"Biology Undergraduate Majors Manual"
Biology Undergraduate Majors Manual Academic Year 2012-2013 Updated July 2012 1 Message from the Chair Dear Biology Major, I am pleased to welcome you to the Department of Biology at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. You have made an excellent decision to major in biology! Our department is considered to be a premiere department in one of the most highly ranked public universities in the nation. It was formed in 1980 by the merger of the Departments of Zoology and Botany and thus includes a remarkable diversity of disciplines in the Biological Sciences. You will have the opportunity to learn from some of the top scholars in virtually any field of Biology, not only in the classroom, but in the field and in the laboratory as well. Although we have a large group of undergraduate majors and thus the introductory and core courses in the major tend to be rather large, I want to emphasize that the Biology faculty have an interest in each of you as an individual. As you progress through the major, you will enroll in a number of smaller upper level courses. These courses provide you with the opportunity to get to know individual Biology faculty members. I encourage you to take the time to speak with them after class, visit their office hours to discuss common interests, or arrange to meet for coffee on campus. I myself treasure the many lasting relationships that I have made with students and enjoy keeping in touch with them years after they have left UNC. Please do not hesitate to contact me by email if I can be of assistance to you. I am interested in hearing both about what we are doing well and also what we might be able to do better. I also encourage you take advantage of the resources offered by the staff in Academic Advising, who you should consult regularly concerning degree requirements in the major as well as our own department advisor, Dr Gidi Shemer. Any of our Biology faculty would be delighted to discuss your specific interests in the field of biology and how you might explore them now and in the future. I also encourage you to investigate two special opportunities that are available here in the Department of Biology. The first is our local chapter of Beta Beta Beta, the National Biological Honor Society (details provided later in this manual). The second is our highly regarded undergraduate research program. Considered to be one of the top undergraduate research programs on campus, it provides you with the opportunity to contribute to the production of new knowledge in Biology, working in collaboration with Biology faculty members, postdoctoral associates and graduate students in the laboratory and the field. For further information, see the areas dedicated to research on our website. We are delighted that you have joined our department. This manual will introduce you to some of the opportunities and resources that are available to you, but I encourage you to explore actively the many additional opportunities that are available here in the department. I wish you the very best for your remaining years here in Chapel Hill. William M. Kier Professor and Chairman Department of Biology 313B Wilson Hall firstname.lastname@example.org 2 Message from the Director of Undergraduate Studies Dear Biology Major, We are glad to have you join the Biology department as an undergraduate major. This manual has been prepared to help you with some of the questions most frequently asked by Biology majors and to make you aware of opportunities that you might otherwise miss. The on-line version of this manual will be updated as necessary. The printed version will be updated only once a year. Therefore, if you need the latest information the on-line version is likely to be more helpful. The contents of this manual are as follows: Biology mission statement Facilities and location including a map Faculty including photographs Majoring in Biology Biology and the General Education Requirements Advising Biology Department Undergraduate Student Services Research and Honors in Biology including Biology 295, 395, 396, 691H, 692H UNC-BEST Program Undergraduate Organizations of Interest to Biology Majors Biology Related Careers We hope you will find this manual helpful. If you have questions, suggestions or corrections please share them with me. It is only through continued input from undergraduate students that we can help all of you to find the things you need as a student. I hope that you will have an enjoyable and useful educational experience in the Department of Biology. Please let me know if I can be of assistance to you. Sincerely, Ann G. Matthysse Professor and Director of Undergraduate Studies Department of Biology 103 Coker Hall email@example.com 3 Mission Statement of the Department of Biology The undergraduate program in the Department of Biology is dedicated to providing high quality instruction to all undergraduate students at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill using a faculty who are actively engaged in research. The department serves the students, the College, the University, and the State of North Carolina by providing instruction in large lecture courses that are staffed by faculty. This allows us to reach the maximum number of students in a setting in which high quality instruction is delivered by an instructor who practices, in her/his daily life, the science that is being taught. In our view, no one is better qualified to teach Biology than someone actively engaged in research. Smaller lecture classes and even smaller discussion classes follow the large lecture classes, in sequence, as the scope of the material taught becomes more refined. These classes, populated primarily by students such as you who have chosen to major in Biology, are also taught by our faculty. Ultimately, the department provides individualized one-on-one experiences in the laboratory under the direct supervision of our research-active faculty through our undergraduate research program. While not all of our majors take advantage of the opportunity to work side-by-side with one of our faculty, a significant percentage of our students do. The overarching goal of our undergraduate program is to provide high quality instruction at the leading edge of modern Biology, both in the classroom and in the laboratory, and in all sub-disciplines of Biology. We achieve this goal with faculty who are based broadly in the Biological Sciences and who are fully committed to a career that includes both research and teaching. Most of our undergraduate students choose the Biology B.S. program, which offers a rigorous curriculum with an interdisciplinary flavor. These students must demonstrate proficiency in Math, Physics, and Chemistry in addition to demonstrating a broad proficiency in Biology. The curriculum is consistent with our goal of providing an outstanding undergraduate education in all sub-disciplines of modern Biology. The Department of Biology feels strongly that our undergraduate students are best served by exposure to a broad curriculum in Biology before narrowing their focus in the last two years to a more specialized area of Biology. This provides a suitable basis for making a careful decision regarding the sub-discipline of Biology in which they wish to focus during their last two years. In addition it insures that they are well prepared to work at the intersections between sub-disciplines of Biology and, indeed, between the more traditional scientific disciplines. Finally, the Department of Biology is committed to providing access to cutting edge research opportunities for all undergraduate Biology majors who wish to participate in our undergraduate research program. The program is recognized as one of the best, perhaps the best, in the University and the Department of Biology is proud to have the Director of the Office of Undergraduate Research (Dr. Patricia Pukkila) as one of our faculty. 4 Department of Biology - People and Places Biology Department Faculty Please see our Faculty Directory on our website: http://bio.unc.edu/people/faculty/ Biology Buildings: Classrooms / Teaching & Research Laboratories/Offices The Department of Biology is housed in four buildings including Coker Hall, Fordham Hall, Wilson Hall and Genomics Sciences. Classrooms, offices, research and teaching laboratories are included in Coker Hall, Wilson Hall, and Genomics Sciences. Research labs and offices are located in Fordham Hall. Kenan Science Library The Kenan Science Library is housed in a separate building across the street from Coker Hall the Science Library Annex in the Wilson Library (see map – Wilson Library is a different building from Wilson Hall!). David Romito (firstname.lastname@example.org) serves as the Assistant Biology Librarian. Biology Undergraduate Student Services Office Miss Summer Montgomery (email@example.com) is our Biology Registrar. Her office is in 213 Coker Hall and she will be an important resource for you as Biology major. When sending inquiries to Summer, please include your PID number as this helps her to access your records in Connect Carolina. Also please include the class and lab/recitation you want if you are requesting to be registered for a BIOL class. Summer can assist you with most issues related to course enrollment, drop-add, and research applications – but not advising. Biology Undergraduate Advising Office Dr Gidi Shemer (firstname.lastname@example.org) is the departmental advisor for Biology undergraduate majors and minors. His office is in Wilson Hall, room G41. For more details, please see the Advising section of this manual and/or go to the following website: http://bio.unc.edu/people/faculty/shemer. Biology Administrative Offices The Department of Biology Main Administrative Office is located in 203 Coker Hall. Julia Young (email@example.com), the department secretary, is located here. A Lost and Found box is kept in 202 Coker where you may claim items left in Biology buildings and classrooms. The Graduate Student Services Office is located in 212 Coker Hall. Julie Lawrence (firstname.lastname@example.org) can assist you with graduate student issues. For issues regarding Human Resources and payroll, please see Melissa Wolcott or Marie Fholer in 205 Coker Hall. The Biology Accounting staff offices are located in 216 Coker Hall. The Biology Photolab is located in 211 Wilson Hall. 5 6 The Biology Major and Minor BS/BA/Q Track Majoring in Biology: Bachelor of Science This program is designed for students who intend to continue graduate study in biological or health sciences. Core Requirements • BIOL 101/101L (gateway course, with a C grade or better in BIOL 101) • BIOL 201, 202, and 205 (the core courses) • One organismal structure and diversity course chosen from 271, 272, 273, 274, 276/276L, 277/277L, 278/278L, 279/279L, 471, 472, 473/473L, 475, 476/476L, 478, 479/479L, or 579 • Four biology electives numbered above 205 (not including 213, 291, 292, 293, 295, 296, 396, and 692H), at least two of them with a laboratory. At least two courses out of the five courses (four electives and one organismal course) must be numbered above 400 (not including 501, 691H, 692H). Additional Requirements • CHEM 102/102L, 241/241L, 261, 262/262L • PHYS 104 and 105, or 116 and 117 • Two additional courses in biology, other natural sciences, or mathematics • Students must fulfill all General Education requirements (Foundations, Approaches, and Connections) with these restrictions and additions: • Quantitative reasoning: MATH 231 or 241, and one of the following: MATH 232 or 283; COMP 110, 116; STOR 155 or 215 • Approaches: Physical and Life Sciences: CHEM 101/101L, CHEM 102/102L with a C grade or better in CHEM 101 or CHEM 102 is required for BIOL 201 and BIOL 202 • Enough free electives to accumulate 123 academic hours 7 Suggested Program of Study for B.S. Majors: First Year • BIOL 101/101L; CHEM 101/101L, 102/102L; ENGL 101, 102; language levels 2, 3; MATH 231 or 241 plus a second course in mathematics, computer science, or statistics/operations research; lifetime