Name _________________________ Biology
Final Exam Review Packet
Use your textbook and your notes to prepare yourself for the Final Exam.
DON’T CRAM! It’s a proven fact: studying for a little bit each day works better
than waiting until the night before the exam.
Remember to ask questions in class about concepts you want clarified.
GUIDING QUESTIONS FOR FINAL EXAM
1. Scientific Method (Chapter 2)
a. What is the difference between an independent and a dependent variable?
b. What is a controlled experiment?
2. Characteristics of Life (Chapter 1)
a. What are the ten characteristics common to all living things?
(Hint: DC GO HARDER)
b. Why are viruses not considered to be living things? Use your answer to the
3. Chemical Basis of Life (Chapters 4-5)
a. What is the difference between adhesion and cohesion?
b. Why is water important to living things?
c. Why is carbon the main ingredient of organic molecules?
d. Describe the building blocks and functions of the four major classes of
i. Carbohydrates –
ii. Lipids –
iii. Proteins –
iv. Nucleic acids -
e. Describe the structure and function of an enzyme.
f. Explain how a change in temperature or pH may affect the function of an
4. History of Life (Chapter 16)
a. Explain what conditions were like on the early Earth.
b. How and when did life first evolve on Earth? What were the first living
5. Evolution (Chapter 14)
a. Who was Charles Darwin? Describe his voyage on the HMS Beagle.
b. Explain the key features of Darwin’s theory of natural selection and use this
theory to explain the evolution of a given trait (e.g., the neck of a giraffe).
c. What is an adaptation? Give an example.
d. Describe the five major categories of evidence for evolution and give an
example of each.
i. Comparative anatomy -
ii. Fossil record –
iii. Embryology –
iv. Biochemistry –
v. Biogeography -
e. What are homologous and analogous structures? How do they provide
evidence of divergent and convergent evolution?
f. What is a vestigial structure? How does it provide evidence of evolution?
6. Classification and Taxonomy (Chapter 15)
a. Summarize the levels of hierarchy used in biological classification.
b. What are the three domains? What are their major characteristics?
c. What are the six kingdoms? What are their major characteristics?
7. Cell Structure/Function and Cell Transport (Chapter 6)
a. What are the three components of cell theory?
b. Draw and label the parts of a bacterial cell.
c. Draw and label the parts of a plant cell.
d. Draw and label the parts of an animal cell.
e. Explain the difference between prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
f. Describe the function of the following organelles:
iv. Rough ER
v. Smooth ER
vi. Golgi apparatus
g. Describe the structure of the plasma membrane. Identify the function of
phospholipids, proteins, cholesterol, and carbohydrates in the membrane.
h. Describe each of the following mode of cellular transport:
i. Passive transport
ii. Active transport
iv. Facilitated Diffusion
i. Explain what happens to animal and plant cells when placed in hypertonic,
hypotonic, and isotonic solutions.
8. Cellular Reproduction (Chapter 9)
a. Draw the cell cycle and describe what happens to the cell in each phase.
b. Explain what happens during the various stages of mitosis.
c. What is the relationship between control of the cell cycle and cancer?
d. Compare and contrast mitosis and meiosis.
e. How does meiosis promote genetic variation?
f. What is a karyotype?
g. What is nondisjunction? What are some disorders that can result from errors
9. Genetics (Chapter 10)
a. Describe the work of Gregor Mendel.
b. What is the difference between a dominant and a recessive allele?
c. What are Mendel’s laws of segregation and independent assortment?
d. Draw Punnett squares for the following crosses: Aa x Aa; DdFf x DdFf.
e. Explain the following exceptions to Mendel’s laws and give an example:
i. Incomplete dominance
iii. Lethal dominance
iv. Multiple alleles
f. What are sex-linked traits? Why do they typically affect males more often
g. What is a pedigree?
10. Molecular Biology (Chapter 11)
a. Describe the structure of DNA.
b. Describe the contributions of the following scientists to the discovery that
DNA was the genetic material:
iii. Hershey and Chase
c. Describe the contributions of the following scientists to the discovery of the
structure of DNA:
iii. Watson & Crick
d. How does the structure of DNA suggest a replication mechanism for DNA?
e. Describe the steps of DNA replication.
f. What is the difference between the leading and the lagging strand?
g. What is the central dogma of biology?
h. Compare the structure of DNA with RNA.
i. Explain what happens during transcription.
j. Explain what happens during translation.
k. How does the genetic code provide evidence for evolution?
l. What is a mutation?
m. Distinguish between the following types of mutations:
11. Biotechnology (Chapter 13)
a. What is genetic engineering? Describe some of its uses.
b. What are restriction enzymes?
c. What is a plasmid?
d. Explain the steps involved in engineering a bacteria that can make human
e. What is gel electrophoresis?
12. Cellular Respiration (Chapter 7)
a. How does ATP provide energy for cellular work?
b. What is the difference between anaerobic and aerobic respiration?
c. What is the overall equation for aerobic cellular respiration?
d. Describe the structure of the mitochondrion.
e. Explain what happens during glycolysis and where it takes place.
f. Explain what happens during the Krebs cycle and where it takes place.
g. Explain what happens during the electron transport chain and where it takes
h. Why does fermentation take place in cells that lack mitochondria or when
there is not enough oxygen present?
13. Photosynthesis (Chapter 8)
a. How do autotrophs use light energy to make food?
b. What is the overall equation for photosynthesis?
c. What are the major parts of a leaf and their functions?
d. Describe the structure of the chloroplast.
e. Explain what happens during the light-dependent reactions.
f. Explain what happens during the dark-dependent reactions.
g. Identify two factors that affect the rate of photosynthesis.
h. Explain the complimentary nature of photosynthesis and cellular respiration.