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									   THE GLOBCARBON INITIATIVE

        Stephen Plummer (IGBP@ESA), Olivier Arino (ESA),

                Freddy Fierens (VITO Consortium),

         Jing Chen (U. Toronto), Gerard Dedieu (CESBIO),
                     Muriel Simon (SERCO),

Wolfgang Cramer (PIK), Philippe Ciais (LSCE), Shaun Quegan (CTCD),
 Martin Schultz and Judith Hoelzemann (MPI), Mike Raupach (GCP).




                                  VALERI, Avignon             10 March 2005
                           Carbon Data Assimilation
                                                                                     Data
     Geo-referenced
      Geo-referenced            Atmospheric
                                 Atmospheric          Remote sensing of
                                                      Remote sensing of          assimilation
  emissions inventories
   emissions inventories       measurements
                               measurements            atmospheric CO2
                                                       atmospheric CO2               link




  Climate and weather       Atmospheric Transport                Optimised     Optimised
                                                                                Optimised
                            Atmospheric Transport                Optimised
         fields                    Model                          fluxes         model
                                                                                  model
                                   Model                           fluxes
                                                                               parameters
                                                                               parameters

Ocean time series
 Biogeochemical            Ocean Carbon
                           Ocean Carbon                                       Eddy-covariance
      pCO2                    Model
                              Model               Terrestrial
                                                   Terrestrial                  flux towers
                                                 Carbon Model
                                                 Carbon Model
    Surface                                    rivers                          Biomass soil
  observation                      Coastal
                                   Coastal                                        carbon
     pCO2                          studies
                                   studies     Lateral fluxes                   inventories
   nutrients
                                                                                Ecological
  Water column                                                                   studies
   inventories          Ocean remote sensing           Remote sensing of
                            Ocean colour              vegetation properties
                              Altimetry                   Growth cycle
                               Winds                          Fires
                                 SST                        Biomass
                                SSS                        Radiation
                                                         Land cover/use

To feed in to this Earth observation must deliver long time series estimates of global
vegetation behaviour.
                                                     VALERI, Avignon                            10 March 2005
                        The ‘Champion’ Users
Four key research institutes and one key programme involved to specify
needs and use products:

                      Will examine the use of fire statistics in the
                      MOZART-2 Atmospheric Chemistry model

                  Will examine the use of GLOBCARBON
                  products in the Lund-Potsdam-Jena (LPJ)
                  DGVM
                          Will examine the use of GLOBCARBON
                          products with the Sheffield DGVM (S-
                          DGVM)
                      Will examine the use of GLOBCARBON
                      products   within  LSCE     DGVM and
                      Atmospheric Chemistry models
                      Will examine the use of GLOBCARBON
                      products within OpTIC model-data fusion
                      experiment
                                      VALERI, Avignon                  10 March 2005
                    General User Needs
For Atmospheric Chemistry and Dynamic Global Vegetation Models:

 There is a particular need for information on vegetation amount
  (ideally biomass or leaf area index), area burned, and vegetation
  temporal variability.
 These should be global, in a consistent format, and all data products
  should be available from one place.
 Consistency is more important than outright accuracy (within limits).
 The products should be multi-annual with 5 years being the minimum
  but incorporating both average and extreme conditions e.g. El Ninõ.
 Products should come with spatial heterogeneity information ideally
  at the highest available resolution.
 The spatial resolution requirements are 0.5°, 0.25° and 10km.
 The temporal resolution initially on a time step of 1 month but better
  higher, possibly bi-weekly.




                                     VALERI, Avignon                10 March 2005
                              Objectives
 The fully funded phase will:
•     develop a service quasi-independent of the original Earth
      Observation source.
•    focus on a system to estimate:
             Burned area
             fAPAR and LAI
             Vegetation growth cycle
•    cover six complete years: 1998 to 2003 (now up to 2007)
•    cover VEGETATION, ATSR-2, ENVISAT (AATSR, MERIS)
•    be applicable to existing archives and future satellite systems
•    be available at resolutions of ¼, ½ degree and 10km with
     statistics
•    build on the existing research experience

                                   VALERI, Avignon                10 March 2005
             GLOBCARBON Processor
         OPERATIONS (SADIST-2, ENVISAT Processor, CTIV)


             ATSR-2      AATSR      MERIS      VEGETATION



                      Active fire             Archive


Burned                   BA                  Calibration
 Area                 Processor                                 Aerosols
                                               Cloud
                Curve fit                                       ECMWF
                                              Detection
 VGCP                                                          ACE DEM
                          Generate              SMAC
                            fAPAR                             GOME/TOMS
fAPAR, LAI                                      Band        SMAC Coefficients
                      LUT for LAI             Normalise

