Notes: Unit 1--Carbohydrates

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Notes: Unit 1--Carbohydrates
     (1) What is a carbohydrate?
• Type of Biomolecule

• Means: “hydrated carbon”
  – Has the same ratio of H and O as in Water
                 (2) Elements
• Carbon (C)
• Hydrogen (H)
• Oxygen (O)
               (3) Monomer
• Monomer: Basic unit or Smallest unit of a
  polymer (larger molecule).

• Carbohydrate Monomer:
  – Monosaccharide = Single Sugar
                (4) Polymer
• Polymer: A larger structure (molecule) made of
  many smaller units (monomers).

• Carbohydrate Polymer:
  – Polysaccharide = Many sugars
     (5) Types of Carbohydrates
• Monosaccharide = 1 Sugar
  – Simple Sugar or Carb
  – Examples: Glucose, Fructose

• Disaccharide = 2 Sugars
  – Simple Sugar or Carb
  – Examples: Sucrose, Maltose

• Polysaccharide = Many Sugars
  – Complex Sugar or Carb
  – Examples: Starch, Cellulose
                (6) Function
• Major:
  – Immediate energy
  – Intermediate energy


• Minor:
  – Structure
                  (7) Examples
•   Table Sugar
•   Bread
•   Pastries
•   Plants (cell walls / outer covering)
•   Potatoes
•   Whole Grains
   (8) Simple vs. Complex Carbs
• RECALL:
  – Energy is stored in bonds
  – More Bonds = More Energy

• Simple Carb:
  – Small molecule, Few molecules
  – Few bonds  Little Energy
  – Few bonds  Break Fast

• Complex Carb:
  – Large molecule, Many parts
  – Many bonds  Lots of Energy
  – Many bonds  Break Slowly

				
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