone.
               Example in Zambia include:
               ZamSugar, ZamBrew, Lafarge, Zambezi, Trade kings, Uniliver, TAP,

6                Kafue Steel, Amanita, Zambeef, Parmalat, Milling Co., Plastic Co. ,
                 Indeni, Scaw, etc                              Eng. Nkumbwa
7   Eng. Nkumbwa
8   Eng. Nkumbwa
9   Eng. Nkumbwa
          Economics of Manufacturing

        According to some economists,

        manufacturing is a wealth-producing sector
         of an economy,

        whereas a service sector tends to be wealth-
         consuming.

10                                       Eng. Nkumbwa
     Economics of Manufacturing

        Manufacturing is a huge component of the
         modern economy.
        Everything from knitting to oil extraction to
         steel production falls under the description of
         manufacturing.
        The concept of manufacturing rests upon the
         idea of transforming raw materials, either
         organic or inorganic, into products that are
         usable by society.
11                                          Eng. Nkumbwa
     Manufacturing Categories
        Chemical industry
         –   Pharmaceutical
        Construction
        Electronics
         –   Semiconductor
        Engineering
         –   Biotechnology
         –   Emerging technologies
         –   Nanotechnology
         –   Synthetic biology, Bioengineering
        Energy industry
        Food and Beverage
         –   Agribusiness
         –   Brewing industry
         –   Food processing
12                                               Eng. Nkumbwa
     Manufacturing Categories
        Industrial design
         –   Interchangeable parts
        Metalworking
         –   Smith
         –   Machinist
         –   Machine tools
         –   Cutting tools (metalworking)
         –   Free machining
         –   Tool and die maker
         –   Global steel industry trends
         –   Steel production
        Metalcasting

13                                          Eng. Nkumbwa
     Manufacturing Categories
        Plastics
        Telecommunications
        Textile manufacturing
         –   Clothing industry
         –   Sailmaker
         –   Tentmaking
        Transportation
         –   Aerospace manufacturing
         –   Automotive industry
         –   Bus manufacturing
         –   Tire manufacturing
         –   LETS JUST SAY ANYTHING THAT IS NOT NATURAL
             IS MANUFACTURING
14                                         Eng. Nkumbwa
     So, What is Manufacturing?

        According to Webster's,
        Manufacturing is the making of goods or
         wares by manual labor or by machinery,
         especially on a large scale, from raw
         materials or unfinished materials.
        It is the making of a finished product or
         goods.


15                                     Eng. Nkumbwa
     Manufacturing Methods

        There are different manufacturing methods
         namely:
         –   Batch Production
         –   Job Production
         –   Continuous Production




16                                       Eng. Nkumbwa
     Batch Production

        Batch production is the manufacturing technique of
         creating a group of components at a
         workstation before moving the group to the next
         step in production.
        Batch production is common in bakeries and in the
         manufacture of sports shoes, pharmaceutical
         ingredients (APIs), inks, paints and adhesives.
        In the manufacture of inks and paints, a technique
         called a colour-run is used.


17                                          Eng. Nkumbwa
     Batch Production

        A colour-run is where one manufactures the
         lightest colour first, such as light yellow
         followed by the next increasingly darker
         colour such as orange, then red and so on
         until reaching black and then starts over
         again.
        This minimizes the cleanup and reconfiguring
         of the machinery between each batch.



18                                        Eng. Nkumbwa
     Job Production

        Job production, sometimes called jobbing, involves
         producing a one-off product for a specific customer.
        Job production is most often associated with small firms
         (making railings for a specific house, building/repairing a
         computer for a specific customer, making flower
         arrangements for a specific wedding etc.) but large firms
         use job production too.