fitness Sophomore Year • Two of the three biology core courses (201, 202, 205); at least two of CHEM 241/241L, 261, 262/262L; Approaches (one course) Junior Year • Remaining biology core course, organismal biology course, biology electives (two courses); PHYS 104 and 105, or 116 and 117; remaining advanced chemistry course; Approaches and Connections (three courses) Senior Year • Biology electives (two courses); natural science or biology electives (two courses); Approaches and Connections (two courses); free electives as needed to complete 123 academic hours 8 B.S. Major in Biology: Quantitative Biology Track This program is designed for students with a strong interest in a multidisciplinary approach to biological problems in preparation for graduate study in biological or health sciences. Core Requirements • BIOL 101/101L (gateway course, with a C grade or better in BIOL 101) • BIOL 201, 202, and 205 (core courses for biology majors) • Two laboratory courses. One must be a quantitative laboratory chosen from BIOL 452, 525, 526, 527/527L, or 528. The other can be any biology laboratory course, including two semesters of BIOL 395. • A choice of three biology electives, of which at least two quantitative electives must be chosen from BIOL 431, 452*, 454, 465, 525*, 526*, 527*, 528*, 542, 551, 562, 563, or 642 (*asterisked courses cannot count as both a quantitative laboratory and a quantitative elective). BIOL 691H for three credits can be included unless BIOL 395 has previously been taken, if so, BIOL 395 and 691H together count toward the laboratory course requirement. Additional Requirements • BIOS 600 or STOR 155 • CHEM 102/102L and 261 • COMP 116 or 401 • MATH 233 • PHYS 104 and 105, or 116 and 117 • A choice of two allied sciences electives or additional biology courses numbered above 205 (not including 213, 291, 292, 293, 295, 296, 396, and 692H). Premedical students are encouraged to take CHEM 241/241L and 262/262L • Students must fulfill all General Education requirements (Foundations, Approaches, and Connections) with these restrictions and additions: • Quantitative reasoning: MATH 231 or 241 and MATH 232 or 283 • Approaches: Physical and life sciences: CHEM 101/101L with a grade C or better in CHEM 101 or CHEM 102 is required for BIOL 201 and BIOL 202 9 • Enough free electives to accumulate 127 academic hours Suggested Program of Study for the Quantitative Track: First Year • BIOL 101/101L; CHEM 101/101L, 102/102L; ENGL 101, 102; language levels 2, 3; MATH 214 or 231, 232 or 283; lifetime fitness; Approaches (two courses) Sophomore Year • Two of three biology core courses (201, 202, 205); BIOS 600 or STOR 155; CHEM 261, 262/262L if premed; COMP 116 or 401; MATH 233; Approaches (one course) Junior Year • Remaining biology core course; biology electives including one quantitative laboratory (three courses); PHYS 104 and 105, or 116 and 117; Approaches and Connections (three courses) Senior Year • Second laboratory course; biology electives (two courses); allied sciences elective (CHEM 241/241L if premed); Approaches and Connections; electives to accumulate 127 academic hours 10 Majoring in Biology: Bachelor of Arts This program is designed to provide greater flexibility than the B.S. in meeting broad student interests. Core Requirements • BIOL 101/101L (gateway course, with a C grade or better in BIOL 101) • BIOL 201, 202, and 205 (the core courses) • One organismal structure and diversity course chosen from 271, 272, 273, 274, 276/276L, 277/277L, 278/278L, 279/279L, 471, 472, 473/473L, 475, 476/476L, 478, 479/479L or 579 • Three biology electives numbered above 205 (not including 213, 291, 292, 293, 295, 296, 396, and 692H), at least one with a laboratory. At least one course out of the four courses (three electives and one organismal course) must be numbered above 400 (not including 501, 691H, 692H). Additional Requirements • CHEM 102/102L • Four additional courses in biology, other natural sciences, or mathematics (these courses should also complete the Approaches physical and life sciences requirement) • Students must fulfill all General Education requirements (Foundations, Approaches, Connections, and Supplemental Education) with these restrictions and additions: • Foundations: Quantitative reasoning: one of COMP 110, 116; MATH 130, 152, 231, 241; STOR 155 or 215 • Approaches: Physical and Life Sciences: CHEM 101/101L, CHEM 102/102L with a C grade or better in one of the CHEM courses • General electives to complete the 120 academic hours required for graduation Suggested Program of Study for B.A. Majors: First Year • BIOL 101/101L; CHEM 101/101L, 102/102L; ENGL 101, 102; language levels 2, 3; Foundations quantitative reasoning requirement as specified above; lifetime fitness 11 Sophomore Year • Two of the three biology core courses (201, 202, 205); natural sciences electives (two courses); Approaches and Connections (four courses) Junior Year • Remaining biology core course, organismal biology course, biology electives (two courses); natural sciences electives (two courses); Approaches and Connections (two courses); Supplemental Education requirement or free electives (two courses) Senior Year • Biology electives (two courses); Approaches and Connections (one course); Supplemental Education requirement and free electives as needed to complete 120 academic hours and other requirements 12 Minoring in Biology A student may minor in biology by taking four biology courses beyond BIOL 101/101L distributed as follows: • Two of the three core courses: BIOL 201, 202, and 205 • One course with a laboratory • One course numbered above 400 13 Biology and the General Education Requirements In order to obtain either a BS or BA in Biology you will need to meet the General Education Requirements in Foundations, Approaches, and Connections. Those students completing a BA degree in Biology will also have to meet the supplemental education requirement using either the distributive or integrative options. Listed below are those courses which are offered by Biology and fulfill one of these requirements as well as those courses required for Biology majors that meet one of these requirements. Foundations The only foundation course that can be taken in the sciences is Quantitative Reasoning (QR). For the BS MATH 231 and for the BA MATH 130, 152, 231; COMP 101, 161; STOR 151,155, or 215 meet the requirement for the degree in Biology and also meet the Foundations QR requirement. The requirements in English composition and rhetoric, foreign language, and lifetime fitness will need to be met with courses from other departments. Approaches The approaches physical and life sciences requirement can be met with BIOL 101/L and CHEM 101/L. The requirements in social and behavioral sciences and humanities/fine arts will have to be met with courses from other departments. Connections The communication intensive (CI) requirement can be met with BIOL 101/L but you must take both the lecture and the lab. BIOL 524, 522, and 691 (but not 692) also meet this requirement. The requirement for a second quantitative reasoning or quantitative intensive course can be met by BIOL 201, 452; MATH 232; COMP 101, 161; STOR 155 or 215. The experiential education requirement can be met by BIOL 295, 395, 410, 463, 555, 564L, and 661. It can also be met by BIOL 293, but you should note that this course does not count as a course in Biology for the major. More details on Biology 293, 395 and 295 can be found under Biology internship and Biology research and honors in this manual. The remainder of the connections requirements will have to be met with courses from other departments. Supplemental General Education Requirement BA students will have also to meet the supplemental education requirement using either the distributive or integrative option. This requirement does not apply to BS students. For the distributive option, students may not use any course from Biology or any other department within the Division of Natural Sciences and Mathematics. In contrast, one of the courses taken to fulfill the integrative option may both come from the major division and fulfill a major requirement. 14 BIOL 101/ BIOL 101L Placement Test General Information The BIOL 101 & 101L Credit-By-Exam placement test is given twice in the Fall semester and once in the Spring semester. Check the Biology website for the next scheduled placement test: https://bio.unc.edu/undergraduate/links/. It is not necessary to be registered for the course, or to register for the exam. New Rules taking effect Fall 2013: Students who receive credit for Biology 101/L from any source will receive credit for the PX approach requirement. Students receiving credit for BIOL 101/L as TR (transfer credit) or by taking the course at UNC-CH will also receive CI credit. Students who receive credit for BIOL 101/L as PL or BE will not receive CI credit and will have to meet this requirement using another course New Rules taking effect Fall 2010: First year students may take the placement exam and if they pass will receive BE credit. This confers credit on their transcript. They can take credit for the lecture, the lab or both. Non- first year students and transfer students may take the placement exam, and if they pass will earn PL, but not academic, credit on the exam. Such credit can be used to fulfill the BIOL 101/L prerequisite and the General Education PL/PX and CI requirements. There is no placement test for lab only. You are NOT eligible to take the exam if you have COMPLETED Biology 101, have CREDIT for Biology 101, or if you have taken the placement exam PREVIOUSLY. About the Biology Placement Test It is not necessary to be registered for the course or to sign up in advance to take the exam. A UNC One Card is required for admittance to the exam. If you have any questions regarding the test, please contact Dr. Jean DeSaix at (email@example.com) in 302 Coker Hall. Report Scanned Exam Scores (https://onyen.unc.edu/cgi-bin/unc_id/reportcard.pl). There is no placement test for lab only. You are not eligible to take the exam if you have taken it previously. This test is designed for people who have had two years of high school biology and, therefore, probably do not belong in our introductory biology (Biology 101) course. Although most departments give placement tests only once a year before classes begin in the Fall, this test is generally given three times a year. We do this in order to help the greatest number of students. It is given before classes start in the Fall for students who need the score to plan registrations, and about two weeks into both Fall and Spring semesters to allow students who feel their registration into the course is a mistake, to attempt to place out. The test is equivalent to a final exam in Biology 101 and demands an equivalent passing level (60%). Students who choose to take the test given after the semester starts must maintain enough credit hours to drop Biology 101 and lab if credit is awarded. This means having 12 academic hours in addition to the Biology 101 hours to be dropped. First Year students who pass the test, may take “by exam” (BE) credit for both lecture and lab (BIOL 101 and BIOL 101L). These hours go directly to your record at the end of the semester and do not count as hours credit in any particular semester. Alternatively, it is possible to take “by exam” credit for only one of the two components 15 and take the other component as a class. There is no separate exam for laboratory only. Placement (PL) will be received for all other students passing the exam who are not first year students. If you are currently registered in the course and you plan to drop lecture or lab or both, you should do so immediately upon being notified of your passing score. You may not drop after the last day to drop a course, even if you have placement credit. Remember that university regulations require that you be registered for 12 academic hours (Physical Education/PHYA courses above 199 don't count as academic hours) in order to be a full time student. Because “by exam” credits may not appear on your transcript until the following semester, it is your responsibility to see an academic advisor in the Steele building in the following semester to be sure your credits have been distributed correctly. You may take the test only once. If you do not pass the test, nothing will be entered on your transcript. When you take the test, you will be asked to sign the following: I pledge that I have not taken this test before, that I will not request a drop below 12 hours as a result of this test, and that I have neither given nor received aid on this examination. ______________________________________ The test is largely multiple-choice. The test covers all of biology: cells, genetics, ecology, plants, animals, etc. Any good introductory biology textbook may be used to study for the exam. Interpretation of your score: 70 and above is a strong pass. 65-70 is a low pass and you should choose your next biology course carefully. 