Biology II Lab Practical Review by w8rBkD

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									     Biology II
Lab Practical Review
       Part I




                  Last updated 11-29-07
          Review Content
   This review is intended to reflect the
general material as presented in the lab
documents and does not take into account
specific emphases that individual professors
may or may not stress. Always check with
your professor for any clarifications.
                   Geologic Time-line
   What are the current hierarchical set of divisions for describing
    geologic time, going from larger to smaller units.
       a.   Period, Era, Epoch, Eon
       b.   Era, Epoch, Eon, Period
       c.   Eon, Era, Period, Epoch
       d.   Epoch, Period, Era, Eon
   Answer: c
   In the Paleozoic Era is the Carboniferous Period before or after
    the Permian Period?
   Answer: Before: Cambrian, Ordovician, Silurian, Devonian,
    Carboniferous, Permian
Martin, R. Aidan. 2003. Copyright and Usage Policy.
World Wide Web Publication, www.elasmo-research.org/copyright.htm
                    Half Life
   Assume a half life is 5,730 years.
   A fossil has 1/16 the Carbon 14 compared to
    when it was living.
   How many half lifes have occurred?
   Answer: (½)n where n = the number of half
    lifes. ½ x ½ x ½ x ½ = 1/16 = four half lifes.
   What is the age of the fossil?
   Answer: 5,730 yrs./half life x 4 half lifes =
    22,920 yrs.
Baculites compressus        Crinoid                Palaeocoma egertoni
(Ammonite)                                         Brittlestar
                       Fossil Identification
White Shark Tooth
Carcharodon sp.             Bear Claw (Ursa sp.)             Amber
Archaeopteryx          Eurypterid        Fossil Lobster


                 Fossil Identification
                Homo neandertalensis
   Smilodon     (skull on left)             Fossil Fern
Horseshoe Crab       Ammonite                   Priscacara oxyprion
                                                Bony Fish
                     Fossil Identification
                                                        Bryozoan
         Copralite                  Copralite           Archimedes sp.
             Methods for fossil dating
   Which are methods for determing fossil dating?
       a.   Paleomagnetic dating
       b.   Rubidium-strontium dating
       c.   Flourine dating
       d.   Carbon 14 dating
       e.   Relative dating
       f.   d. and e.
       g.   All the above
   Answer: g.
         Fossilization Processes
   Otzi was a complete human preserved in a
    glacier for over 5300 yrs. What type of
    fossilization was this?
   Answer: Freezing
   Name five other types of fossilization.
   Answer: Amber, Casts or Molds, Imprints,
    Petrification, Tar Pits
         Mechanisms of Evolution
   Name the five conditions necessary for Hardy-Weinberg to
    occur.
   Answer: Random mating, no natural selection, large
    population sample, no mutations, no immigration or
    emigration
   125 students out of 500 have an unattached ear which is
    recessive. Determine p, q, p2, q2 and 2pq.
   Answer: 125/500 = .25 = q2
   (.25)1/2 = .5 = q
   .5 + p = 1 1- .5 = .5 = p
   .52 = .25 = p2
   2 x .5 x .5 = .5 = 2pq
             Genotype vs. Phenotype
   Attached ears is a dominant trait. The
    genotype for this is:
       a.   EE
       b.   Ee
       c.   ee
       d.   a or b
       e.   All of the above
   Answer: d.
                 Taxonomy
   The Five Kingdom system, Monera, Protista,
    Plantae, Fungi and Animalia, was changed to
    the current Three Domain System. Name the
    domains.
   Answer: Bacteria, Archaea, Eukarya
   Methanogens, extreme halophiles and extreme
    thermophiles belong to which domain?
   Answer: Archaea
         Which is gram negative?