19                                                Eng. Nkumbwa
     Continuous Production
        Continuous production is a method used to manufacture,
         produce, or process materials without interruption.
        This process is followed in most oil and gas industries and
         petrochemical plant and in other industries such as the float
         glass industry, where glass of different thickness is processed
         in a continuous manner.
        Once the molten glass flows out of the furnace, machines
         work on the glass from either side and either compress or
         expand it.
        Controlling the speed of rotation of those machines and
         varying them in numbers produces a glass ribbon of varying
20       width and thickness.
                                                     Eng. Nkumbwa
     Cell Production
        Cell production involves both machines and human workers.
        In conventional production, products were manufactured in
         separate areas (each with a responsibility for a different part of
         the manufacturing process) and many workers would work on
         their own, as on a production line.
        In cell production, or cellular manufacturing workers are
         organized into multi-skilled teams.
        Each team is responsible for a particular part of the production
         process including quality control and health and safety.
        Each work cell is made up of one team who deliver finished
         items on to the next cell in the production process.
21                                                    Eng. Nkumbwa
     Mass Production
        Mass production (also called flow
         production, repetitive flow production, series
         production, or serial production) is the production of
         large amounts of standardized products, including and
         especially on assembly lines. i.e. Elsweedy in Ndola.
        The concepts of mass production are applied to various
         kinds of products, from fluids and particulates handled in
         bulk (such as food, fuel, chemicals, and mined minerals)
         to discrete solid parts (such as fasteners) to assemblies
         of such parts (such as household appliances and
         automobiles).
22                                                Eng. Nkumbwa
23   Eng. Nkumbwa
     Lean Production
        Lean Production, which is often known simply as "Lean", is a
         production practice that considers the expenditure of resources for
         any goal other than the creation of value for the end customer to
         be wasteful, and thus a target for elimination.
        Working from the perspective of the customer who consumes a
         product or service, "value" is defined as any action or process that
         a customer would be willing to pay for.
        Basically, lean is centered around preserving value with less work.
        Lean manufacturing is a generic process management philosophy
         derived mostly from the Toyota Production System (TPS) (hence
         the term Toyotism is also prevalent) and identified as "Lean" only
         in the 1990s.
        It is renowned for its focus on reduction of the original
         Toyota seven wastes to improve overall customer value, but there
         are varying perspectives on how this is best achieved.
24                                                        Eng. Nkumbwa
     Agile Production
        For the past ten years a quality revolution has arose because
         now, the marketplace has become global.
        A sophisticated and aware customer base has grown because of
         the increase of service industries where the customer plays a
         direct role in the delivery process.
        No longer can companies assume they can put out products to
         customers at the manufacturers schedule and quality levels.

        Many companies have realized this. Many have researched for
         was to make positive changes, which will permit them to identify,
         and quickly respond to the customer likes and complaints.
        At the same time, these changes must allow the manufacture the
         ability to get their products quickly to market.

25                                                       Eng. Nkumbwa
     Agile Production
        This is known as Agile Manufacturing.
        Agility means to have the ability to change quickly.
        The development of manufacturing support technology,
         which permits marketers, designers, and production
         personnel the ability to share a common database of
         parts and products, is one contributing factor a
         manufacturer must have in order to become an agile
         manufacturer.
         Goldman et al. (1995) suggest that Agility has four
         underlying components: deliver value to the customer;
         be ready for change; value human knowledge and skills;
         form virtual partnerships.
26                                             Eng. Nkumbwa
     Industrial Engineering

        Industrial engineering is a branch of engineering concerned
         with the development, improvement, implementation and
         evaluation of integrated systems of people, money,
         knowledge, information, equipment, energy, material and
         process.
        It also deals with designing new prototypes to help save
         money and make the prototype better.
        Industrial engineering draws upon the principles and methods
         of engineering analysis and synthesis, as well as
         mathematical, physical and social sciences together with the
         principles and methods of engineering analysis and design to
         specify, predict, and evaluate the results to be obtained from
         such systems.
27                                                   Eng. Nkumbwa
     Understanding Product Design

        For any organization to deliver the required
         service or product to the market, they must
         first understand the customer requirements
         and design the product that meets the stated
         and implied needs.
        All things on this plant that are not natural
         where once designed and manufactured.
        Below is an illustration of the design process.
28                                          Eng. Nkumbwa
         Recognition of Need




