Grade 10 Science June 2011 Exam Review by p1Uzfrq5

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									                                                                             SNC2D – Exam Review
                  Grade 10 Science June 2012 Exam Review
Exam date: June 19, 2012               Time: 2:00 pm             Location: Gymnasium
Useful equations and constants
1000 m = 1 km          100 cm = 1 m            10 mm = 1 cm

1000 g = 1 kg          1000 mg = 1 g

60 s = 1 minute        60 minutes = 1 hour
   c
n                     c = 3.00 × 108 m/s
   v
1    1   1                   hi       d
                     M       ,M   i
f do di                      ho       do



Light and Geometric Optics Unit Review Questions:
Fill in the following table on different sources of light: (pages 463, 470-476)
                Type                         Definition                            Example
Incandescence                     Light created from heating          The sun, filament bulbs


bioluminescence                   Light created by living             Firefly, angler fish
                                  organisms


Chemiluminescence                 Light produced during a chemical    Glow stick
                                  reaction
Fluorescence                      Energy is absorbed and              CFL bulbs
                                  immediately re-emitted as a
                                  different wavelength
Phosphorescence                   Light produced by light (re-        Glowing in the dark objects
                                  radiating energy)


Triboluminescence                 Light created by friction or        Duct tape, lifesaver mints
                                  crushing
Electric Discharge                Light created from high             Lightning
                                  voltage electricity

Light-emitting diode              Light produced by passing           Diode, LED
                                  electricity through a semi-
                                  conductor


1. What would be the advantages and disadvantages of using fluorescent lighting in your home
   instead of incandescent?
       - Advantage: Energy efficient (less heat produced), and more light generated
        - Disadvantage: Disposal is more difficult - contains mercury



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2. Place the following types of electromagnetic waves in order from smallest wavelength to
   largest wavelength: x-rays, visible light, radio waves

       - x-rays  visible  radio waves




3. While traveling down the highway (posted speed limit: 100 km/h), you estimate that you are
   traveling 20 m/s. Will you get ticketed for speeding? Write down your conversion factors,
   and show all your steps. (from handouts)
   1. Convert from km/h to m/s
   2. Compare two values
             km     1h    1 min 1000m
       100      x       x      x      = 27.8 m/s
              h   60 min 60s     1km

       The speed limit in (m/s) is 27.8 m/s whereas your estimated speed is 20 m/s. Therefore,
       you will not be fined for speeding

                                 2
                              gt
4. Given the equation y         . Solve for t. (from handouts)
                              2

                              2y
                         t
                              g


6. Write the following in scientific notation, and then round each of the original numbers to
   3 significant digits. (from handouts)

                              Scientific notation
                                          -3
             0.006087         6.09 x 10


                                          4
          43, 300.78 g        4.33 x 10 g




7. Do the following conversions:
      37,500 mg to kg                               0.0035 km to cm
                     1g    1kg                                    1000 m 100cm
      37,500 mg x        x                          0.0035 km x         x
                  1000 mg 1000 g                                   1kg    1m
                                     -2                     2
      = 0.037500 kg (3.7500 x 10 kg)                = 3.5 x 10 cm




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8. What is the Law of Reflection? (pages 480-485, 489-491)
          - The angle of incidence (i) is equal to the angle of reflection (<r)




9. Draw a sketch of a light ray traveling from glass (index of refraction, n = 1.52) into water (n =
   1.33). Make sure you draw a normal and show whether the ray bends towards the normal or
   away from the normal.      (pages 515-519; 524-528, 535-537)

                   glass



                   water

ng>nw:
- The light rays bend away from the normal

Table #1: The Index of Refraction of Various Media
Medium                             Index of Refraction (n)       10. Would you expect light passing
                                                                     through glass to travel faster or
Air/vacuum                                   1.00
                                                                     slower than through ethyl
Water                                        1.33                    alcohol?
                                                                 Yes. Since ng>nw, the speed of light in
Ethyl alcohol                                1.36
                                                                 alcohol is faster than it is in glass.
Quartz                                       1.46
Vegetable oil                                1.47                11. When light travels from water to
Acrylic                                      1.49                    glass, would it bend towards the
                                                                     normal or away from the normal?
Glass                                        1.52                Since glass is a denser medium than
Zircon                                       1.92                water (ng>nw), light bends towards the