         Land Cover                  VALERI, Avignon            10 March 2005
           Leaf Area Index - 1
GLC’2000          ATSR-2             VEGETATION




                   VALERI, Avignon           10 March 2005
                                                     Leaf Area Index - 3
      12




      10
           5.63
                                                    5.84

                           8.00
       8                          7.64                                   7.59
                                             7.25
                                                           6.85
                                                                                    6.42

       6
                                                                      5.13
                    4.93
LAI




                                                                                                                                                               2.70
                  4.07
       4


                                                                                                   2.03         1.78
                                                                                                                                                                      1.75
                                                                                                              1.80            1.79        1.95
       2                                                                                         1.70
                                                                                      1.15                                                  1.44        1.25
                                                                                                                       0.90


       0




      -2
             1             2             3            4           5             6            7            8            9             10            11            12
                                                                                Sample Site




                                                                                      VALERI, Avignon                                                             10 March 2005
            Validation - Definition
CEOS WGCV Definition
    the process of assessing by independent
    means the quality of the data products
    derived from the system outputs

• Inter-comparison – not senso stricto validation
  because comparison with similar products which
  may or may not be more reliable than those under
  test

• Absolute validation – sampling in situ and scaling
  up but major problems with approach and data
  availability
                           VALERI, Avignon        10 March 2005
                       Inter-comparison
• GLOBCARBON has overlap with a variety of similar
   products. Three are being considered for inter-
   comparison e.g. Boston-AVHRR-LAI, Boston/MODIS-LAI,
   Cyclopes.
• The reliability test for LAI - three IGBP transects
   (Kalahari, Siberia and Amazonia) and temporally to one
   month (June, 2000).
• 2 levels:
       Direct comparison with MOD15A2 8-day composite
        products at 1km of resolution - FLUXNET ASCII
        sites
       inter-comparison on the entire test transect area to
        allow a more significant statistical test. Monthly
        composites of MOD15A2 products (MOD15_BU)
        used.


                                VALERI, Avignon                10 March 2005
                                                   Inter-comparison Results
                                                                                                         9

                                                                                                         8       Amazonia Sites

                                                                                                         7

                                                                                                         6




                                                                                          GBC site LAI
                                                                                                         5

                                                                                                         4

                                                                                                         3
                                                                                                                                                         good data
                                                                                                         2                                               bad data

                                                                                                         1

                                                                                                         0
                                                                                                             0    1     2     3       4     5    6   7      8        9

                                                                                                                                  MOD15A2 site LAI
          2.0
            7

          1.8
            6         Siberia Sites
                                                    Kahalari Sites                                  MODIS:
                                                                                                       2 dates in June
          1.6

            5
          1.4

                                                                                                       3x3 pixel mean around
GBC mean LAI
GBC mean LAI




          1.2
            4
          1.0
                                                                                                       flux tower after
                                                                                                       re-projection, quality flag
            3
          0.8

          0.6

                                                                                                       filter
            2

          0.4

                                                                                                    GLOBCARBON:
            1
          0.2

            0
          0.0
                0
                0.0   0.2 1   0.4     20.6     3
                                             0.8   1.0 4 1.2   5
                                                               1.4   1.6 6   1.8   72.0                3x3 pixel mean over the
                                         MOD15A2 mean LAI
                                         MOD15A2 mean LAI
                                                                                                       corresponding week
                                                                                     VALERI, Avignon                                                 10 March 2005
                            Inter-comparison Amazon
                                                                                    0.06



                                                                                    0.05                                              Amazonia Transect


                                                                                    0.04




                                                                 Pixels Frequency
                                                                                    0.03



                                                                                    0.02



                                                                                    0.01



                                                                                    0.00
                                                                                           -7   -6   -5   -4   -3   -2   -1   0   1   2   3   4   5   6   7   8

                                                                                                                     GBC LAI - MOD LAI




water   0-0.2   0.3-0.6 0.7-0.9   1-1.9   2-2.9   3-3.9    4-8   no data




                                                          VALERI, Avignon                                                             10 March 2005
Inter-comparison Kalahari
                         0.16

                         0.14                                              Kahalari Transect

                         0.12




      Pixels Frequency
                         0.10

                         0.08

                         0.06

                         0.04

                         0.02

                         0.00
                                -7   -6   -5   -4   -3   -2   -1   0   1   2   3   4   5   6     7    8