     Definition of Problem or Need




          Problem Synthesis




       Analysis & Optimisation




              Evaluation




             Presentation

29                                   Eng. Nkumbwa
     Waterfall Product Development




30                           Eng. Nkumbwa
     Use of Concurrent Engineering
        After identifying the requirements for the New Product, a
         design will be developed for the required product.
        However, just having the details of the design alone is not
         enough to deliver the product to the consumer, so we need
         Manufacturing information which will suggest the processes
         required to make the product.
        Therefore, Product Design and Product Manufacturing
         Process should be done at the same time or in parallel.
        Concurrent Engineering is a work methodology based on
         the parallelization of tasks (ie. performing tasks concurrently).
        It refers to an approach used in product development in
         which functions of design engineering, manufacturing
         engineering and other functions are integrated to reduce the
         elapsed time required to bring a new product to the market.
31                                                     Eng. Nkumbwa
     New Product Analysis
        Everyday we use thousands of different products,
         from telephones to bikes and drinks cans to
         washing machines and microwaves.
        But have you ever thought about how they work or
         the way they are made?
        Every product is designed in a particular way -
          product analysis enables us to understand the
         important materials, processing, economic and a
         esthetic decisions which are required before any
         product can be manufactured.
        An understanding of these decisions can help us in
         designing and making for ourselves.
32                                           Eng. Nkumbwa
     Getting Started

        The first task in product analysis is to become familiar
         with the product! What does it do? How does it do it?
         What does it look like?
        All these questions, and more, need to be asked before a
         product can be analysed.
        As well as considering the obvious mechanical (and
         possibly electrical) requirements, it is also important to
         consider the ergonomics, how the design has been
         made user-friendly and anymarketing issues - these all
         have an impact on the later design decisions.
33                                               Eng. Nkumbwa
     Let's take the example of a bike

        What is the function of a bicycle?
        How does the function depend on the type of
         bike (e.g. racing, or about-town, or child's bike)?
        How is it made to be easily maintained?
        What should it cost?
        What should it look like (colours etc.)?
        How has it been made comfortable to ride?
        How do the mechanical bits work and interact?
34                                           Eng. Nkumbwa
     Systems and Components

        There are 2 main types of product - those
         that only have one component (e.g. a
         spatula) and those that have lots of
         components (e.g. a bike). Products with lots
         of components we call systems. For
         example:



35                                         Eng. Nkumbwa
     System Components

          Product              Components


           Bike      Frame, wheels, pedals, forks, etc.


           Drill     Case, chuck, drill bit, motor, etc.

                        Seat, weights, frame, wire,
         Multi-gym
                               handles, etc.

36                                    Eng. Nkumbwa
     Product Analysis

        In product analysis, we start by considering
         the whole system. But, to understand why
         various materials and processes are used,
         we usually need to 'pull it apart' and think
         about each component as well.
        We can now analyse the function in more
         detail and draft a design specification.


37                                         Eng. Nkumbwa
     Some important design questions

        To build a design specification, consider
         questions like the following:
         –   What are the requirements on each part (electrical,
             mechanical, aesthetic, ergonomic, etc)?
         –   What is the function of each component, and how do
             they work?
         –   What is each part made of and why?
         –   How many of each part are going to be made?
         –   What manufacturing methods were used to make
             each part and why ?
         –   Are there alternative materials or designs in use and
             can you propose improvements?
38                                                Eng. Nkumbwa
     Design Questions
        These are only general questions, to act as a guide - you
         will need to think of the appropriate questions for the
         products and components you have to analyse. For a
         drinks container, a design specification would look
         something like:
         –   provide a leak free environment for storing liquid
         –   comply with food standards and protect the liquid from health hazards
         –   for fizzy drinks, withstand internal pressurisation and prevent escape
             of bubbles
         –   provide an aesthetically pleasing view or image of the product
         –   if possible create a brand identity
         –   be easy to open
         –   be easy to store and transport
         –   be cheap to produce for volumes of 10,000+



39                                                               Eng. Nkumbwa
     Choosing the Right Materials

        Given the specification of the requirements
         on each part, we can identify the material
         properties which will be important - for
         example:




40                                         Eng. Nkumbwa
     Choosing the Right Materials

               Requirement                  Material Property



          must conduct electricity         electrical conductivity



     must support loads without breaking          strength



          cannot be too expensive               cost per kg


41                                                    Eng. Nkumbwa
     Material Selection

        One way of selecting the best materials would be to look
         up values for the important properties in tables. But this is
         time-consuming, and a designer may miss materials
         which they simply forgot to consider.
        A better way is to plot 2 material properties on a graph,
         so that no materials are overlooked - this kind of graph is
         called a materials selection chart (these are covered in
         another part of the tutorial).
        Once the materials have been chosen, the next step is
         normally to think about the processing options.
42                                                 Eng. Nkumbwa
     Choosing the Right Process
        It is all very well to choose the perfect material, but somehow we
         have to make something out of it as well! An important part of
         understanding a product is to consider how it was made - in
         other words what manufacturing processes were used and why.
        There are 2 important stages to selecting a suitable process:
          – Technical performance: can we make this product with the
              material and can we make it well?
          – Economics: if we can make it, can we make it cheaply
              enough?
        Process selection can be quite an involved problem - we deal
         with one way of approaching it in another part of the tutorial.
        So, now we know why the product is designed a particular way,
         why particular materials are used and why the particular
         manufacturing processes have been chosen.
43       Is there anything else to know?                 Eng. Nkumbwa
     Wrap Up…