Diamond                                      2.42                normal plane


12. The speed of light in a mysterious substance is 2.04 × 108 m/s. Calculate the index of
    refraction and check values in Table #1 above to determine what the substance is. Write
    down all givens, show all steps. (pages 515-519; 524-528, 535-537)
                                                                                  c
                               8                    8
          Given: v = 2.04 x 10 m/s, c = 3.00 x 10 m/s, n= ??      We use:   n
                                                                                  v
                                             3.00 x10 8 m / s
                                          n                  = 1.47
                                             2.04 x10 8 m / s
Therefore, the substance which matches, n=1.47, is vegetable oil. We can conclude that vegetable
oil is the substance.

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13. A futuristic science fiction novel writes about a very special material with an index of
    refraction of 0.90. What is the speed of light in this material? Write down all givens, show
    your steps (algebra or formula triangle). Why would this material be so special?
                                                        (pages 515-519; 524-528, 535-537)

                                                               c
                              8
Given: v = ??, c = 3.00 x 10 m/s, n= 0.90       We use:   v
                                                               n

                                           3.00 x10 8 m / s
                                        v                             8
                                                            = 3.33 x 10 m/s
                                                0.90
                                                                                            8
The material is special because light would travel faster than the speed of light (3.00 x 10 m/s).


14. In the novel Lord of the Flies, a band of marooned boys use the eyeglasses of a nearsighted
    boy to focus light and start fires for warmth and cooking. However, diverging lenses are
    required to correct nearsightedness, and cannot be used to start fires. Sketch a converging
    and a diverging lens and then sketch what happens to parallel rays when they pass through
    the lenses to show why diverging lenses cannot be used. (pages 551-552)




      -     Parallel rays do not have a real focus, and therefore CANNOT be used to start a fire.

15. For the following converging lens system, measure the focal length. Label the principal axis
    and the lens axis. Use the rules for drawing ray diagrams (Parallel Ray, Centre Ray and
    Focal Ray) for converging lenses to find the resulting image. Describe the image using
    SALT (Size, Altitude, Location, Type). (pages 554-556)




             2f                   f                                 f                  2f




Size:             Approx. same (actually slightly smaller)
Attitude:         Inverted
Location:         Closer (between f and 2f)
Type:             Real image (image and object are on opposite sides of the lens)

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16. For the following converging lens system, draw a ray diagram to show why no focused
    image is formed (i.e. you should be able to show that a Parallel Ray and a Centre Ray do
    not converge in this case). (pages 554-556)




             2f                f                                  f            2f




     - no image forms because light rays run parallel

17. An object located 40 cm away from a converging lens produces a focused image 15 cm
    away from the lens on the other side of the lens. (pages 562-564)

a.         What is the magnification of this lens system?
b.         What kind of image is produced (real or virtual)?
c.         Is the image upright or inverted?
d.         What is the focal length of the lens?

                                                          di    15
     Given: do = 40 cm; di = 15 cm             a) M            = - 0.375
                                                          do    40


      b. Real image is formed
      c. Inverted image

             1   1   1
      d.          
             f do di
           1     1     1
                   
           f 15 cm 40 cm

           1     1        1
                    
           f 0.067 cm 0.025 cm

           1      1
             
           f 0.09167 cm

        f = 10.9 cm




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18. A converging lens with a focal length of 20 cm has a 75 cm tall object placed 30 cm away
    from the lens. (pages 562-564)
(a) Where will the focused image be produced?
(b) What kind of image is produced, and what is its attitude?
(c) What is the magnification of this lens system?
(d) How tall is the image?

                                                             di    60
a. Given do = 30 cm; di = 20 cm                 c.   M            = -2.0
                                                             do    30
1  1 1
   
di f do
                                                            hi
1
  
     1
         
            1                                   d. M                   2.0 
                                                                                 hi
di 20cm 30cm                                                ho                  75cm
1      1                                                                  hi = -150 cm
  
di 0.0167cm

di = 60 cm

b. Inverted

19. Give 2 common examples of refraction phenomena.

   - The “bending” of a spoon in a glass of water
   - Viewing fish in water

20. Give 2 examples of applications that make use of total internal reflection.

       Fibre optics (i.e medicine)
       Internal reflection: Used by jewellers to identify the authenticity of the gem stones (i.e.
       diamonds).

