AP ractical View of the Mass and Energy Balances of Going Green by w8rBkD

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									Key
Solutio
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                 Waste to Energy – Going Forward


              Carbon Dioxide, Hydrogen, Methane and Water Recovery
               From Solid Waste, Wastewater, and Wastewater Solids

                                October 6, 2009

                             Gene E. Keyser, Ph.D.
                              Key Solutions, Inc.




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  • Background
          – Carbon, Oxygen, and Nitrogen Cycles
          – Familiar sites, unfamiliar sights
          – Waste as a battery
  • Examples
          – Chlorination for Disinfection
          – Waste to Energy - without a new air permit, without a
            new power plant
  • Going Green for profit
          – Bits, pieces, and thoughts for discussion
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                        Disinfection
          – Chlorination
          – Ultraviolet
          – Ozone
          – Peroxide & Ferric ion (Fenton’s Reagent)
          – Gamma Radiation




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                           Chlorination
          – In situ generation
              • Must have chloride ion in amount equal to or
                slightly greater than proposed dose concentration
              • Baseline conductivity determines efficiency

              • However, …




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                           Chlorination
          – In situ generation
              • Uses the chloride ion already present to generate
                hypochlorite in situ
              • NO chemical pumps. NO sodium chloride addition
              • Direct cause and effect
              • Proven technology, hardware, and process




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              NaCl + H2O           NaOCl + H2

                2 NaCl + 2 H2O     2 NaOH + Cl2 + H2

                     Cl2 + H2O     HOCl + HCl

                  NaOH + HCl       NaCl + H2O


                 NaOH + HOCl       NaOCl + H2O



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  • Carbon footprint of in situ chlorination
          – Within the differences of efficiency, 90+%
            versus 98+%, only slightly more electricity
            used than either hypochlorite or liquid chlorine.
          – Dependent upon hardware and water quality
            specifics, 1.5 – 2 kwh per million gallons at 10
            mg/L dose (not final residual).




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  • Carbon footprint of in situ chlorination
          – No transportation – no fuel versus
            transportation for either of the others. @ 100
            mile round trip, 20 mpg, 5 gallons, 35 lbs. of
            diesel for 5000 gal of 12.5% hypochlorite,
            1000 gal per day for 10 mg/L @ 15 mgd gives
            22 lbs per day (6 * 44 / 12) reduced carbon
            dioxide for product transportation.




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  • Carbon footprint of in situ chlorination
          – No brine or salt transport or processing, or
            nominally eliminating 60 kwh per ton which
            yields about 1210 lbs. of active chlorine,
            translating to about 40 lbs. per day of carbon
            dioxide.
          – Water and water purification for hypochlorite
            adds another 40 kwh per thousand gallons or
            about 26 lbs. per day of carbon dioxide


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  • Carbon footprint of in situ chlorination
          – Net between hypochlorite addition versus in
            situ generation, about 88 lbs. per day or 16
            tons annually for disinfection of 15 mgd at 10
            mg/L dose concentration.


  • Reduced environmental impact
          – Nominally 2000 lbs. per day of sodium
            chloride not added to the aquifer and/or
            surface waters.
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  • Breakpoint Chlorination for Ammonia Removal

              2 NH3 + 3 NaOCl  N2 + 3 NaCl + 3 H2O

          – Nominally 7.5 lbs. of active chlorine per lb. of
            ammonia nitrogen
          – Very fast reaction, simple, controllable
          – However, a lot of added chemistry, especially
            in citrus country
          – It’s all about timing and control!
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  Breakpoint Chlorination for Ammonia Removal

          – In situ generation
              • Use the chloride ion already present to generate
                hypochlorite in situ
              • NO chemical pumps. NO sodium chloride addition
              • Direct cause and effect


          – It’s all about timing and control!