        Product analysis can seem to follow a fixed
         pattern:
         –   Think about the design from an ergonomic and
             functional viewpoint.
         –   Decide on the materials to fulfil the performance
             requirements.
         –   Choose a suitable process that is also economic.
        Whilst this approach will often work, design is
         really holistic - everything matters at once - so be
44       careful to always think of the 'bigger picture'.
                                              Eng. Nkumbwa
     Example Analysis
        Is the product performance driven or cost driven?
        This makes a big difference when we choose materials.
        In a performance product, like a tennis racquet, cost is one of
         the last factors that needs to be considered.
        In a non-performance product, like a drinks bottle, cost is of
         primary importance - most materials will provide sufficient
         performance (e.g. although polymers aren't strong, they are
         strong enough).
        Although we usually choose the material first, sometimes it is
         the shape (and hence process) which is more limiting.
        With window frames, for example, we need long thin shaped
         sections - only extrusion will do and so only soft metals or
         polymers can be used (or wood as it grows like that!).
45                                                   Eng. Nkumbwa
           Choosing between Different Materials

        There are three main things to think about when choosing
         materials (in order of importance):
          – Will they meet the performance requirements?
          – Will they be easy to process?
          – Do they have the right 'aesthetic' properties?
        We deal with the processing aspects of materials in a different
         part of this course.
        For now it is sufficient to note that experienced designers aim
         to make the decisions for materials and processes separately
         together to get the best out of selection.
        The choice of materials for only aesthetic reasons is not that
         common, but it can be important: e.g. for artists.
        However, the kind of information needed is difficult to obtain
46       and we won't deal with this issue further here.
                                                     Eng. Nkumbwa
     Material Selection
        Most products need to satisfy
         some performance targets, which we determine by
         considering the design specification e.g. they must be
         cheap, or stiff, or strong, or light, or perhaps all of these
         things...
        Each of these performance requirements will influence
         which materials we should choose - if our product needs
         to be light we wouldn't choose lead and if it was to be
         stiff we wouldn't choose rubber!
        So what approach do we use to select materials?
47                                                  Eng. Nkumbwa
     Using Material Selection Charts

        So what we need is data for lots of material
         properties and for lots of materials.
        This information normally comes as tables of data
         and it can be a time-consuming process to sort
         through them.
        And what if we have 2 requirements - e.g. our
         material must be light and stiff - how can we trade-off
         these 2 needs?
        The answer to both these problems is to
         use material selection charts.
        Here is a materials selection chart for 2 common
         properties: Young's modulus (which describes how
         stiff a material is) and density.


48                                                Eng. Nkumbwa
49   Eng. Nkumbwa
     Using Material Selection Charts
        On these charts, materials of each class (e.g. metals, polymers) form
         'clusters' or 'bubbles' that are marked by the shaded regions.
        We can see immediately that:
           – metals are the heaviest materials,
           – foams are the lightest materials,
           – ceramics are the stiffest materials.
        But we could have found that out from tables given a bit of time, although
         by covering many materials at a glance, competing materials can be
         quickly identified.
        Where selection charts are really useful is in showing the trade-
         off between 2 properties, because the charts plot combinations of
         properties.
        For instance if we want a light and stiff material we need to choose
         materials near the top left corner of the chart - so composites look good.
        Note that the chart has logarithmic scales - each division is a multiple of
         10; material properties often cover such huge ranges that log scales are
         essential.
50                                                           Eng. Nkumbwa
     Using Material Selection Charts

        To find the best materials we need to use the Young's
         modulus - density chart from amongst the available
         charts. The charts can be annotated to help reveal the
         'best' materials, by placing a suitable selection box to
         show only stiff and light materials.
        What can we conclude?
        The values of Young's modulus for polymers are low, so
         most polymers are unlikely to be useful for stiffness-
         limited designs.
        Cambridge Engineering Selector (CES) is the Software
         used for Material Selection developed by Prof. Ashby.
        Other material property selection charts include:

51                                                  Eng. Nkumbwa
52   Eng. Nkumbwa
53   Eng. Nkumbwa
54   Eng. Nkumbwa
55   Eng. Nkumbwa
56   Eng. Nkumbwa
57   Eng. Nkumbwa
     Wrap Up

        By considering 2 (or more) charts, the properties needed to
         satisfy the main design requirements can be quickly assessed.
        The charts can be used to identify the best classes of
         materials, and then to look in more detail within these classes.
        There are many other factors still to be considered, particularly
         manufacturing methods. The selection made from the charts
         should be left quite broad to keep enough options open.
        A good way to approach the problem is to use the charts to
         eliminate materials which will definitely not be good enough,
         rather than to try and identify the single best material too soon
         in the design process.
58                                                    Eng. Nkumbwa
     How is a processing route chosen?

        The selection of a suitable process to manufacture a
         component is not a straightforward matter.
        There are many factors which need to be considered, for
         example: size of component, material to be processed
         and tolerance on dimensions.
        Whilst all processes have slightly different capabilities,
         there is also a large overlap - for many components there
         are a large number of processes which would do the job
         okay. So, where do we start?

59                                               Eng. Nkumbwa
     Material Compatibility
        In product analysis (and a lot of design work), the
         material to be processed is often known before the
         process to be used has been decided.
        This makes life a little easier as the first thing we
         can do now is check what processes can be used
         for our chosen material - i.e. which are compatible.
        For convenience, processes can be split up into:
         –   Metal shaping: e.g. forging, rolling, casting
         –   Polymer shaping: e.g. blow moulding, vacuum forming
         –   Composite forming: e.g. hand lay-up
         –   Ceramic processing: e.g. sintering
         –   Machining: e.g. grinding, drilling
         –   Joining: e.g. soldering, gluing, welding
60                                                 Eng. Nkumbwa
     Material-Process Compatibility Table

        We can then use a material-process
         compatibility table to determine which
         processes are suitable for manufacture.




61                                        Eng. Nkumbwa
           + : routine                       Polymer                       Wood
           ? : difficult               ABS              UF
                                                                           Pine
          X : unsuitable          (thermoplastic)   (thermoset)
                 Polymer
                                        +               X
                 extrusion
                 Compression
Polymer                                 +               +
                 moulding
Shaping
                 Injection
                                        +               ?
                 moulding
                 Blow moulding          +               X
                 Milling                +               X                   +
                 Grinding               X               X                   +
Machining
                 Drilling               +               ?                   +
                 Cutting                +               ?                   +
                 Fasteners              +               +                   +
                 Solder / braze         X               X                   X
Joining
                 Welding                +               X                   X
 62              Adhesives              +               +   Eng. Nkumbwa
                                                                            +
     Process Compatibility Table

        These tables show whether a particular
         material-process combination is routine,
         difficult or unsuitable.
        Using this table we can usually narrow down
         our choice of processing options, but how
         can we go further?



63                                       Eng. Nkumbwa
     Comparing the costs of processing routes

        There are many costs involved in the making and selling of a product,
         these include:
          – Research
          – Advertising
          – Packaging
          – Distribution
          – Manufacturing
        For different products, the importance of each contribution will vary.
        Note that the cost is not the same as the price - the difference is the
         manufacturer's profit!
        Here we are only interested in the manufacturing cost - the other costs
         are not likely to be affected much by our choice of process.


64                                                            Eng. Nkumbwa
     Manufacturing Costs

        So how can we go about estimating how
         much it might cost to make a product?
        The easiest way is to notice that the basic
         manufacturing cost has 3 main elements:
         –   Material Costs
         –   Start-Up Cost
         –   Running Cost


65                                          Eng. Nkumbwa
     Material cost

        The material cost per component depends
         on the size of the component.
        We may assume that (for a given
         component) the same amount of material is
         used for all processes:
         –   Material cost per part = constant
             (same value for all processes)



66                                               Eng. Nkumbwa
     Manufacturing Costs=Constant




67                          Eng. Nkumbwa
     Startup cost

        All new products have one-off startup costs,
         such as special tools or moulds which have
         to be made.
        This cost only occurs once, so it is shared
         between all the total number of components
         made - the 'batch size':
         –   Startup cost per part = one-off cost ÷ batch
             size
             (gets less for bigger batches and is different for
68           each process)                         Eng. Nkumbwa
     Start-Up Cost