Climate Change Unit Review Questions:
Weather and Climate, Main Components Affecting Earth’s Climate (p. 319-321, 322-329)

1. What is the difference between weather and climate?

              -   Weather is short term daily
              -   Climate is long term (approx. 30 years)

2. What natural factors influence climate?

   •   Latitude (distance from the equator)
   •   Altitude (height above sea level)
   •   Presence of large bodies of water
   •   Air currents (atmosphere)
   •   Landforms, terrain, groundcover (e.g. snow and ice, trees)

3. How does the earth’s rotation on its axis affect the earth’s climate?

   Tilt of the earth produces seasons (angle of sun on earth is more direct in summer, less direct
   and intense in winter)
   Rotation – daytime heating, nighttime cooling



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4. Draw 2 sketches showing the tilt of the earth and incoming rays from the sun for summer
   and winter, and explain how the earth’s tilt and revolution around the sun give us seasons.




5. Which country would you expect to have a warmer climate; Guatemala or Nunavut? Explain.
     Guatemala – lower latitude, more direct sunlight year-round means more intense rays



Earth’s Energy Balance, Transfer of Energy (pp. 325-328)
Vocabulary and concepts: Electromagnetic spectrum, radiation, conduction, convection,
albedo, heat sink, infrared radiation
1.    The earth absorbs energy from the sun and re-emits it as heat in the form of
a)    ultraviolet radiation
b)    gamma rays
c)    infrared radiation
d)    x-rays

2. Draw 2 diagrams to explain how energy is transferred through conduction and through
   convection. For each of these methods of energy transfer, explain what substances they
   take place in.
      Convection: Transfer of energy by the movement of particles in a fluid (a liquid or a gas)
      Conduction: Transfer of energy through the collision of particles. (in solids only)




3. Does warm water rise or fall in cold water? Explain why this happens.

 Warm air rises – particles have more energy and therefore greater movement, makes the fluid
 less dense so that it rises.
 Cold air sinks due to greater density

4. If the polar ice caps began to melt, replacing the earth’s snow cover with open water, how
   would this affect the overall albedo of the earth? What possible effect might this have on
   global climate?
      Ice caps melt = lower albedo, which reflects away less sunlight; this results in a warmer earth
      which further causes the ice caps to melt. This could cause a runaway greenhouse effect
      with more warming
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The Atmosphere and Hydrosphere (p. 330-335)
1. Name the 3 most abundant gases in the earth’s atmosphere and the approximate
   percentages of each. Name 1 other gas in the atmosphere.
         Nitrogen – 78%, oxygen – 21%, argon – 1%, carbon dioxide
2. Give 3 reasons why life as we know it would not be possible without the atmosphere.
     a) Natural Greenhouse Effect, temperature extremes: warms Earth’s surface, reduces
       day/night extremes;
     b) Ozone layer: protects against damaging ultraviolet (UV) radiation from the Sun;
     c) Oxygen, Carbon Dioxide, Water Cycle: oxygen for humans and animals, carbon dioxide for
        plants, water for all (evaporation, transpiration from plants, precipitation);


The Greenhouse Effect (pp. 338-342, 384-389)
1.   What is the difference between the natural greenhouse effect and the anthropogenic
     Greenhouse Effect?

     Anthropogenic -- Caused by humans; resulting from human influence on the natural world
                       Vehicles, industrialization, deforestation (cut down trees which remove CO2
                       from air)
     Natural – Is generated by biomass
               GHGs (greenhouse gases) and clouds absorb infrared radiation from earth’s surface,
               and radiates it back towards the surface
               Heats the atmosphere and surface (keeps earth warm enough for life);

2. Identify 3 major greenhouse gases, and give 2 sources of each.

     Water – ice, water vapour
     Methane - mainly from organic and fossil fuels
     Carbon dioxide – emiited from ecosystem (natural) and from combustion of fossil fuels
        (human made)

3. Why does the level of CO2 in the atmosphere fall in the spring and summer and then rise in
   the fall and winter?

     In the spring the leaves of plants absorb the CO 2, which is part of the process of
     photosynthesis; therefore CO2 levels drop. In contrast, in the fall/winter, leaves fall, and
     therefore, photosynthesis is reduced. This results in an elevation of CO2 levels

4. Why is carbon dioxide considered to be the most important GHG, even though methane and
   water vapour absorb more heat?