60-64 very low pass. See a biology advisor about what biology course you might take next. 16 Academic Preparation and Support Biology Tutorial Center Welcome to the Biology Tutoring Program! The Biology department is happy to offer you a FREE peer tutoring program for the following courses: BIOL 201- Ecology and Evolution BIOL 202- Molecular Biology and Genetics BIOL 205- Cell and Developmental Biology BIOL 252- Human Anatomy and Physiology The tutors in the Biology Tutoring program are volunteer undergraduate students. While each of the courses above has more than one section (and more than one professor), each section is tutored by 3-5 tutors who excelled in this specific section. Thus, we recommend you go to a tutoring session with the section's specific tutors, as they are very familiar with the professor's teaching style and the material taught in this section. However, if you prefer, you are welcome to go to any other tutor. The tutors’ goal is to help you to help yourself. They are not allowed to “do your homework”. They are also not allowed to provide you with previous exams. Also, please remember that the tutors are not the instructors of the course and they are not responsible for the material being taught. At the end of the day, the instructors will test you based on what they and not the tutors taught you. The tutoring schedule for the coming semester will be posted here by the second week of the semester. Tutoring sessions will start at the third week and end before the beginning of exam week. Biology Advising Undergraduate students who are majoring in Biology have two major sources of advising. The first is departmental advising, with emphasis on the biology curriculum, career advising, and any concerns you might have about the major. The second is College academic advising (the Biology Department is in the College of Arts and Sciences), located in Steele Building, where students should go to verify overall graduation requirements, update worksheets, etc. Biology majors are under the Division of Natural Sciences and Mathematics. 17 Health professions advising (part of college advising) is another important resource for those of you who are interested in health professions (ex. medical school). Biology Departmental Advisor Biology Departmental Advising can assist you with any concerns you might have regarding the Biology major. Dr. Gidi Shemer (firstname.lastname@example.org), will be happy to assist you in understanding the major requirements, choosing the courses that fit your interests, guiding you to helpful resources and advising you with any other question about the major. Biology Registrar Summer Montgomery (email@example.com), our Biology Registrar, is located in 213 Coker Hall and she is an important resource for you as biology major. Summer can assist you with drop/add forms, registration, and research forms. When sending inquiries to Summer, please include your PID number as this helps her to access your records in Connect Carolina. The Abbey Fellow in Biology and Study Abroad The Abbey Fellow in Biology advises majors about career paths and other subjects related to Biology as a course of study or a professional career. She can also answer questions about Study Abroad credit. Dr. Elaine Yeh is the current Abbey Fellow. Appointments can be made by contacting Dr. Yeh at firstname.lastname@example.org. Peer Advising Peer Advising is provided by members of biological honor society Tri-Beta during open-door advising in Coker Hall as described above. While these students cannot provide official information regarding graduation requirements and major/minor requirements, they are able to give their personal perspective on courses, which is very useful to students. Arts and Sciences Advisors Biology is officially located in the College of Arts and Sciences. Biology majors will meet with advisors in the Division of Natural Science and Mathematics, located on the 2nd floor of Steele Building. These advisors provide the official word on curriculum matters. Students are encouraged to make an appointment with an advisor by going to http://advising.unc.edu/advising/scheduleanappt. Please note that Dr Gidi Shemer (2017D Steele) is a part time Advisor in Steele Building and as a Biology faculty member, he is familiar with the challenges biology students might face. His teaching schedule allows him to work only a few hours a week in Steele Building. Please limit 18 your appointments with him to biology-related issues. Please see any of the other full-time advisors in Steele Building for any questions you have regarding any general education concerns. The members of the Steele Building advising group are as follows: Full-Time Advisors: Andrea Caldwell (2018B Steele), Deborah Graczyk (2008 Steele), Michael Jahn (2017C Steele), Sarah Nelson (2003 Steele), Charlotte Nunn (2017 Steele), Dexter Robinson (2005 Steele), Jamie Samples (2007 Steele), Dr Elizabeth Shuster (202 Steele). Part-Time Faculty Advisors: Dr. Todd Austell (2017D Steele), Dr. Marcus Collins (2015D Steele), Dr. Beth Jordan (2015D Steele), Dr Julie Page (2015D Steele), Dr. Joy Renner (2015D Steele). Advising Worksheets Worksheets for Biology and other majors can be found on the Academic Advising website: http://advising.unc.edu/advising/worksheets-home. Be sure to check this site for the most recent worksheet applicable to your major, as these forms do change. Health Profession Advising Special advising programs for health professions such as medicine, dentistry, optometry, veterinary medicine and other allied health professions can be found in Room 201-D of Steele Building under the direction of Dr. Jean DeSaix (3002/3003 Steele) and Dr. Dominic Tiani (3002/3003 Steele). More complete information is on this website: http://prehealthadvising.unc.edu/ Connect Carolina Students are encouraged to access MyUNC (Connect Carolina) for information about grades, eligibility and registration. Consult the Tar Heel Tracker link to double check your academic progress. Caution: Do not rely on Tar Heel Tracker as your sole method of verifying your academic progress. A final analysis of your courses and how they meet the graduation requirements must be completed by a member of the Senior Advising Team located in Steele building prior to graduation. You also have the capability of pulling your own unofficial transcript in Connect Carolina – required for all Biology research forms. Academic Appeals Academic appeals regarding dropping courses past the deadline, medical leaves, and academic probation must be issued by a Dean in Academic Advising or Full-time Advisor. For more information see: http://advising.unc.edu/AcademicAppealsInfoandForms Transfer Credits The Office of Undergraduate Admissions is responsible for evaluating and awarding transfer credit for enrolling transfer students. In general, credit is awarded for an academic course with a grade of C or better from an accredited institution if Carolina has a similar, equivalent course. 19 If you're transferring courses from any other institution, see our Transfer Course Equivalencies. Please note this is not an exhaustive list; it reflects transfer credit that former transfer students have received when enrolling at Carolina. If you want admissions to re-evaluate your transferred credits, you can petition for that via academic advising. Dr Gustavo Maroni, Academic Advising (email@example.com)can assist you with Biology class credit questions. Note: Students who want Biology transfer courses re-evaluated should go to http://admissions.unc.edu/Apply/Transfer_Students/Course_Eval.html, read the instructions and submit the form from that page. Dr Maroni will contact you. 20 Biology Degree At-a-Glance BS REQUIREMENTS The Bachelor of Science program is designed for students who intend to continue graduate study in biological or health sciences. Departmental Requirements BIOL 101/101L (gateway course, with a C grade or better) in BIOL 101 BIOL 201, 202, and 205 (the core courses) One organismal structure and diversity course chosen from 271, 272, 273, 274, 275/275L, 276/276L, 277/277L, 278/278L, 279/279L, 471, 472, 473/473L, 475, 476/476L, 478, 479/479L, or 579 Four biology electives numbered above 205 (not including 213, 291, 292, 293, 296, 396, and 692H), at least two of them with a laboratory. At least two courses out of the five courses (four electives and one organismal course) must be numbered above 400 (not including 501, 691H, 692H) Additional Requirements CHEM 102/102L, 241/241L, 261, 262/262L PHYS 104 and 105, or 116 and 117 Two additional Allied Science courses (courses in biology, other natural sciences, or mathematics) Students must fulfill all General Education requirements (Foundations, Approaches, and Connections) with these restrictions and additions: 1. Foreign language: through level 3 2. Foundations: Quantitative reasoning: MATH 231, and one of the following: MATH 232; COMP 110, 116; STOR 155 or 215 3. Approaches: Physical and life sciences: CHEM 101 and CHEM 101L with a C grade or better in CHEM 101 or CHEM 102 is required for BIOL 201 and BIOL 202 4. Enough free electives to accumulate 123 academic hours 21 BA REQUIREMENTS The Bachelor of Arts program is designed to provide greater flexibility than the B.S. in meeting broad student interests. Departmental Requirements BIOL 101/101L (gateway course, with a C grade or better in BIOL 101) BIOL 201, 202, and 205 (the core courses) One organismal structure and diversity course chosen from 271, 272, 273, 274, 275/275L, 276/276L, 277/277L, 278/278L, 279/279L, 471, 472, 473/473L, 475, 476/476L, 478, 479/479L or 579 Three biology electives numbered above 205 (not including 213, 291, 292, 293, 296, 396, and 692H), at least one with a laboratory. At least one course out of the four courses (three electives and one organismal course) must be numbered above 400 (not including 501, 691H, 692H) Additional Requirements CHEM 102/102L Four additional courses Allied Science courses (courses in biology, other natural sciences, or mathematics) Students must fulfill all General Education requirements (Foundations, Approaches, Connections, and Supplemental Education) with these restrictions and additions: 1. Foundations: Foreign language: through level 3 2. Foundations: Quantitative reasoning: one of COMP 110, 116; MATH 130, 152, 231, 241; STOR 155 or 215 3. Approaches: Physical sciences: CHEM 101 and CHEM101L with a C grade or better in CHEM 101 or 102 is required for BIOL 201 and BIOL 202 4. General electives to complete the 120 academic hours required for graduation 22 Biology Departmental Advisor Dear Students, My name is Dr. Gidi Shemer and I am your Biology Department¹s undergraduate advisor. While you are probably familiar with the academic advising group at UNC (the advisors who sit in the Steele building), the position of a departmental advisor serves a different goal. I will not replace your advisors from Academic Advising. Instead, as a Biology faculty member, I’d be able (and happy) to help you with decisions concerning the biology major: which courses should I take if I am interested in Ecology? Which will be the best courses