69                   Eng. Nkumbwa
     Running cost

        Many manufacturing costs will be charged at an
         hourly rate, such as energy and manpower.
        In addition the capital cost of the machine must be
         "written off" over several years, which can also be
         regarded as an hourly cost - the same would apply if
         instead a machine was rented.
        The share of this hourly running cost per part
         depends on how many parts are made per hour, the
         production rate:
         –   Running cost per part = hourly cost ÷ production rate
             (constant, but different for each process)

70                                                           Eng. Nkumbwa
     Running Costs




71                   Eng. Nkumbwa
     Total Manufacturing Cost

        The total cost is the sum of these 3 cost
         elements.
        These are;
         –   Material Costs
         –   Start-Up Costs
         –   Running Costs




72                                         Eng. Nkumbwa
73   Eng. Nkumbwa
     Case Example: Aero Engine




74                          Eng. Nkumbwa
     Aero-Engine Analysis

        Hotter,
        Stiffer,
        Stronger,
        Lighter…
        Where does the aero-engine go next?
        Use the chart below to help you select the
         appropriate material for each component
         of the Jet Engine.
75                                      Eng. Nkumbwa
76   Eng. Nkumbwa
         Sustainable Design or Eco-Design and
           Eco-Manufacturing or Green Mfg.

        Sustainable design (also called environmental design,
         environmentally sustainable design, environmentally-
         conscious design, green design etc) is the philosophy of
         designing physical objects, the built environment and
         services to comply with the principles of economic, social,
         and ecological sustainability.
        The intention of sustainable design is to "eliminate
         negative environmental impact completely through skillful,
         sensitive design“.
        Manifestations of sustainable designs require no non-
         renewable resources, impact on the environment
         minimally, and relate people with the natural environment.
77                                                Eng. Nkumbwa
     Design for Environment (DfE)
        Design for Environment (DfE) is a general concept that
         refers to a variety of design approaches that attempt to
         reduce the overall environmental impact of a product,
         process or service, where environmental impacts are
         considered across its life cycle.
        There are three main concepts that fall under the Design
         for Environment umbrella:
         –   Design for environmental processing and manufacturing: This
             ensures that raw material [Resource extraction|extraction] (mining,
             drilling, etc.), processing (processing reusable materials, metal
             melting, etc.), manufacturing are done using materials and processes
             which are not dangerous to the environment or the employees working
             on said processes. This includes the minimization of waste and
             hazardous by-products, air pollution, energy expenditure, among
             others.



78                                                             Eng. Nkumbwa
     Design for Environment (DfE)
          –   Design for environmental packaging: This ensures that the materials used
              in packaging are environmentally friendly, which can be achieved through
              the reuse of shipping products, elimination of unnecessary paper and
              packaging products, efficient use of materials and space, use of
              [Recycling|recycled] and/or recycleable materials.

          –   Design for disposal or reuse: The [End-of-life (product)|end-of-life] of a
              product is very important, because some products emit dangerous chemicals
              into the air, ground and water after they are disposed of in a landfill.
          –   Planning for the reuse or refurbishing of a product will change the types of
              materials that would be used, how they could later be disassembled and
              reused, and the environmental impacts such materials have.
        Definition:
          –   Design For Environment (DFE) is the idea of implementing certain aspects of
              environmentally friendly design to create a sustainable product . Although
              there is no actual DFE certification, following the Design For Environment
              guidelines helps to minimize waste and pollution, and saves money that is
              typically spent on product reprocessing.
79                                                                Eng. Nkumbwa
     Global Competitiveness
        Competitiveness is a comparative concept of the ability
         and performance of a firm, sub-sector or country to sell
         and supply goods and/or services in a global market.
        Although widely used in economics and business
         management, the usefulness of the concept, particularly
         in the context of Manufacturing Systems is critical.
        The term may also be applied to markets, where it is
         used to refer to the extent to which the market
         structure may be regarded as perfectly competitive.
        This usage has nothing to do with the extent to which
         individual firms are "competitive'.
        Read more about Manufacturing Competitiveness in
         Zambia
80                                              Eng. Nkumbwa
     Wrap Up

        Any worries this far??




81                                Eng. Nkumbwa

								
To top