     We can directly control carbon dioxide, which is the most abundant and longest lasting GHG

Clues to Past Climate (pp. 358-360)
1. What climate information do ice cores give, and why are ice cores important as records of
   past climate compared to other records of past climate (e.g. human measurements of
   temperature)?

     Carbon dioxide (from trapped air bubbles) – extremely long records (hundreds of thousands of
     years)



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2. What might be 1 advantage of using tree rings as a proxy record? What are 2
   disadvantages or limitations of tree rings?

              Advantage – many trees, located over the entire world (except oceans);
              Disadvantages – local climate, indirect records of climate data

Long-term and Short-term Changes in Climate (pp. 348-352)
1. What is the difference between an ice age and an interglacial period?

      Ice age – period of colder temperatures and ice over large area of surface; interglacial period –
      warming periods between ice ages

2. Explain how large volcanic eruptions might affect short-term climate.

      Dust spewed into sky prevents sun’s rays from reaching surface of the earth and results in
      short-term cooling

3. What is El Nino?

      Periodic warm air and water currents near South America, causes short-term warming in
      climate

4. What is a solar cycle, and how might the solar cycle affect short-term climate on earth?

      Amount of solar radiation reaching earth is not constant – increases and decreases in 11 year
      cycle, can cause warming or cooling on earth in accordance to solar maximum and minimum

Evidence for Climate Change (pp. 373-377)
 2.    List 3 pieces of evidence that support the hypothesis of climate change.

        Average global surface temperatures increasing, ice shelves and glaciers melting, extreme
        weather patterns, changing precipitation patterns, animal migration patterns and
        behavioural changes

 3. What are 2 reasons that sea levels are rising?

      Thermal expansion (heat causes water to expand slightly due to increased movement of
      particles), melting sea ice and land-based ice shelves adds to volume of oceans

 4. Why do the records of increasing surface temperatures and atmospheric carbon dioxide
    levels support the hypothesis of anthropogenic (human-caused or human contributed)
    climate change over the last 150 years?

      Temperatures have increased significantly following the pattern of increased GHG emission
      by humans, including carbon dioxide


5. In what ways do ecosystem changes provide evidence of climate change?

      Migration of species – more warm weather species moving north; coral reefs dying due to
      acidification of oceans




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Feedback Loops and Climate (pp. 355-357, 388-389)
1. What is feedback? What is the difference between positive feedback and negative feedback?

    A process in which the result acts to influence the original process
    Positive feedback: the effect increases the original cause.
    Negative feedback: the effect decreases the original cause.

2. With the use of a diagram, explain how rising temperatures, melting ice sheets, and albedo
   might be connected in a feedback loop.




Effects of Climate Change (Notes, pp. 412-416, 419-422)
For any 3 of the following areas, give 2 possible or current effects of climate change and
indicate why these effects are important: Extreme Weather, Freshwater Impacts, Forest Impacts,
Imperilled Ecosystems, Global Meltdown, Health, Economic Risks.

These come directly from your notes on the effects of climate change.
Example:
Extreme Weather – more frequent and more severe instances of extreme weather such as storms,
which cause damage to crops and homes; changes in precipitation such as floods and droughts
which again cause damage to crops and homes

Taking Action on Climate Change (pp. 423-428, 429-432)
1. What is the Kyoto Protocol?

   International treaty in which the industrialized nations agreed to voluntarily reduce GHG
   emissions by certain amounts relative to 1990s levels.

2. What are 3 types of action individuals can do about climate change, and why would these
   actions be useful?

   Ride public transit, bike or walk-reduces burning of fossil fuels from cars, which reduces GHG
   emissions and the heating from greenhouse effect.
   Insulate homes, install energy efficient measures to reduce fossil fuel use for heating and
   cooling homes, reduces GHG emissions and the greenhouse effect.
   Reduce electricity use through energy efficient appliances – reduce amount of electricity that
   needs to be generated through burning of fossil fuels, reduces GHG emissions and
   greenhouse effect.