for me as someone who plans on becoming a genetic counselor? Am I following the requirements for the biology major? Is Graduate school a better option for me than Medical school? Which courses would help me to prepare myself (and later to apply) for Graduate school? I am here to answer these and many other questions and to refer you to the right people if needed. Advising the largest major at UNC cannot be done by one person, and indeed we have in the department an excellent team who will assist you. First, many administrative issues like registration will be taken care of by Summer Montgomery, the Biology Department Undergraduate Student Services Specialist. Dr. Elaine Yeh can tell you everything you wanted to know about career options in Biology (and there are lots of these!!) and to assist you with the Study Abroad programs. Finally, we are fortunate to have with us Dr. Jean DeSaix, director of the advising program for health professions, who is a great resource for the pre-med, pre-nursing school and other students who are interested in health-related professions. I’d like to invite you to meet with me with any concerns you might have about biology the major. I'm looking forward to meeting you soon! Gidi Shemer, PhD Lecturer and Advisor Department of Biology Wilson G41 firstname.lastname@example.org 23 Biology Registrar Dear Carolina Biology Majors and Minors, Welcome to the most popular undergraduate major on campus! As the Registrar in the Department of Biology, I am here to serve you and to make your experience at Carolina as stress-free as possible! As a Carolina alumni, I totally understand what you are going through as a student at UNC and my hope is that you will enjoy your years at Carolina as much as I did. Here’s what I can do for you: I can answer basic questions regarding our courses – I invite you to check our website first (http://www.bio.unc.edu/) for the most current information regarding our department. I have BIOL 295, BIOL 395/396 and BIOL 691H/692H paper applications as well as Infectious Agent forms – although they are all listed online now. I can register you for a course that shows “Dept Consent” – but I have to have an email from the professor approving this first. Due to the large volume of registration requests, I must have the following information from you so that I can register you: PID Number, class, recitation/lab you want and the semester this is for. I have paper Drop/Add forms and Post Semester Registration forms if you need them. I’m always here to listen if you need someone to talk to! Here’s what I can’t do for you: I can’t advise you as to what classes to take – you need to see Dr Gidi Shemer (email@example.com) who is our awesome award-winning departmental advisor. First Year students and Sophomores will need to see your assigned Academic Advisor in Steele Building. I can’t get you in classes other than Biology – sorry. I wish you great success at Carolina and beyond! I look forward to meeting you! Summer Montgomery UNC – Class of 1981 Biology Registrar 213 Coker Hall Office Hours = 8 AM–5 PM (M-F) Lunch usually from Noon-1 PM firstname.lastname@example.org 24 Internship in Biology Biology 293 The purpose of Biology 293 is to allow students to obtain course and experiential education credit for experience in biological sciences resulting from off campus work. This course is open only to Biology majors. However, it does not count as a course in the major. It can only be taken once. The experience in Biology can be in a research laboratory or field station or a company such as a pharmaceutical company which carries out biological research, or it can be in an educational setting such as a museum or national or state park or forest where the emphasis would be on how to communicate information about biology to the public or to students. If appropriate, the student can be paid for the work. Students must identify a place in which to carry out the internship and a local sponsor who will supervise the student in the semester before the work is to be done. The student should consult with the course director by early November for the spring semester and by early April for the summer or fall semester to discuss the project and whether it is appropriate for Biology 293 credit. In general, the project should involve hands-on work by the student and not simply observation of someone else doing the work. The student will need to spend at least 135 hours on the project. The time spent should be documented by the sponsor. At the end of the project the student will write a 10 page paper describing the work on the project in a format to be determined by the sponsor and the course director. The paper will be approved by the sponsor and the course director, Dr Jennifer Coble (email@example.com). The course grade will be determined by the course director. 25 Research and Honors in Biology BIOL 295/395/395/691H/692H The purpose of Biology 295 and 395 is to provide students with research experience while working on a question of current biological interest. Biology 295 and 395 are open only to Biology majors. Students will learn how science is practiced in a particular area of scientific endeavor, and will also make new discoveries. Research is done under the supervision of a faculty member in the Department of Biology or in another department on the UNC-Chapel Hill campus (for example in a medical school department or some other department that does biological research). Students may enroll for 1-3 credit hours of Biology 395 or 3 credits of Biology 295. Each credit hour represents 3-4 hours of research per week, on average, during the semester, so that students enrolled for 3 credit hours should spend 10 hours or more on research per week. Students must identify a faculty member in the Department of Biology or in another department on the UNC-CH campus who has agreed to supervise the student’s research. For Biology 395 if that person is outside the Department of Biology, a faculty sponsor from within the department must agree to monitor the student’s research experience. This is done by meeting with the student once per month during the course of the research to discuss the project and the student’s progress. It is advisable to arrange these supervisors in advance whenever possible. The Biology sponsor awards the grade in Biology 395. For Biology 295 the person in charge of the course will act as the Biology department contact and will give the grade in the course. Biology 295 may require various meetings during the semester of the students and faculty member in charge of the course. Biology 295 To enroll in Biology 295 a student does not need to have a GPA of 3.0 but must have completed either Biology 201 or Biology 202. Biology 295 is open only to Biology majors and can be taken as a graded course only for one semester. Students must identify a faculty member in the Department of Biology or in another department on the UNC-CH campus who has agreed to supervise the student’s research. An enrollment form is available from Summer Montgomery, Biology Registrar in 213 Coker Hall, and should be turned in along with a copy of your internal transcript from Connect Carolina by the last day of the first week of classes. The form requires signatures of the research supervisor and the preparation of a detailed plan for the student’s research activities during the semester. This form must be approved by the faculty member in charge of Biology 295 before the student can be enrolled. Students in Biology 295 will meet with the faculty member in charge of the course at stated times during the semester. They should expect to spend about 10 hours a week on research in their chosen lab. At the end of the semester they will prepare a paper describing their research during the semester. Biology 295 can be repeated once with the permission of the research supervisor and the faculty member in charge of the course. Normally such approval is only given if the grade in the first semester of Biology 295 is a B or better and if the student has maintained their grades in their other courses while taking Biology 295. The second semester will be a pass/fail course and will not count as a biology elective. The grade for Biology 295 will be determined by the faculty member in charge of the course. 26 Biology 395/396 To be eligible for Biology 395, students must have an overall GPA of 3.0 or better and have completed either Biology 201 or Biology 202. Biology 395 counts as a course in experiential learning and also counts as a course in Biology for majors. Students are enrolled by the department. An enrollment form is available from Summer Montgomery, Biology Registrar, in 213 Coker Hall, and should be turned in with a copy of your internal transcript from Connect Carolina before the last day of the first week of classes. The form requires signatures of the research supervisor and Biology Department sponsor (if applicable), and a short description of the planned research project. After your form has been approved by Dr Gidi Shemer, Biology Undergraduate Research Director, you will be registered. Students must write a 10-page paper describing their research and submit this at the end of each semester. The paper should describe the rationale for the research, the methods used, any results obtained, and any conclusions derived. It is normally in the format of a journal article from the scientific literature. This paper must be reviewed and approved by the research supervisor and, if applicable, the faculty sponsor from the Department of Biology. Papers should be submitted to Summer Montgomery (213 Coker Hall) by the last day of classes. Grades are assigned by the faculty member supervising the research, or by the Biology Department sponsor. Biology 395 can be taken for a grade for up to 6 hours (two semesters). In subsequent semesters, it is taken pass/fail (Biology 396). Biology 395 credit may be used toward the biology major course requirements. Three hours of Biology 395 can count as a Biology elective without laboratory, and 6 hours together can count as one course with laboratory. However, Biology 395 credit can be used to satisfy just one Biology elective. Honors in Biology Participating in the Biology Honors program (BIOL 691H/692H) will allow you to graduate with Honors or Highest Honors in the Biology major, regardless of whether you are part of the UNC honors program. Candidates for BIOL 691H/692H must fill out an application form and get approval from the department honors advisor, Dr Steve Rogers (SRogers@bio.unc.edu). The deadline to get your application submitted is the end of the first week of classes. Students must have taken 3 hours of BIOL 395 and have a CUM GPA of 3.2 or higher and a GPA of 3.4 or higher in BIOL classes (not including BIOL 101/101L or 395/396). Upon approval, the student will be registered by the department. Note that BIOL 691H/692H is not offered in Summer School. Fall 2012 Undergraduate Research Symposium – Friday, November 9, 2012 (Coker 215) Spring 2013 Undergraduate Research Symposium – TBA Research Commendation in Biology Students whose biology department GPA is above 3.0 at the start of the final semester can graduate with a Research Commendation in Biology by writing a thesis about their research and presenting their research as a poster at the biology department undergraduate honors symposium. Any students planning to do this should contact Dr Steve Rogers (firstname.lastname@example.org) by the end of the first week of classes. Forms for the Research Commendation can be found in 213 Coker Hall. The symposium is normally held in early April (early November for fall semester graduates), and the thesis is due 1-2 weeks before the symposium. For specific dates see the current Biology 691H/692H syllabus online. 