Organic Molecules - Download as PowerPoint by aR0YH3YN


The Chemistry of Life
What makes it ORGANIC?
• Molecules made up of mainly
  – (w/other elements at times like O, N, P)

  – Carbon’s special trait: Making 4 bonds
How many bonds?
4 Major Categories
1st: Carbohydrates
4 Major Categories
2nd: Proteins
4 Major Categories
3rd: Lipids
4 Major Categories
4th: Nucleic Acids
  RNA and DNA
• Monosaccharides (Simple sugars):
  – The smallest of sugars; taste sweet
  – Single carbon ring:
• Disaccharides
  – Two monosaccharides chem. combined
  – Ex: Sucrose
   How they’re made:
Dehydration Synthesis
   How they’re made:
Dehydration Synthesis
    How they’re made:
Condensation Reaction
• Polysaccharides
  – Large, long molecules
  – Made up of many monosaccharides
  – Found in plants:
     • Starch
     • Cellulose
• Polysaccharides
  – Large, long molecules
  – Made up of many monosaccharides
  – Found in animals:
     • Glycogen
     • Chitin
• Another
   A note about some big
 Some very large molecules are actually built out of
  small, repeating units.
 Ex: This (**************************)
  is made up of a bunch of these: (*)
 The repeating units are referred to as MONOMERS.
  The large molecule is a POLYMER
 So, starch is a polymer made of monomers called
  _______________ .
Fatty, greasy, oily, or waxy
 Made of C,H, & less oxygen
  than in carbs

   Insoluble in water
Lipids: 4 categories
 Triglicerides/fats
 Phospholipids
 Waxes
 Steroids
Importance of LIPIDS
to humans:
 Energy source (primary energy
 Cushion vital organs
 Insulation
 Major part of cell membranes
 Needed in some vitamins and
Fatty Acids

    Carbon chains; make up most lipids
    12-28 C long
   In unsaturated fatty acids, there are two ways the pieces of the hydrocarbon tail
    can be arranged around a C=C double bond: Cis and Trans bonds.

    In cis bonds, the two pieces of the carbon chain on either side of the double
    bond are either both “up” or both “down,” such that both are on the same side of
    the molecule.

    In trans bonds, the two pieces of the molecule are on opposite sides of the
    double bond, that is, one “up” and one “down” across from each other.

    Naturally-occurring unsaturated vegetable oils have almost all cis bonds, but
    using oil for frying causes some of the cis bonds to convert to trans bonds. If oil
    is used only once like when you fry an egg, only a few of the bonds do this so it’s
    not too bad. However, if oil is constantly reused, like in fast food French fry
    machines, more and more of the cis bonds are changed to trans until significant
    numbers of fatty acids with trans bonds build up.

    The reason this is of concern is that fatty acids with trans bonds are
    carcinogenic, or cancer-causing. The levels of trans fatty acids in highly-
    processed, lipid-containing products such as margarine are quite high.
Three types of Fatty Acids:
saturated, unsaturated, polyunsaturated

 stearic acid   oleic acid    linolenic acid


Triglyceride is
   Main component of cell membranes
 2 FA tails
 1 Phosphate
   group head
Steroids (Sterols)
 No   fatty acid chains, but 4 fused
 Carbon rings
  Some hormones (testosterone)

  Cholesterol – most familiar
  ○ Produced in liver and eaten
   (meat, dairy products, etc.)
  ○ Found in cell membranes (reduces fluidity of
   membrane) & in vertebrate brains
Cholesterol – LDL (Bad) Forms Plaque

   Long-chain fatty acids linked
    to alcohols or carbon rings

   Firm consistency

   Important in water-proofing
 Used as building blocks
  (more than a source for energy)
 Made of C, H, O, N, sometimes S
 Is a chain of amino acids…
One amino acid structure:
Ball/stick model
Types of a.a.   Here are just five of the 20 that we have.
                 (see peptide bonding) Notice the tops are
                the same, but the white areas are the
                different R groups
Functions of Proteins
 Structural:
  tissue, hair,
 You are
Functions of Proteins
 Contractile
(Muscle tissue)
Functions of Proteins
   Transport:
    (carries O2
    and CO2)
Functions of Proteins
   Some Hormones
    like insulin, growth hormone
Functions of Proteins
   Enzymes; facilitate chem. reactions (Rx).
Another enzyme illustration:
Lock/key model
More about Enzymes
   Allows
    chem. Rx
    to occur
    with less
More about Enzymes
1. Many end in “-ase”
2. Are catalysts: substance that initiates or accel.
      a chem. Rx w/o itself being affected
3.    Important Characteristics:
     1. Each unique: Used for Only 1 type Rx
     2. Are reusable
     3. Aren’t consumed in Rx
     4. Can run Rx in reverse
What can mess up enzymes?

1. HEAT Think of a frying egg…
2. pH Very high/low pH’s sabotage
    active sites on enzyme

 This is called DENATURING
 Is irreversible
Protein Uses…
    What’s a calorie?
 Unit used to measure energy
 The amount of energy it takes to raise 1
  g of water 1ºC = 1 calorie
 One Kilocalorie (C) =
     1000 calories (c)
Kcal is what’s on food labels.
 Caloric values…
• Carbohydrates and Proteins have
  about the same caloric values per unit
  – 4 kcal/g

• Lipids (fats), made for energy storage,
  have a higher caloric value.
  – 9 kcal/g
  – One pound of fat = 3500 Calories.

  A half-cup serving of macaroni and cheese
  contains 20 grams of carbohydrate, 8
  grams of protein, and 11 grams of fat.
  What is the total number of kcalories

20 grams of carbohydrate x 4 kcal/g = 80 kcal
8 grams of protein        x 4 kcal/g = 32 kcal
11 grams of fat           x 9 kcal/g = 99 kcal
Total energy                          = 211 kcal
 • sum of all chem Rx in a
 living organism

Basal Metabolic Rate (BMR)
 • amt. of energy needed to
 sustain life
 • does not include energy
 needed for PA
 How many Calories do you need per day?

Calculating Your EER (Estimated Energy Requirement)

1.Find your weight in kg and your height in meters:
  Weight in kilograms = weight in pounds / 2.2 lbs/kg
   (Ex. 150 pounds = 150/2.2 = 68.2 kg)
  Height in meters = height in inches x 0.0254 in/m
   (Ex. 5’9” = 69 in x 0.0254 in/m = 1.75m)
Calculating Your EER (Estimated Energy Requirement)

2. Estimate the amount of physical activity (PA) you get per day.

      Sedentary: Males (1.00) Females (1.00)
      Lightly active:   (1.13)        (1.16)
      Active:           (1.26)        (1.31)
      Very Active:      (1.42)        (1.56)
Calculating Your EER (Estimated Energy Requirement)

3. Choose the appropriate equation, enter your
values, and write down your EER value.
EER = 135.3 – (30.8 x age in yrs) + PA [(10.0 x Wt in kg) + (934 x Ht in m)] + 25

EER = 88.5 – (61.9 x age in yrs) + PA [(26.7 x Wt in kg) + (903 x Ht in m)] + 25
What are    Phelps, at
your        the height of
calorie     his training,
needs per   requires
day?        12,000
What is
your BMR
Nucleic acids
• DNA (Deoxyribonucleic acid)
  – Genetic material; carries heredity –
    codes for all proteins

• RNA (Ribonucleic acid)
  – Similar in structure to DNA; used for
    building of proteins

• Nucleic acids’ monomers:
  Nucleotides (5 C sugar, P grp, nitrogenous

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