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3. What are 3 types of action that government, industry and businesses can take, and why
   would these actions be useful for fighting climate change?

   Promote and produce hybrid or electric vehicles – reduces fossil fuel dependence and
   reduces GHG emissions
   Promote and produce electricity from renewable sources such as solar and wind, rather than
   fossil fuel burning, which reduces GHG emissions
   Promote energy conservation through taxes or incentives for home renovations, or carbon
   taxes (e.g. increase gasoline taxes to discourage fossil fuel use)




Cells, Tissues and Living Systems Unit Review Questions:
Plant and Animal Cells, Cell Theory, Cell Structure (p. 29, 30-32)
   1. The cell theory states that:
   a. All cells come from pre-existing cells

   b. All organisms are made up of cells

   c. The cell is the basic unit of all living organisms

2. How are prokaryotic cells different from eukaryotic cells? Give one example of each.

       Prokaryotic cells                               Eukaryotic cells
   1. Lacks nucleus                                    1. Has nucleus
   2. Lacks membrane bound organelles                  2. Have membrane bound organelles
      (i.e mitochondria, ER)                              (i.e mitochondria, ER)



3. Label the parts of the animal cell.
                                                      2. Golgi body
               1. Cytoplasm


                                                                 3. Mitochondrion


                                                                      4. Vacuole


       8. Ribosomes
                                                                       5. Nucleus


          7. Endoplasmic                                              6. Nuclear Membrane
          Reticulum




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4. Referring to question 3, list the numbered parts of the animal cell and fill in their
   respective functions in the table below:

Cell Structure                           Function

1. Cytoplasm                             consists of organelles, molecules, ions and water

2. Golgi body                            involved with packaging and secretion of proteins


3. Mitochondrion                         Site where energy for the cell is produced
                                         It is also referred to as the “power house” of the cell

4. Vacuoles                              Fluid-filled sac, may contain digestive chemicals called
                                         enzymes
5. Nucleus                               the control centre of the cell; contains the genetic material
                                         (DNA) of the cell

6. Nuclear membrane                      Semi-permeable membrane surrounding the nucleus

7. Endoplasmic reticulum                 Network for the transport of substances throughout the cell

8. Ribosomes                             involved with making proteins


5. Label the numbered parts of the plant cell.



1. (green) Chloroplast

2. Cell wall


  3. Vacuole




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6. By referring to question 5, list the numbered parts of the plant cell and fill in their
   respective functions in the table below:

Cell Structure                          Function

1. Chloroplast                          Site where photosynthesis takes place

2. Cell wall                            Provides structural support for plant cell

3. Vacuole                              is the prominent organelle in older plants: functions include
                                        storage, breakdown of waste products; enlargement of vacuole is
                                        a major mechanism of plant growth

8. Name three differences between plant and animal cells.

   Plant cells have:
1. A cell wall
2. Chloroplasts
3. A large central vacuole


Cell Division, Cell Cycle (pp. 36-37, 40-43)
1. Refer to the diagrams below for question 3.


                                          C



                                                                        D
       A




                                                                 E
                  B
                                                                                     F
Which of the following diagrams (A-F) shows:

                         F
                        A
                        D
                        C

                        B
                        E



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2. Why don’t cells grow indefinitely?

Cells are limited in size because the outside (the cell membrane) must transport the food and
oxygen to the parts inside. As a cell gets bigger, the outside is unable to keep up with the inside,
and the cell membrane cannot supply the inside with what it needs to survive. Diffusion of
nutrients throughout the cell also takes longer.

3. What are 3 purposes of cell division?

1. Growth
2. Reproduction
3. Heal wounds

4. What purpose does mitosis serve in the cell cycle?

      -     Equal distribution of genetic material between the two daughter cells
      -     Equal distribution of the cytoplasm and organelles between the two daughter
            cells (cytokinesis)

Cancer (pp. 48-55)
   1. Describe the four steps of tumour formation.