27 Biology Teaching Emphasis UNC-BEST Program UNC biology majors interested in teaching have the opportunity to develop the knowledge and skills required to be an effective biology teacher and obtain a North Carolina high school science teaching license through the UNC Baccalaureate Education in Science and Teaching (UNC-BEST) Program. UNC-BEST is a venture between the School of Education and the Department of Biology designed to allow biology majors to earn their degree in biology and their high school science teaching license in four years. Students in the UNC-BEST program take a biology teaching course in the Department of Biology, which counts as a biology elective as well as three education courses in the school of education, which count toward general education requirements. Furthermore, students can complete a student teaching internship in a local high school during their final semester so they meet all licensure requirements upon graduation or, students who do not have time to fit in the student teaching internship can graduate with their biology degree and complete the teaching experience licensure requirement while they work full time as a lateral entry teacher. An application is required for admission to the UNC-BEST program. Students interested in learning more about the UNC-BEST program and/or applying should contact Dr. Jennifer Coble at email@example.com. UNC-BEST Course Requirements BIOL 410 – Principles and Methods of Teaching Biology (4) BIOL 410 develops the knowledge and skills teachers need to implement inquiry based biology instruction: rich, conceptual knowledge of biology and mastery of inquiry instructional methods. During the course, students participate in, design, and implement inquiry based biology lessons while examining the support for inquiry in cognitive science and learning theory. Students’ inquiry experiences will help them reconstruct their biology knowledge in ways that make it more conceptually and contextually focused while also developing their understanding of inquiry-based instruction. BIOL 410 includes a fieldwork component where students work in local high school science classrooms once a week evaluating science instruction, tutoring students and designing and implementing science lessons. BIOL 410 counts as an upper level (>400) biology elective and fulfills the Experiential Education (EE) General Education Requirement. EDUC 532 Understanding Students (3) EDUC 532 provides students with knowledge of the theories and research explain child and adolescent development. Students will investigate physical, cognitive, language and socio- emotional development as well as how various contexts, such as peer groups, schools and families impact a young person’s development. Course readings and discussions will explore how such knowledge of development helps teachers understanding their students and design appropriate learning experiences. For the main course project, students conduct a case study of a high school student in their internship or fieldwork classroom. The case study challenges the UNC student to develop and implement an individualized classroom intervention for a high school student following assessments, interviews with school personnel and ongoing monitoring of student progress. EDUC 352 fulfills the Social and Behavioral Sciences (SS) General Education Requirement. 28 EDUC 533 Diversity and Teaching (3) EDUC 533 develops future teachers’ understandings of the importance of students’ lives outside school for teaching and learning, including culture, family, values, and prepares teachers to enact culturally relevant pedagogy. Students explore the intersection of race and culture in schools and access and equity in education by investigating how history, identity and sociocultural issues are involved in academic achievement. Students investigate access and equity issues in America’s school and develop culturally relevant pedagogy. During the course, students are challenged to explore their and their students’ educational stories and how these were influenced by their race, gender, social class, religion, language skills and sexual preference. EDUC 533 meets the U.S. Diversity (US) General Education Requirement. EDUC 535 Teachers and Schools (3) EDUC 535 provides the knowledge and skills needed to support teachers as leaders in the classroom, in their professional community and in their broader community. Students will learn about key legal issues related to education and develop structures for effectively communicating with students and parents. In addition, students will develop strategies for working with exceptional/at-risk youth. Finally, students will learn about strategies for monitoring and communicating student progress as well as managing student behavior. A final project allows students to write a three year personal professional growth plan. EDUC 355 fulfills the Social and Behavioral Sciences (SS) General Education Requirement. EDUC 570 High School Science Student Teaching Internship (12) During the student teaching internship, teacher candidates assume responsibility for a biology classroom in a local high school. Under the mentoring of a high school science teacher and a UNC teaching coach, teachers design and implement lessons in accordance with the North Carolina Standard Course of Study, assess student understandings and manage student behavior. During the internship, students are challenged to apply the ideas and skills attained in the UNC-BEST courses as well as develop a personal pedagogical style based on evidence and scholarship. The internship is an intensive full-time experience where students are transformed from students into teachers. 29 Undergraduate Organizations of Interest to Biology Majors Beta Beta Beta, Tau Iota Chapter UNC’s chapter of Beta Beta Beta, the National Biology Honor Society, is the Tau Iota Chapter. Begun in 2004, it has already gained the respect of the biology faculty and the Chapel Hill community through its philanthropies. Members have routinely volunteered at the Ronald McDonald House by preparing meals for the residents of the house. Members have also offered their time and services around the Biology Department. They have taken prospective undergraduate biology majors on tours around the biology buildings and labs and have assisted in the Biology 691H/692H Honors Research Symposium. Tri-Beta members have also made an effort to give back to their instructors by giving faculty and teaching assistant awards at the end of the spring semester. Currently, the officers are working with the biology department to devise a mentoring program for transfer students and freshmen who may be in need of peer advising. In addition, the members also hold peer advising hours during registration to aide students in need of opinions from fellow classmates. The organization is also attempting to educate fellow science majors about career options with a bachelor’s degree in a science by holding career panels. Members enjoy certain benefits as well. They receive information about research opportunities that other biology majors may not and they also have the opportunity to hear a variety of speakers, including a UNC medical school and graduate school interviewer. Through participation and dedication from its members and officers, this organization has grown dramatically since its resurrection. In doing so, it has been able to reach out to the university and Chapel Hill community in more ways than originally imagined. Alpha Epsilon Delta Alpha Epsilon Delta, AED, is UNC's pre-health honor society. Our goal is to provide our members with valuable resources and experiences that help guide them on their way to professional careers in health care. Most of our members are pre-med, but we have other members interested in all areas of the health care industry. AED is also a service fraternity. Our members perform a minimum of 12 hours of service each semester. In the process, we give back to our community and get to know each other along the way. The variety of service projects we offer is an exciting facet of our organization. Our members participate in projects such as Habitat for Humanity, creation and distribution of "Crisis Cards", as well as blood drives for various campus affiliated medical services. Our members also get to know each other very well throughout the semesters. We study, go dancing, have dinners and coffees, and do a host of other things together. We also get to know more about health-care and medical fields through our guest speakers whom we invite on a regular basis. AED hosts a medical school panel annually. The panel is made up of the Deans from the four North Carolina medical schools: UNC, ECU, Wake Forest, and Duke. This panel gives us an opportunity to ask questions and get both general and specific information on each of these programs. In the fall, we also sponsor an annual AED Health Fair, where representatives from pre- professional schools from all around the country attend in order to provide information about their programs to undergraduates in the Chapel Hill, Durham and Raleigh area. The mission of our Society is: to encourage and recognize excellence in premedical scholarship; to stimulate an appreciation of the importance of premedical education; to promote 30 communication between medical and premedical students and educators; to provide a forum for students with common interests; and to use its resources to benefit health organizations, charities and the community. Source: http://www.unc.edu/student/orgs/aed/index.html Carolina Pre-Med Association The Carolina Pre-Med Association provides information to undergraduate students at UNC-Chapel Hill who want to pursue careers in the health fields after graduation. The club also gives information on how students can achieve their goals of medical school by inviting speakers to give lectures on certain aspects of the admissions process (ex- interviews, undergraduate extra-curricular and applications). Another dimension of the club is to not only give information on service opportunities on the Carolina campus, but also provide members with activities. For example, in the first year of the club's creation, an underclassman/upperclassman buddy system was created so that younger students could get the benefit of juniors' and seniors' experiences as pre-health undergraduates. CPMA has also close ties to both Kaplan and Princeton Review, which offers members certain benefits such as a discount on MCAT classes and graduate test prep class as well as up-to-date information on the services of the companies. Pre-Veterinary Association The Pre-Veterinary Club is a student organization at the UNC-Chapel Hill that was founded for the purpose of providing a source through which students may learn about the veterinary profession. Our objectives are: a) to promote and stimulate interest in the field of veterinary medicine b) to provide a resource for pre-veterinary students to obtain information regarding his/her specific field of study c) to encourage service projects within the university and surrounding community d) to provide the opportunity for interaction with students having similar aspirations. We arrange regular meetings in which we invite university representatives, doctors (DVM and PhD), etc. to speak in order to increase our understanding of the veterinary profession. Our faculty advisor is Dr. Jean DeSaix. Pre-Dental Association, Delta Delta Sigma The Pre-Dental Honor Society at the UNC Chapel Hill is an undergraduate student organization whose members share a common interest in developing a career in dentistry. During the fall and spring semesters, in conjunction with the School of Dentistry, Delta Delta Sigma hosts a series of introduction to dentistry seminars. We invite guest lecturers from within the dental community to speak about their respective disciplines. Our organization introduces basic career aspects of general dentistry as well as dental specialties to all of our members. Delta Delta Sigma also provides guidance to its members throughout their undergraduate education and the dental school application process. Our members are required to maintain a minimum cumulative grade point average of 3.0 and to volunteer within the dental field and the community at large. The social and academic support network that is Delta Delta Sigma gives