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                   2 NH3           N2 + 3 H2

               3 NaCl + 3 H2O      3 NaOCl + 3 H2

              2 NH3 + 2 NaOCl       2 NaOH + 2 NH2Cl

               NH2Cl + NaOCl        NaOH + NHCl2

               NH2Cl + NHCl2        3 HCl + N2

              3 NaOH + 3 HCl        3 NaCl + 3 H2O


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                              *
                                         Catalyst for
          Energy




                                         operational
                                         energy savings
                              *
                   2 NH3
                                        N2 + 3 H 2



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                            Glucose
                            (CH2O)6

                              O2

              Phototrophs             Heterotrophs

                             H2O


                             CO2               Carbon
                                                Cycle
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ns                          Amino
                            Acids
                Higher                   Higher
                Plants                   Animals

                            Nitrogen
                Nitrate      fixing     Ammonia
                            bacteria


                              N2
              Nitrobacter              Nitrosomonas

                            Nitrite             Nitrogen
                                                 Cycle
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                                          Cellulose
                                          (CH2O)n
                     O2
                                           Sugars
                                          (CH2O)n

                                           Amino
                                           Acids
                                                        Higher
                     Higher Plants
                                                        Animals

                                           Nitrogen
                              Nitrate       fixing     Ammonia
              H 2O                         bacteria



              CO2                            N2
                            Nitrobacter               Nitrosomonas

                                           Nitrite


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                 CO2 + H2O
                                  Photosynthesis

                             (CH2O)n + O2




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              CO2 + H2O
                               Photosynthesis

                          (CH2O)n + O2

                                                t    P
                      + O2

                                   C xH y
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                     CO2 + H2O
                                      Photosynthesis
    Combustion
    Biodegradation               (CH2O)n + O2

                                                       t    P
    Combustion
                             + O2

          Energy                          C xH y
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                    CO2 + H2O
                                     Photosynthesis

              +O2
                                (CH2O)n


                    CH4 + CO2 + H2 + H2O
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          100%
                            Biodegradation
          80%

          60%
                            Combustion
          40%

          20%

           0%
                   Direct           Indirect

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          Low Temperature Biodegradation

              (CH2O)n               CO2 + H2O (l)


      High Temperature Combustion
            (CH2O)n        CO2 + H2O (g)



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   (CH2O)n + O2               CO2 + H2O (l)
                   Aerobic
                  Anaerobic

    (CH2O)n       CH4 + H2 + CO2 + H2O (l)


 C5H7NO2          CH4 + CO2 + NH3 + H2O (l)



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    • 2 parts Portland Cement     • 2 parts Portland Cement
    • 2 parts dry sand            • 1 part hydrated lime
    • 3 parts gravel              • 2 parts dry sand
    • 1 part water                • 1 part water
    = high strength concrete      = tile floor grout mix

    = 12-15% volatile solids      = 25-28% volatile solids

     And not a lick of degradable carbon in either one!


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  RCES Solid Waste Services
  • Collect 133,000 tons annually for disposal
    & recycling (364 tons per day)
  • 11,000 tons recycled (30 tons per day)
  • 2850 tons wood and yard waste chipped
    for blending in compost (8 tons per day)

              – RCES Overview, May, 2008, posted on RCID website



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  • Waste to energy
          – Net 340 tons per day  ± 3.4 MM cu.ft.
            natural gas (~40-50% of RCES Power Plant
            capacity)
  • Renewable, sustainable energy source
          – Use existing power plant without permit
            change
          – Profit from your visitors consumption
  • Lower operating cost
          – Hauling, Tipping fees
   28.05.09                                            29
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   Reduced Carbon Footprint
   • At complete bioconversion to methane,
     hydrogen, ammonia, carbon dioxide, and water
      – Landfill transportation
              • ± 70 round trips daily
          – Reduced natural gas consumption
              • ± 3.4 MM cu.ft.
              • ± 200 tons per day CO2
          – CO2 captured for reuse (?) from bioreactor
              • ± 245 tons per day CO2 additional to above
   28.05.09                                                  30
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   Reduced Carbon Footprint
   • 1200 – 1800 tpd from electric power
   • 490 – 600 tpd from solid waste
   • 14 – 25 tpd from wastewater treatment
   • 100 – 200 tpd from transportation

   • 1800 – 2625 tpd
          – 650,000 – 950,000 tons annual CO2 emissions

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   Reduced Carbon Footprint
   • - 500 tpd from waste to power (15 – 30%)
   • - 5 – 10% for upgraded transmission,
     motors, and controls
   • 20 – 40% reduction, profitably




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                Acknowledgements

                     D. Breaux
                       S. Day
                     M. Hester
                     W. Maffett
                   F. Schmucker


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              The difference between simply elegant
                    and elegantly simple is profit.

                       Gene E. Keyser, Ph.D.
                       Key Solutions, Inc.




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