Arctic Biodiversity

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					                                                                                                                                                             Summer 2010 Workshop
                                                                                                                                                             in Biology and Multimedia
                                                                                                                                                             for High School Teachers

                                                                The Arctic
                                                             Where is the Arctic?




                                                                    http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/9/92/Arctic
                                                                    _%28orthographic_projection%29.svg/541px-
                                                                    Arctic_%28orthographic_projection%29.svg.png




http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Arctica_surface.jpg
                                                                                                               http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Sunny_Skies_over_the_Arctic_in_Late_June_2010.jpg
                                        Harvard University Life Sciences - HHMI Outreach Summer 2010 Workshop for Biology Teachers
                                                   Arctic Biodiversity
                                                          What does the arctic look like?

                             There are two main parts of the arctic-the arctic
                            ocean and the arctic tundra. This presentation will
                              focus on the tundra, but hear are some ocean
                                               photos too!




http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Banquise_img_5961.jpg       http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Polar_bears_near_no   http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:1YrIceFlow.png
                                                              rth_pole.jpg

                               Harvard University Life Sciences - HHMI Outreach Summer 2010 Workshop for Biology Teachers
                                             Arctic Biodiversity
                                                                     The Tundra!




                                                                         http://cs.wikipedia.org/wiki/Soubor:Tundra_coastal_vegetation_Alaska.jpg




                                                                                       Alaskan tundra looking south the Brooks range. The tundra
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:NorthSlopeAlaska_L7_20010616.jpg                     is largely flat with low vegetation and frequent large ponds.
False color satellite image of the north slope of Alaska. At
the bottom is the Brooks Range with several major rivers
flowing north across tundra to the arctic ocean, which is                   Harvard University Life Sciences - HHMI
covered in sea ice. Light blues are snow and ice, dark blue is              Outreach Summer 2010 Workshop for
open water, green is vegetation, pink is bare ground.                                 Biology Teachers
                                                                  Arctic Biodiversity
                                                                           What lives on the tundra?

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Arctic_Hare




                                                                                                                                                                          http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Arctic_fox
                                                        http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Snowy_owl               http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cladonia_rangiferina
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Snow_goose




                                                                                                                                                                                                                            http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Saxifraga_oppositifolia




                                                                             http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Arctic_willow                                                        http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cassiope_tetragona
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Musk_oxen      http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Oxyria_digyna
                                                                                                                                   http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lemming




                                                                                                                                                                                    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Caribou
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lichen
       http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Silene_acaulis                                                                  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Inupiat
                                                       http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ptarmigan
                                         Harvard University Life Sciences - HHMI Outreach Summer 2010 Workshop for Biology Teachers
                     Activity!

• Use the cards provided by your teacher to
  research the flora and fauna of the tundra.
• Now use your cards to build a basic trophic
  pyramid for the tundra.
• Now make a food web with your cards.



                 Harvard University Life Sciences - HHMI
                 Outreach Summer 2010 Workshop for
                           Biology Teachers
          How will climate
         change alter Arctic
            biodiversity?
• Remember that all ecosystems respond over
  time to local abiotic factors (climate).
• Now lets look at how the tundra might
  respond to modern climate change.
• First we will look at evidence for
  anthropogenic climate change and then at a
  case study of how climate change may alter
  the arctic tundra ecosystem.
                Harvard University Life Sciences - HHMI
                Outreach Summer 2010 Workshop for
                          Biology Teachers
                 Climate Change




                         http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:2000_Year_Temperature_Comparison.png


    Global average temperature over the last 2000+ years.
Harvard University Life Sciences - HHMI Outreach Summer 2010 Workshop for Biology Teachers
                 Climate Change




                           http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Instrumental_Temperature_Record.png

                  Global average temperature over the last 130 years.
Harvard University Life Sciences - HHMI Outreach Summer 2010 Workshop for Biology Teachers
                  Climate Change




                           http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Satellite_Temperatures.png

      Global average temperature over the last 35 years. Note that while there is
      variation between years (some warm and some cold) the overall upward
      trend over time is clear. Climate is defined as the 30 year average of local
      weather, therefore this 35 year record shows a clear warming of the global
      climate.
Harvard University Life Sciences - HHMI Outreach Summer 2010 Workshop for Biology Teachers
Climate Change
                  Climate Change




Atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations for the last 50 years
(left) and global average surface temperature for the last 35 years
(right).
                       Harvard University Life Sciences - HHMI
                       Outreach Summer 2010 Workshop for
                                 Biology Teachers
                            Climate Change




     http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/5/58/Greenhouse_Effect.svg

The greenhouse effect: Solar radiation is absorbed by the Earth. The earth then radiates infra-
red light (heat) back towards space. Greenhouse gases, like carbon dioxide, absorb some of
this heat and store that energy in the atmosphere. This process makes the atmosphere warm
enough for life to exist all over the planet.
    Harvard University Life Sciences - HHMI Outreach Summer 2010 Workshop for Biology Teachers
                                                            Climate Change




                                      Attribution of climate change to human greenhouse gas emissions.



                                                              Harvard University Life Sciences - HHMI
                                                              Outreach Summer 2010 Workshop for
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:GHG_per_capita_2005.png               Biology Teachers
                  Climate Change




                    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Global_Warming_Predictions_Map.jpg




Note that the high arctic tundra is projected to warm more than any other
                terrestrial biome, potentially up to 5.5°C!
                              Harvard University Life Sciences - HHMI
                              Outreach Summer 2010 Workshop for
                                        Biology Teachers
                                      Final Activity!
       Print these quotes and cut out each one. Now arrange them in an order that leads
       to a logical argument about the effects of climate change on this ecosystem.
       Depending on your result, rearrange your food web diagram to show how the
       tundra system might change as a result of climate change. Discuss with the class.
• “The arctic fox and the snowy owl have been declining through the last
  decade . . .”
• “. . . generalist predators like the red fox seem to be spreading northward .
  . .”
• “Intense winter breeding, leading to rapid population growth under the
  snow, precedes peak years in arctic lemmings . . . . Seasonal peak
  densities are then reached in the spring.”
• “For small mammals, deep snow offers protections both from low ambient
  temperatures and from many predators.”
• “In areas with short winters and a shallow snow cover, it seems that voles
  [and lemmings] always decline to very low populations densities in the
  spring.”
• “Specialist predators [like the snowy owl and arctic fox] depend on a high
  density of of prey [lemmings] in the spring to breed successfully.”
• “Models of climate change predict that winters in the Arctic will become
  considerably warmer and more variable . . . .”
    Ims, Rolf A., Eva Fuglei. Trophic Interaction Cycles in Tundra Ecosystems and the Impact of Climate Change. BioScience. April
    2005/Vol. 55 No.4. Accessed on 7/17/10 at http://www.arcus.org/alaskafws/downloads/pdf/general_arctic_change/Ims2005.pdf

              Harvard University Life Sciences - HHMI Outreach Summer 2010 Workshop for Biology Teachers

				
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