O’Keefe O’Keefe Monet Matisse Manet van Gogh Picasso Escher Salvador Dali Abstract Art Extra Credit (+5 max) Create an abstract representation of an angiosperm(s) utilizing similar techniques you have seen by some of the greats. Due 3/14-15 Chapter 38 Quick Overview Flower Anatomy Sepals, Petals, Stamens (M), Carpels (F) Male Female (Stamens) (Carpels) Filament Stigma Anther Style Pollen (sperm) Ovary, ovule Receptacle Embryo sacs Pollination: (pollinating agents) Self pollination vs. self incompatible (“self”/ “nonself”) S-genes (fig. 38.6 + fig. 38.5) Sporophytic and gametophytic self- incompatibility “Self-Incompatibility” prevents Self-Fertilization in some plants Self/Non-self recognition How is this different from humans? If “SELF” is detected: RNA hydrolyzing enzymes may destroy pollen Or Stigma maybe affected Germination Plants in Motion - Corn germination Fruit Types What is the definition of a “true fruit” ? Simple, aggregate multiple (p.738) Asexual Reproduction clone of parent vegetative reproduction, fragmentation, apomixis (unfertilized-- seed production) Protoplast fusion p.742 What is monoculture? CHAPTER 39 Control Systems in Plants Plant Responses to Internal and External Signals What is a hormone anyway? Hormone: Greek for “to excite - produced in a specific area - travel to another specific area (target organ) - used in minute concentrations The Main Players 5 PLANT HORMONES to know … and their functions, target sites, plant conditions, examples auxin cytokinin gibberellin ethylene abscisic acid Auxin IAA (indoleacetic acid) Location: seed embryo; meristems of apical buds and young leaves Function: stem elongation; root growth, differentiation, branching; fruit development; apical dominance; tropisms Auxin over time Cytokinins Modified forms of adenine Location: roots (and actively growing tissues) Function: root growth and differentiation; cell division and growth; germination; delay senescence (aging); apical dominance (w/ auxin) Gibberellins GA3 Location: meristems of apical buds and roots, young leaves, embryo Function: germination of seed and bud; stem elongation; leaf growth; flowering (bolting); fruit development; root growth and differentiation Abscisic acid ABA Location: leaves, stems, roots, green fruit Function: Ethylene Gaseous hormone Location: ripening fruit tissue; stem nodes; aging leaves and flowers Function: fruit ripening; oppositional to auxin (leaf abscission); promotes/inhibits: growth/development of roots, leaves, and flowers; senescence Chapter 39.2 Daily and Seasonal Responses Circadian rhythm (24 hour periodicity) Photoperiodism (phytochromes – red light sensitive) Short-day plant: light period shorter than a critical length to flower (flower in late summer, fall, or winter; poinsettias, chrysanthemums) Long-day plant: light period longer than a critical length to flower (flower in late spring or early summer; spinach, radish, lettuce, iris) Day-neutral plant: unaffected by photoperiod (tomatoes, rice, dandelions) Critical night length controls flowering Let's see this Phototropisms Cryptochromes (blue light sensitive) Positive is growth toward light Negative growth away from Sunflower phototropisms Sunflower photomorphogenesis Thigmotropisms Morning Glory response Mimosa plant response – Example of turgor pressure change as well Gravitropisms Depends on starch filled vessels (amyloplasts) Orientation changes result in differential growth causing curvature. Roots display positive Stems display negative Let’s see it Lab 5 – Cellular Respiration in Germinating Peas C6H12O6 + O2 - - - > CO2 + H2O Issue of O2 & CO2 Solution: KOH + CO2 K2CO3 Also PV = nRT so, if water temp and volume is constant then water will move toward lower pressure area. As oxygen is consumed during respiration, its volume is reduced. Net result is a decrease in volume within in the tube and thus a decrease in pressure in the tube (so water will continue to move in as respiration occurs) Purpose of only rock tube? Allow detection of any changes in volume due to atmospheric pressure changes or temperature changes.
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