   Answer: One on the right
   Which has more peptidoglycan in the cell wall?
   Answer: One on the left
   Peptidoglycan is made up of what?
   Answer: Polymers of sugars and amino acids
    Prokaryotic Cell Nutritional Modes




   What are the energy and carbon sources for a
    photoheterotroph?
   Answer: Light (energy) and organic compounds
    (carbon)
    Merismopedia           Gleocapsa         cocci - yogurt

                   Bacteria Identification
bacilli, cocci,
spirochete              Anabaena             Oscillatoria
                 Microscopes
   If the ocular lens is 10X and the objective lens
    is 40X, then what is the total magnification?
   Answer: (10X) x (40X) = 400X
   The diameter of the FOV at 400X is what?
   Answer: .45 mm
   What is the size of a single cell in mm if it
    takes 5 cells to fit across the diameter of the
    FOV?
   Answer: .45mm / 5 cells = .09mm/cell
              Protista Tentative Clades
   DPEASCARC
   Diplomonadida - Giardia lamblia
   Parabasala - Trichomonas vaginalis (STD)
   Euglenazoa - Kinetoplastids (Trypanosoma/sleeping sickness); Euglinids (Euglena)
   Alveolata - Dinoflagellata (Ceratium/red tide); Apicomplexa (Plasmodium/malaria);
    Ciliates (Paramecium)
   Stramenopila - Oomycetes (water molds, rusts, mildews); Bacillariophtes (diatoms);
                 Chrysophytes (golden algae); Phaeophytes (brown algae)
   Radiolarians – test (skeleton) made of silica with axopodia extending through
   Cercozoa - diverse amoebas: Chlorarachniophytes, Foraminifera, slender plasma
    strands
   Amoebazoa - lobed pseudopodia: Gymnamoeba, Entamoebas, cellular slime molds,
              plasmodial slime molds
   Rhodophyta - red algae (Porphyra)
   Chlorophyta - green algae (Ulva, Chlamydomonas, Volvox)
                                  Protista ID



 Giardia - Diplomonadida

                                                     Vorticella - Alveolata


                           Diatom – Stramenopila




Trypanosoma - Euglenazoa




                              Volvox - Chlorophyta


Diatom - Stramenopila                                Stentor - Alveolata
                               Protista ID



                                                  Trichomonas vaginalis
                                                  Parabasala

 Cercozoa - Radiolarians




                            Amoeba - Amoebazoa




Paramecium - Alveolata     Euglena - Euglenazoa    Plasmodium - Alveolata
                             Protista ID




Ceratium - Alveolata




                            Red Tide - Alveolata


  Foraminifera - Cercozoa
                                                  Protista ID - Algae




Fucus – Brown      Kelp – Brown
(Phaeophytes)      (Phaeophytes)
Stramenopila       Stramenopila




                                   Holdfast
                                   Stipe                 Ulva sp. - Chlorophyta
                                   Float
  Porphyra - Rhodophyta            Lamina/Blade
                   Plants I
   Seedless Non-Vascular Phylums - Name Them
   Answer: Bryophyta
             Hepatophyta
             Anthocerophyta
   Seedless Vascular Phylums – Name Them
   Answer: Lycophyta
             Pterophyta, which includes ferns,
             Psilotum, horsetails (Equisetum)
                            Bryophyte Life Cycle
 What are the two gametangia below?
 Answer: Archegonium with egg (on left) and Antheridium with sperm   (on right)
 Are they gametophyte or sporophyte?
 Answer: gametophyte
                                              Pterophyta
         Pterophyta Name the Phylum of each example.            Pterophyta
                                                                Psilotum




                                                  Hepatophyta


Pterophyta     Bryophyta     Anthocerophyta                     Lycophyta
Equisetum
                                             Sporophyte
         Sporophyte dominant generations of each example?
          What are the                                         Sporophyte




                                                 Gametophyte


Sporophyte   Gametophyte      Gametophyte                      Sporophyte
Cycadophyta - male               Cycadophyta - female            Ginkgophyta

                                Plants II
                 What are the Phylums of each example?
           Gnetophyta                            Coniferophyta     Coniferophyta
Monocot      Eudicot                        Monocot

                    Monocot or Eudicot?


Eudicot   Monocot                 Monocot             Eudicot
   Identify which is the female ovulate cone and the male
    staminate cone?
   Answer: Ovulate cone on left; staminate cone on right
   Are the pictures below sporophyte (2N) or gametophyte
    (1N)?
   Answer: Sporophyte (2N)
                                  Flower Parts                    Stamen
 Carpel
                      Stigma                     Anther

              Style                                       Filament

          Ovary

Ovule




                                                                      Petal




                                                              Sepal



                        Pedicel                  Receptacle

								
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