our members a clear advantage as potential dental students. http://www.dent.unc.edu/student/orgs/predent/about.htm 31 Biology Related Careers University Career Services While this section of the manual will provide broad information about a variety of biology-related careers, you should also make yourself familiar with University Career Services (http://careers.unc.edu/). They can help you to explore career options and find internships/part-time jobs relating to your career of interest. They offer advice about careers and help with such matters as writing a resume and having an interview. They also have a library of books that you might find useful to browse for more details/descriptions of jobs in biology-related fields. Their resource room is open Mon – Fri 8:00 am-5:00 pm and contains career-related books, handouts, directories, periodicals, and employer literature. Health Professions A helpful website to visit if considering a career in any health profession is UNC’s Office for Pre- Health Advising. Their website is http://prehealthadvising.unc.edu/. Many pre-health professions are covered on this site with various useful links. The Health Professions Advising Office exists to advise students who are interested in entering a health profession. The office will provide information such as: required courses to become eligible to apply, schools/programs available, application procedures, required entrance tests, and characteristics of the current applicant pool. Hours are posted on the website and are all walk-in. The office also maintains a list serve for pre- health students. Another good general website about health careers is: http://explorehealthcareers.org/ Allied Health Professions The term Allied Health (or Health-Related Professions, at some institutions) encompasses up to 200 different careers in the health field. Allied health professionals work either directly or indirectly with patients and they may work as part of a team involved in clinical care. In general, allied health professionals are categorized as either technicians (assistants) or therapists/technologists. The training involved in becoming a technician is usually less than two years and they work under the supervision of technologists or therapists. Examples of allied health technicians are: physical therapy assistants, medical laboratory technicians, and radiological technicians. More education is required to become a therapist or technologist and often includes learning specific procedures. Therapists/technologists will be trained to make decisions about patients’ conditions, diagnosis, and treatment. Source: http://explorehealthcareers.org/ Still not sure what is considered allied health and want to read more? Try this list of “Allied Health Professions of the Month”, which describes many interesting careers you may have never considered! Source: http://www.healthpronet.org/ahp_month/index.html Genetic Counseling as a Profession Genetic counseling can be considered a profession in the allied health field, and it is one of great interest to biology majors. Genetic counselors hold specialized graduate degrees and are required to 32 gain training in counseling. In addition to biologists, people trained in nursing, public health, and social work frequently enter this field. Genetic counselors do not work independently. They work with both the physicians and families to provide the support a patient needs as part of his/her healthcare team. It is the genetic counselor’s role to translate the difficult language of medical genetics into words that families and patients can understand. For example, they may explain what might be expected if a family member has been diagnosed with a birth defect or inherited condition. They take a detailed family history to identify the inheritance patterns and risks of occurrence in other family members. In interpreting the medical jargon to the families, they must also counsel the family in available options for treatment and refer patients to other supportive services for care. While many counselors will work directly with patients and families, some take on administrative and research activities. Source: National Society of Genetic Counselors www.nsgc.org Visit www.nsgc.org for a list of Master’s level programs in genetic counseling. The American Board of Genetic Counseling (ABGC) certifies genetic counselors through an examination administered every 3 years. To be eligible for the examination, applicants must be graduates of a Master's-level program that has been accredited by the ABGC at the time the applicant was accepted to the program. For more information about certification or accreditation, please visit the website for the American Board of Genetic Counseling www.abgc.net Medicine Generalists make up approximately 1/3 of the physicians in the U.S. Generalists are the physicians that a patient sees first (often labeled primary care doctors), and they provide a wide range of care for both children and adults. Some familiar examples of primary care doctors are family physicians, general internists, and general pediatricians. The primary care doctor will often refer a patient to a specialist, who is a physician trained with a particular focus of the human body. For example, a dermatologist studies the skin, and a cardiologist studies the heart. Together generalists and specialists work together to ensure that patients receive both comprehensive and specific care. Source: http://www.aamc.org/students/considering/careers.htm. The basic course requirements to enter medical school include one year of Biology, one year of Physics, and two years of Chemistry. Some schools will also require a year of Calculus and a semester of Genetics/Molecular Biology. Most medical schools require the Medical College Admissions Test (MCAT). Information about the MCAT and admissions can be found at the website for the Association of American Medical Colleges http://www.aamc.org/ Dentistry Similar to the field of medicine, dentists are either generalists or specialists. Both fields of dentistry require four years of dental school; the specialist will need two extra years of specialty training. Some examples of specialty fields are periodontics (focus on gum disease) and orthodontics/dentofacial orthopedics (focus on correcting tooth and jaw irregularities). While the majority of dentists are in private practice, there are excellent opportunities in research and teaching, or careers with government agencies or industry. Dental schools award the degree of Doctor of Dental Surgery (DDS) or Doctor of Dental Medicine (DMD). The basic course requirements to enter dental school include one year of Biology, one year of Physics, and two years of Chemistry. The Dental Aptitude Test (DAT) is required by most schools. The American Dental Association has a great website for anyone considering a career in 33 dentistry, including information about the DAT: http://www.ada.org/public/education/careers/dentistry_bro.asp Optometry The American Optometric Association defines the Doctor of Optometry as “the primary health care professional for the eye”. Doctors of Optometry provide a wide range of services in eye health, including diagnosis and treatment of disease/injuries of the eye, prescription of medications, prescription of glasses and contact lenses, and performance of some surgical procedures. Doctors of Optometry must complete a four-year program at one of the 17 accredited schools of optometry. The source of this information and more details about applications can be found at the website for the Association of Schools and Colleges of Optometry: http://www.opted.org/. This site includes information about the Optometry Admission Test (OAT) that is required by most optometry schools. Thinking about a career in optometry? Visit the website for the American Academy of Optometry http://aaopt.org/ Nursing There is an ongoing nursing shortage in the U.S. and, therefore, there are often attractive incentives for nurses to “sign-on” in certain jobs. The Bachelors of Science in Nursing (BSN) is a four-year program (sometimes five-year work-study), offered at many colleges and universities. Nurses holding a BSN are trained with a general focus to be able to work in a wide variety of settings such as nursing homes, hospitals, clinics, schools, insurance companies, and wellness centers. An individual that wants to focus on advanced specialty areas (such as nurse practioner, nurse-midwife, nurse anesthetist and RN first assistant in the operating room) would need a Masters of Science in Nursing. Learn more about the degrees at UNC’s School of Nursing http://nursing.unc.edu/index.html Additional useful information can be found at the website for the National Student Nurses Association at http://www.nsna.org/ Physician Assistant Physician assistants (PA) are licensed to practice medicine in a variety of fields with physician supervision. Physician assistants are found in the general areas of medicine (such as family medicine, internal medicine, pediatrics), as well as in surgical and specialized areas. Physician assistants have comprehensive training that allows them to perform many of the same responsibilities as physicians holding a MD degree. They can diagnose and treat disease, prescribe medication (in 48 of the states), order tests etc. However, physician assistants are usually trained to work with the more “routine” patients and will often refer a patient to a physician with a MD when the case is more complicated. To become a physician assistant, an individual must attend a program that is accredited and usually takes 26 months to complete. (Many schools look for students with a bachelor’s degree and approximately four years of experience in healthcare.) A national certification examination (given by the National Commission on Certification of PAs and the National Board of Medical Examiners) is then required for state licensure. Throughout their career, physician assistants are required to attend conferences and seminars to obtain continuing education credit and must also be re-certified every six years. The source of this information and more details can be found at: http://www.aapa.org/geninfo1.html 34 Podiatric Medicine Doctors of Podiatric Medicine (DPMs) prevent, diagnose, and treat conditions associated with the foot and ankle. A podiatrist also designs corrective orthotics, casts, and strappings to correct deformities or injuries of the foot and ankle. Additionally, a podiatrist may refer patients to other physicians when symptoms observed in the feet indicate disorders, such as diabetes or arthritis. As with other health professionals, podiatrists practice in a variety of settings, including private or group medical practice, hospitals, extended care facilities, and the armed forces. The basic requirements to enter a college of podiatric medicine are: least 90- hours of undergraduate study including 2-3 semesters of Biology, 2 semesters of Physics, 2 semesters of General Chemistry, 2 semesters of Organic Chemistry, and 2-3 semesters of English. Traditionally the MCAT has been the only standardized test required for admissions to the colleges of podiatric medicine. However, some colleges will accept the GRE or DAT in lieu of the MCAT. Information about the MCAT and admissions can be found at the website for the Association of American Medical Colleges http://www.aamc.org/ Training to obtain the DPM is classroom-based for the first two years and is followed by two years of clinical training. After the DPM, residencies last at least two years; podiatric surgeons will require longer residency training. More specific information related to shadowing opportunities, admissions, licensing, and a career in podiatry can be found at the website for the American Association of Colleges of Podiatric medicine (http://www.aacpm.org) Veterinary Medicine In the United States, the majority of Doctors of Veterinary Medicine (DVM) are in private clinical practice. The majority of these veterinarians only treat companion animals, while others will also care for