          Step 1: The primary tumour develops as a group of cells that are undergoing uncontrolled
          cell division. A mutation in the genes controlling cell division caused by a carcinogen
          leads to uncontrolled cell division.
          Step 2: As the tumour gets bigger, it stimulates blood vessels to form and supply it with
          nutrients.
          Step 3: Tumour cells enter blood vessels and lymph vessels. This is dangerous because
          the tumour cells can move to other parts of body (metastasis).
          Step 4: Primary cells which arrive at new area of the body form secondary tumour, which
          may eventually be fatal to the organism.

   2. How does a doctor diagnose cancer once he or she has located a tumour?

             1. Biopsy (tissue sample): examine for rapid cell division (i.e. larger than normal
                percentage of cells in various stages of mitosis)
             2. Biochemical analysis: tumour markers (i.e. PSA)

   3. What are some reasons why cancer might recur after it has been successfully removed
      from a person?
          - After surgery, a vast amount of the primary tumour is removed, however, some tumour
          cells might not be removed, and they might go into remission (rest). At the same time,
          some might even undergo metastasis to new area. Consequently, they may start to divide
          again (but in a new region of the body).

   4. What is a carcinogen? List 3 known carcinogens.

      -     carcinogens are substances which induce uncontrolled cell division by altering the
            genetic material of the cell (mutations).
      -     Carcinogens include chemicals (smoking e.g. tar, organic solvents e.g. ether), and
            radiation: x-rays, UV light




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    5. Explain the difference between a benign and a malignant tumour.

           Benign tumour                                      Malignant tumour
           - Non cancerous                                    - cancerous
           - Localized to one region                          - spreads from primary site to form
                                                                secondary site
          - not dangerous unless physically crowding
            structures (e.g. brain)

The Animal Body - Levels of Organization, Stem Cells (pp. 73-76, 77-79)
Label the levels of organization in the following organism.




1. Cell                2. tissue             3. organ                4. organ system      5. organism

2. For the following tissues types, complete the table using the phrases provided:
supporting/transporting            movement                   communication           covering/lining
digestive tract/heart              bones/tendons              skin/digestive tract    brain/spinal cord

Tissue Type                            Function                              Where found
Connective                             supporting/transporting               bones/tendons

Nervous Tissue                         communication                         brain/spinal cord

Muscle Tissue                          movement                              digestive tract/heart

Epithelial Tissue                      covering/lining                       skin/digestive tract



3. For the following stem cells, complete the table using the phrases provided:
found in embryo                    brain, bone marrow                multipotent
totipotent                         blood cells, brain cells          blood and immune cells
Umbilical cord

Type of Stem cell                      Where its found in the body          Types of cells it makes
Embryonic                              found in embryo                      totipotent

Adult                                  brain, bone marrow                   Multipotent
                                                                            blood cells, brain cells
Umbilical                              Umbilical cord                       Multipotent
                                                                            blood and immune cells



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The Circulatory System, The Respiratory System (pp. 83-87, 91-94)
4. Explain how gaseous exchange between oxygen and carbon dioxide takes place in the
   lungs. (Make sure to include a sketch of an alveolus, and the role diffusion plays in the
   process)
                                                     Step 1: Alveoli: high O2, and low CO2
                                                     Step 2: Blood: low O2, and high CO2




                                                     Diffusion:
                                                      Blood: CO2 moves from an area of high
                                                     concentration to an area of low
                                                     concentration, in the alveoli.
                                                     Alveoli: O2 moves from an area of high
                                                     concentration to an area of low
                                                     concentration, in the blood

5. As a medical doctor, what are some life style changes you would recommend a patient who
   has a high risk of developing cardiovascular disease?

   1. Diet (high in fresh fruits and fresh vegetables)      2. Live smoke free
    3. Increase physical activity                           4. Reduce stress

6. What is the general purpose of white blood cells?
   - Fight infection

7. What role do red blood cells play in the circulatory system?

   - Transport O2 to tissue and remove CO2 from tissues

8. What is the role of platelets?

   - Prevent blood loss by forming blood clots

9. List the three (3) types of blood vessels which make up the circulatory system.
      - Arteries, veins and capillaries

10. Which type of blood vessel carries blood towards the heart?
      -   Veins

11. Which type of blood vessel carries blood away from the heart?
      -   Arteries

12. In which type of blood vessel does diffusion of oxygen/nutrients and the removal of carbon
    dioxide/waste take place?

   - Capillaries
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