                                                          GBC LAI - MOD LAI




                         water        0-0.2    0.3-0.6 0.7-0.9     1-1.9   2-2.9   3-3.9   4-8       no data




                                VALERI, Avignon                                        10 March 2005
                                          Inter-comparison Siberia




                                                                                              0.06


                                                                                              0.05                               Siberia Transect


                                                                           Pixels Frequency
                                                                                              0.04
water   0-0.2   0.3-0.6 0.7-0.9   1-1.9   2-2.9   3-3.9   4-8   no data

                                                                                              0.03


                                                                                              0.02


                                                                                              0.01


                                                                                              0.00
                                                                                                     -6   -4   -2     0      2          4       6   8
                                                                                                                GBC LAI - MOD LAI

                                                                          VALERI, Avignon                                   10 March 2005
                  Abs Validation - Criteria
• The criteria for site sampling in GLOBCARBON are:

    Size:   the validation sites must correspond to the spatial
    resolution (1 km2 +/- 1).
    Homogeneity: each site should be relatively homogeneous,
    i.e. the biophysical variable value must change only marginally
    when shifting the position of a 1 km2 pixel.
    Topography: the area should be relatively flat.
    Biome type: the variability of biomes and conditions
    encountered over the Earth’s surface must be adequately
    sampled. For GLOBCARBON samples should be acquired for
    each of the land cover classes of GLC’2000.
    Number of sites: the number of sites used should
    comprise an adequate sampling of each of the qualifying land
    cover classes.
    Season: coverage should include the range of vegetation
    conditions exhibited over the course of a growing season.

                                 VALERI, Avignon              10 March 2005
          Abs Validation - Ideal




CYTTARES: a network of sites representative of all biomes and
conditions: 420 sites

                         VALERI, Avignon                  10 March 2005
          Abs Validation - Ideal

• Plan your validation (especially
  secure access to data) before you
  initiate your project
• Adopt a standard protocol for the
  validation (e.g. CEOS Cal Val or
  GOFC/GOLD)
• Use all available in situ and high
  resolution data following specific
  criteria

                  VALERI, Avignon   10 March 2005
              Abs Validation - GLOBCARBON
• Plan your validation (esp access to data) before you initiate
   your project
     • GLOBCARBON is archive processing so validation must
        rely on existing databases e.g. VALERI, BigFoot, CCRS,
        Boston
• Adopt a standard protocol for the validation (e.g. CEOS Cal
   Val or GOFC/GOLD
     • In GLOBCARBON it is presumed that the validation data
        provided respect the protocols
• Use all available in situ and high resolution data
   • GLOBCARBON is an industrial contract – deadlines are
        real and only the data that are available within those
        times will be used. Final deadline for inputs is 15th June




                                 VALERI, Avignon              10 March 2005
Validation - Reality




        VALERI, Avignon   10 March 2005
                                Conclusions
• To feed in to the Global Carbon Project Earth observation must deliver
  long time series, consistent estimates of global vegetation behaviour
  complete with accuracy/quality figures.

• GLOBCARBON will deliver 10 complete years (1998 to 2007) of global
  vegetation products to the DGVM and atmospheric chemistry modelling
  community at resolutions of ¼, ½ degree and 10 km.

• Timeline:
  GLOBCARBON has now entered the operational production phase.
  Validation and inter-comparison are key elements. All data must be
  available before 15th June 2005 (In the hands of the industrial
  contractor).

• Validation and inter-comparison
  Data still needed (LAI, burned area) – must be available by 15th June.
  LAI maps derived from ETM or SPOT following standard protocols
  Inter-comparison data – MODIS, BU-AVHRR, Cyclopes

• Product Release (1998-2003): December 2005
                                      VALERI, Avignon                 10 March 2005
                    Acknowledgements
• Many thanks to all the people who have contributed data
  for the validation of GLOBCARBON LAI including:

   – R. Fernandes and CCRS colleagues
   – R. Myneni and the Boston team
   – W. Cohen and the BigFoot team
   – J. Privette for MODLAND and for ground data for
     SAFARI/LBA
   – J. Morisette for CEOS LPV image data
   – Frederic Baret. Marie Weiss and the VALERI team
   – P. Saccon, Joanneum/Bahia, Brazil




                              VALERI, Avignon          10 March 2005
  Please feed me data




Thank You




      VALERI, Avignon   10 March 2005


								
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