horses and livestock. Veterinarians in private clinical practice work to prevent health problems using various tests, treatments, procedures, and medication. Veterinarians also vaccinate animals and provide routine wellness visits. In addition to private practice there are many opportunities for veterinarians in education, research, epidemiology, regulatory medicine (such as control of animal diseases that can affect people), and all levels of government (such as in food inspection, customs, or enforcing humane laws). Each college of veterinary medicine establishes its own pre-veterinary requirements. Typical requirements include basic language and communication skills, social sciences, humanities, mathematics, chemistry, and the biological and physical sciences. Once in the program, there is classroom-based learning followed by clinical training. Before graduate veterinarians can engage in private clinical practice in any state, they must acquire a license issued by that state. A license is granted only to veterinarians who pass state-required examinations. For specific requirements see the website for the Association of American Veterinary Medical Colleges http://aavmc.org/. The source of this information and more specific details about veterinary medicine can be found at: http://www.avma.org Pharmacy The demand for trained pharmacy professionals has increased recently due to the rapid growth of the health care and pharmaceutical industries. Pharmacists dispense medications, but they are also experts about these medications (including, the composition of the drugs, the purity, strength, 35 interactions with other drugs, and side effects). Physicians, nurses, consumers, and patients rely on pharmacists knowing these facts about medications. The PharmD degree is neither an undergraduate degree (ex. BS, BA) nor a graduate degree (ex. MS, MBA, PhD), but rather a professional degree for pharmacists. After completing the required prerequisites (a minimum of two years at a college or university), the course of study includes four years of professional coursework at a pharmacy school. The source of this information and many more details can be found at the websites for the American Association of Colleges of Pharmacy http://www.aacp.org and UNC’s pharmacy school. http://www.pharmacy.unc.edu Public Health According to the Association of Schools of Public Health (http://www.asph.org), the core areas of public health are: health administration, biostatistics, epidemiology, behavioral science/health education, and environmental health sciences. While schools of public health look for different qualities/strengths in different core areas (ex- strong math skills for epidemiology and biostatistics; strong background in chemistry for environmental health) all schools look for students who write and communicate clearly. Applicants are judged on their undergraduate grade point average, personal statement, experience, recommendations, and GRE scores. Individual programs should be consulted to find specific application requirements. Details about the GRE and practice tests can be found at: www.ets.org/gre/ The source of this information is: http://www.whatispublichealth.org. UNC has one of the top ranked schools of public health in the country; check out their website at: http://www.sph.unc.edu Health Administration Health administrators are the leaders that can be found in all healthcare settings such as hospitals, physician group practices, nursing homes, home health agencies, insurance companies and HMOs, pharmaceutical companies, etc. Health administrators may work for government organizations, private foundations, national associations, and non-profit foundations. Graduate programs leading to a master’s degree in health administration (MHA) generally consist of the equivalent of two years of full-time academic study. As part of the program, most require practical experience under the guidance of a formal mentor, varying from three months to one year. Source: Association of University Programs in Health Administration (AUPHA) http://www.aupha.org Biostatistics Biostatisticians apply mathematical principles to the field of public health, as well as many other related fields in biology. For example, their work may help to predict public health problems, analyze risk factors for new drugs, or describe biological changes caused by global events. Biostatisticians can be found in various work place settings, such as government agencies, academic institutions, and pharmaceutical companies. Students wanting to enter a biostatistics program should check for specific requirements but will certainly need a background in both biology and math/statistics. Source: http://www.asph.org 36 Epidemiology The Association of Schools of Public Health describes epidemiology as “the study of patterns of disease and injury in human populations and the application of this study to the control of health problems. While basic research may add to the biologic understanding of why an exposure causes or prevents disease, only epidemiology allows the quantification of the magnitude of the exposure- disease relationship in humans and offers the possibility of altering the risk through intervention.” Epidemiologists may ask questions such as, in what parts of the world are populations at higher risk for malaria? What is the frequency of skin cancer in the U.S.? The field is interdisciplinary in that it utilizes mathematical and biological methods and often leads to public health measures to control the spread of a particular disease. The source of this information is: http://www.asph.org. The website for the American College of Epidemiology (http://www.acepidemiology2.org) has additional links to professional societies and more information about careers. Behavioral Sciences/Health Education Anthropology, political science, psychology, sociology, and health education are examples of social and behavioral sciences that are important in many aspects of public health and most programs in public health offer at least one course in this area. According to ASPH, some examples of these concentrations include “mental health, aging, health promotion and disease prevention, public health practice, health education and behavior change, disability and health, and social research”. The source of this information and more details can be found at: http://www.asph.org Environmental Health Sciences The study of the effects of environments (either the natural or artificial) on public health is the focus of environmental health. This vast field often brings together many different types of scientists including toxicologists, chemists, epidemiologists, biostatisticians, engineers, etc. Environmental Health specialists can work in a variety of settings such as government agencies (e.g. Food and Drug Administration or Environmental Protection Agency), academia, or for private corporations. According to ASPH, some examples of concentrations in environmental health are “air quality, food protection, radiation protection, solid waste management, hazardous waste management, water quality, noise control, environmental control of recreational areas, housing quality, and vector control.” Source: http://www.asph.org Scientific Writing/Illustration/Photography Do you love to write as much as you love biology? Newspapers, magazines, books, television, and radio programs all have employees who focus on writing about new scientific discoveries. Some science writers specialize in a particular topic, while others have a broader scope. An individual interested in science writing must have a strong background in journalism, so as to make technical information understandable to the audience. Often, these same news sources need science illustrators and photographers to complement a story. Scientific writers are found in many places beyond the obvious news sources, for example, pharmaceutical companies, federal organizations, and textbook publishers are also employers of science writers. The National Association of Science Writers: http://www.nasw.org/ The American Medical Writers Association: http://www.amwa.org 37 Forensic Science Criminal forensics has recently been made popular by TV shows such as CBS’s CSI. These scientists specialize in examining physical evidence to link a crime scene, suspect, and/or victim. They may work in various levels of government, at universities, in hospitals, or for private consulting firms. According to the AAFS, “the minimum requirement is a bachelor's degree in chemistry, biology, physics, molecular biology, or a related science. In the future, a master’s degree may be required. Many colleges and universities offer degrees and courses in forensic science. In deciding whether to get a degree in chemistry or biology, or one in forensic science, study the courses offered. At least 24 semester hours of either chemistry or biology is required and math is a must. The title of the degree is not as important as the courses taken.” Criminal forensic scientists may become certified by the American Board of Criminalistics (http://www.criminalistics.com/) and entire forensic laboratories may be accredited by organizations such as the American Society of Crime Laboratory Directors/Laboratory Accreditation Board (http://www.ascld.org ) While criminal forensics is by far the most well-known, there are many other areas of forensic science: Engineering Sciences, General, Jurisprudence, Odontology, Pathology/Biology, Physical Anthropology, Psychiatry & Behavioral Science, Questioned Documents, and Toxicology. Source: http://www.aafs.org Peace Corps Since its establishment in 1960, “more than 182,000 Peace Corps Volunteers have been invited by 138 host countries to work on issues ranging from AIDS education, information technology, and environmental preservation.” Knowledge of a foreign language is not a requirement for Peace Corps service, as the Peace Corps provides language training. However, knowledge of a specific language will help qualify an individual for programs in certain regions. Just the same, knowledge of biology may also qualify an individual for a specific program. Volunteers of the Peace Corps are provided with an allowance, medical and dental care, and transportation to and from the country of service. All Peace Corps Volunteers commit to 27 months of training and service overseas. During this time, a volunteer earns vacation time. The Peace Corps does not offer short-term assignments. After 27 months of service, a Volunteer receives approximately $6,000 toward his/her transition to life back home. Additionally, Volunteers may defer repayment on student loans under several federal programs and Perkins loans are eligible for a 15 percent cancellation of their outstanding balance for each year of Peace Corps service. Peace Corp recruiters frequent the area often and can be contacted for questions via the Peace Corp website. Source: http://www.peacecorps.gov/ Careers in the Department of Health and Human Services Department of Health and Human Services (http://www.hhs.gov/) describes itself as “the United States government's principal agency for protecting the health of all Americans and providing essential human services.” Operating under this agency are many different components that employ scientists of different levels and disciplines, including biologists with bachelor degrees or graduates of various advanced programs. Below are three major components of the Department of Health and Human Services. 38 The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) The CDC has its headquarters in Atlanta, Georgia and employs over 8,000 people. It was founded in 1946 to help control malaria, and continues today “working with states and other partners, to provide a system of health surveillance to monitor and prevent disease outbreaks (including bioterrorism), implement disease prevention strategies, and maintain national health statistics, provide immunization services, workplace safety, and environmental disease prevention. The CDC also guards against international disease transmission, with personnel stationed in more than 25 foreign countries.” Source: http://www.cdc.gov/ The National Institutes of Health (NIH) This federal medical research agency, with its headquarters in Bethesda, Maryland, is comprised of 27 separate Institutes and Centers. “Simply described, the goal of NIH research is to acquire new knowledge to help prevent, detect, diagnose, and treat disease and disability, from the rarest genetic disorder to the common cold. The NIH mission is to uncover new knowledge that will lead to better health for everyone. NIH works toward that mission by: conducting research in its own laboratories; supporting the research of non-Federal scientists in universities, medical schools, hospitals, and research institutions throughout the country and abroad; helping in the training of research investigators; and fostering communication of medical and health sciences information.” Source: http://www.nih.gov The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) With its headquarters in Rockville, Maryland, the mission of the FDA is “to protect public health by assuring the safety, efficacy, and security of human and veterinary drugs, biological products, medical devices, our nation’s food supply, cosmetics, and products that emit radiation. The FDA is also responsible for advancing the public health by helping to speed innovations that make medicines and foods more effective, safer, and more affordable; and helping the public get the accurate, science-based information they need to use medicines and foods to improve their health.” Source: http://www.fda.gov Patent Attorney and Environmental Law The main areas of law which involve biological sciences are patent law and environmental law. To be licensed as a patent attorney you must have an undergraduate degree in science. If you are interested in biology-related patent law, you may want to take courses in molecular biology, microbiology and/or physiology. If you are interested in environmental law, you might want to take courses in ecology, the environment, and conservation biology. Law school does not have particular prerequisite courses. Some experience in writing and speaking may be helpful. Law school admission is based primarily on GPA and the score on the LSAT. Letters of recommendation, other activities, and other factors are of secondary importance. Most law schools do not require an interview but the director of admissions will generally be glad to talk with you if you request an appointment. Science Policy The job of science policy specialists is to advise others about and advocate for science policies. They often communicate about science to nonscientists and thus must be able to review technical literature and translate this type of information into articles or speeches that can be understood by 39 the general public. Scientific training, strong communication skills, conflict-resolution skills, and an interest in political issues are important in this line of work. Science policymakers are employed by a variety of organizations, including federal agencies, professional societies, politicians’ offices, advocacy groups, private think tanks, and international nongovernmental organizations. The path to this profession usually involves formal training in both science and public policy, and an undergraduate or graduate degree in Biology and a master’s degree in science policy. http://www.spectrum.ieee.org/careers/careerstemplate.jsp?ArticleId=c030503 Laboratory Research Biologists engage in basic or applied research, which may be performed at research institutes, universities or scientific companies. The goal of basic research is to answer questions about how organisms function or evolve. This type of research provides the conceptual frameworks that help scientists understand the living world, and it provides the basis for applied research. Applied research is directed toward solving problems that are relevant to society, medicine or industry. Technological advances are creating new opportunities in a number of applied areas including biotechnology, bioinformatics, and forensic science. An entry-level position as a lab technician usually requires a B.S. degree in Biology. A higher level position, such as that of a scientist who directs a research team, often requires a Ph.D. In addition to formal education in biology, a researcher must acquire technical skills, be able to attend to details, be patient, and have good teamwork skills in order to succeed in this type of career. Undergraduate research experience provides an excellent way to develop these skills and attributes. Biology Education Biology Teacher Science teaching at the pre-college level is a good career option for individuals who enjoy sharing their enthusiasm and knowledge of science, who like working with young people and who want to make a difference in others’ lives. In order to teach science in a public school, you must have a teaching license in middle grades science or high school science. There are several ways to obtain a teaching license. You can earn your high school science teaching license while you work toward your biology degree through the UNC Baccalaureate Education in Science and Teaching (UNC- BEST) program. A full description of the UNC-BEST program is included in the manual. You can attend a Master of Arts in Teaching (MAT) program after you obtain your bachelor degree. A third option is to get a full time job as a lateral entry teacher after you graduate and earn your license while you teach through lateral entry teacher education programs such as NC Teach or Teach for America. The various licensure routes are described in more detail at the following link on the UNC School of Education’s website http://soe.unc.edu/highlights/ as well as at the College Foundation of North Carolina Teacher Education homepage http://www.cfnc.org/career/TeacherEd/teacher.jsp In order to teach in a public school, you must be certified by the department of education in the state where you plan to teach. You will need to be licensed to teach certain grades and/or subjects. Each state has its own requirements, and they vary from state to state. The list of requirements can be obtained from the state department of education. http://www.ed.gov/about/contacts/state/index.html?src+h 40 College or University Professor This career involves a combination of teaching and research. The balance between these two activities varies depending on the type of educational institution and type of faculty position. At large research universities, such as UNC-CH, tenure-track professors are expected to teach and to be actively engaged in research. They are expected to obtain grant funding and to direct a research team which is usually composed of students, postdoctoral trainees, and/or technicians. On the other hand, the job of a lecturer at a large university is to teach one or more classes, and lecturers are not expected to participate in research. At smaller liberal arts colleges, tenure-track professors devote more of their time to teaching than professors at large universities, although they are often expected to perform research, which is often more limited in scope. A college or university professor must develop the skills and have the interests described above for teacher and researchers. The path to this career involves obtaining B.S. and Ph.D. degrees in Biology or a related field. Research experience is usually a prerequisite for admission to a Ph.D. program. Formal teaching experience is obtained during graduate school. At least two or three years of post-doctoral research training are also typically required for this type of position. Business/Industry Scientific knowledge and problem-solving/ analytical skills can be very valuable in the world of business. For example, pharmaceutical sales and marketing involve using scientific, communication, and people skills to sell and market products and services. Venture capital firms— companies representing people looking to invest in emerging technologies or products—need scientists to analyze the science behind the business plans that they consider. Scientists often work closely with patent lawyers and businesses to handle intellectual property questions. A scientific background is an asset in drug-development or biotech companies. A degree in biology as well as formal business training, such as an M.B.A., may be required for some biology-related careers in business. Environmental Conservation Conservation organizations, such as the World Wildlife Fund, the Nature Conservancy, the Sierra Club, Conservation International, and others staff field biologists with bachelors, masters, and doctoral degrees. Expertise might include the identification of plants and animals and monitoring, protecting, or re-establishing sensitive species, habitats, and ecosystems in areas potentially impacted by the land- and water-use activities of human populations. Useful links pertaining to careers in conservation are: Environmental Careers Organization: www.eco.org Environmental Career Opportunities: www.ecojobs.com Environmental Career Center: www.environmentalcareer.com Ecological Society of America: www.esa.org Environmental Jobs and Careers: www.ejobs.org Environmental Careers in the Government Several U.S. government agencies, such as the U.S. Department of Interior (USGS, USFWS, NPS, BLM), the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, and the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USFS, NRCS), staff biologists with expertise and qualifications similar to those of biologists working for environmental conservation organizations (see above). Further, U.S. government biologists are involved in managing the nation's public lands and wildlife and in educating the public about the nation's natural resources. The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service operates a wildlife forensics laboratory with biologists dedicated to solving crimes involving wildlife, such as poaching. For 41 international students and U.S. citizens looking for international careers, similar agencies exist for many countries worldwide. Useful links pertaining to environmental careers in government are: U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service: www.fws.gov U.S. Environmental Protection Agency: www.epa.gov U.S. Forest Service: www.fs.gov U.S. National Park Service: www.nps.gov U.S. Natural Resources Conservation Service: www.nrcs.usda.gov Careers in Environmental Consulting and Planning Local, state, and federal agencies staff biologists in their public planning offices and hire private consulting firms that staff their own biologists for the assessment of resources in areas potentially affected by a variety of land-use decisions, such as development. These biologists may have a bachelors, masters, or doctoral degree and are experts at collecting inventories of an area's biota for its protection or at developing mitigation plans for areas potentially impacted by a change in land or water use. Zoos, Aquaria, Museums, Arboreta, and Botanical Gardens Public education and entertainment establishments, such as zoos, aquaria, museums, arboreta, and botanical gardens staff biologists that are experts in a variety of biological issues. For example, zoos have exotic-animal veterinarians to maintain the health of animals and also naturalists and ecologists that understand the natural history of the zoo's organisms. Behaviorists may assist the veterinarians in coaxing some animals to breed in the unnatural or semi-natural environments characteristic of many zoos. Some zoos are involved in the conservation and protection of endangered animals through breeding and reintroduction programs and therefore staff experts in animal conservation. Museums hire biologists trained in teaching the public about biological phenomena and hire curators of their biological collections. Links: Smithsonian Institution: www.si.edu American Museum of Natural History: www.amnh.org Zoos of the World: www.zoos.org National Aquarium: www.nationalaquarium.com 42