Biotechnology by 7eW5vV

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									    Biotechnology
     By: Johnny M. Jessup
Agriculture Teacher/FFA Advisor
    What is Biotechnology?

   Book Definition:
    – The use of microorganisms, animal cells, plant
      cells, or components of cells to produce products
      or carry out processes.
   Bio:
    – Life or living
   Biotechnology:
    – The application of living processes to
      technology.
      Historic Applications

   Organisms have been altered for
    centuries to alter and improve the
    quality & types of food for humans
    and animals.
   Examples:
    – Yeast to make bread rise
    – Bacteria to ferment sauerkraut
    – Production of various types of cheese
    – Fermentation of alcohol
    Background Information

   There are over 300,000 kinds of plants
    and 1 million kinds of animals in the
    world.
   What do they all have in common?
    – They are all different in some kind of way
      due to their genes.
    – They all have coded information in their
      cells called DNA.
                     Genetics
   Gregor Mendel
    – Austrian monk
    – Father of genetics
   Discovered the effect of
    genetics on plant
    characteristics with his
    experimentation with
    garden peas.
   Published his work
    in 1866.
                   Genetics

   What is Genetics?
    – The biology of heredity.
   What is heredity?
    – The transmission of characteristics from an
      organism to its offspring through genes in
      reproductive cells.
   What are Genes?
    – Components of cells which determine the
      individual characteristics of living things.
     Principles of Genetics
   Pair of genes in every cell.
   Receive one gene from each parent.
   Genes are passed from parent to offspring
    unchanged.
   Genes are separated in the making of
    reproductive cells.
   When there are different genes, usually,
    only one shows itself.
                        Cells

   Basis of all
    genetic activity.
   Cell Fast Facts
    – Basic unit of life.
    – Microscopic in size.
    – All life begins as a
      single cell.
                  Cell Division
   The way animal growth & reproduction
    takes place.
   DNA determines what the cell & its
    successive cells will become.
   2 types
    – Mitosis
          Simple cell division for growth
    – Meiosis
          Cell division that results in the formation of gametes.
          Occurs only in reproductive organs
                  Genes

   Units of genetic
    material.
   Comprised of DNA.
   Responsible for
    all traits, or
    characteristics,
    of all animals.
   Occur at specific
    locations on
    chromosomes.
             Chromosomes
   Rod-like carriers for
    genes.
   Control certain enzyme
    & protein production
    that controls some
    traits.
   Composed of a protein
    covering surrounding
    two chains of DNA.
DNA – Genetic Code of Life

   DNA stands for
    Deoxyribonucleic
    Acid.
   Discovered by
    Friedrich Miescher
    in 1867.
   The transmitter of
    hereditary
    information.
DNA – Genetic Code of Life

   Found in the nucleus of all living cells.
   All DNA is similar in….
    – Structure
    – Function
    – Composition
           DNA Structure

   Occurs in pairs of strands.
   Intertwined with one another.
   Connected by chemicals called bases.
   Like the rungs on a ladder.
   The DNA strands are like the two
    sides of a ladder.
DNA Structure

   Bases
    – Adenine – Thymine
    – Cytosine – Guanine
   Strands
    – Sugar phosphates
   Twisted to form a
    “double helix”.
Chromosomes, DNA & Genes
DNA Use in Biotechnology

   Gene Splicing
    – Process of removing & inserting genes into DNA.
    – Also called recombinant DNA technology.
    – Used to alter a given characteristic in a
      microorganism, plant, or animal.
    – Examples:
          Alter a plant’s susceptibility to disease.
          Make a plant resistant to insects.
          Alter bacteria to increase meat production in swine.
Importance of Recombinant
     DNA Technology
   Improves plants’ and animals’ performance
    through the manipulation of genes.
   Alter characteristics or performance of
    microorganisms.
   Control disease, insects, weeds, and other
    pests through genetic engineering.
   Less use of chemical pesticides and more
    genetic use of biological controls result in a
    better environment.
             Gene Mapping
   The process of finding & recording the
    location of genes.
    – Matching of genes to certain traits.
   Used by a geneticist to determine which
    genes are responsible for certain traits.
   Examples:
    – Tendency of baldness in humans.
    – Height of plants at maturity.
    – Tendency of females to have twin offspring.
Gene Mapping
                  Cloning

   Genetically
    engineering
    offspring (progeny)
    from nonsexual
    tissue.
   Been successfully
    done on mammals
    such as Dolly in
    1996.
Cloning
            DNA Matching

   One application is
    identifying parents
    or offspring.
   “DNA Testing”
       Genetic Engineering
   Movement of genetic information in the
    form of genes from one cell to another.
   Discovered in the early 1980s and was a
    breakthrough in modifying genetic makeup.
   Made it possible to…..
    – Increase disease resistance
    – Improve production
    – Improve efficiency
   Who does this kind of work?
    – Geneticist
          Products of
       Genetic Engineering
   Insulin
    – Used by people with diabetes to
      control blood sugar levels.
    – One of the 1st commercial
      products made by genetic
      engineering.
    – Bacterium called E. coli was
      genetically engineered to produce
      insulin like cows produce milk and
      bees produce honey.
    – Before this….insulin only came
      from pancreas tissue of animals.
         Products of
      Genetic Engineering
   Ice-minus
    – Bacteria that was genetically altered.
    – Retards frost formations on plant leaves.
    – Chemicals available to protect fruit crops
      when temps fall 4 – 6 degrees below
      what would normally damage the fruiting
      process.
         Products of
      Genetic Engineering
   BST
    – Bovine
      somatotropin
    – Increases milk
      production.
    – Bacteria
      genetically
      engineered to
      produce the
      hormone.
          Products of
       Genetic Engineering


   Herbicide resistant
    crops such as:
    – Roundup Ready Corn
       Waste Management
   Environmental pollution & waste elimination
    has become a major problem throughout
    the world.
    – Unloading fees for landfills
          1980---$3.00 a ton
          1990’s---$146.00 a ton
    – Environmental Laws
          Reduction in solid waste
             – 10% by 1995
             – 27% by 1997
             – 40% by 2000
      Waste Management

   Biotechnology is being used to help
    solve waste disposal problems.
   Examples include:
    – Bacteria that feed on oil slicks.
    – Bacteria that deactivate or decompose:
          Dioxin, PCB’s, insecticides, herbicides, and
           other chemicals in out rivers, lakes, and
           streams.
      Waste Management

   Other bacteria strains are under
    development to convert solid waste
    from humans & livestock into sugar &
    fuel.
    Safety in Biotechnology

   Federal & state governments monitor
    biotechnology research.
   How come?
    – Possible dangers of genetically modified
      organisms.
   Therefore it is important to conduct
    thorough research and to conduct
    open discussions.
    Safety in Biotechnology

   Extensive testing is done to make certain
    biotechnology products safe.
    – Testing proceeds from laboratory to the
      greenhouse.
    – Final testing occurs outdoors on a small scale
      prior to produce approval.
   Final approval by the federal government
    occurs only after all phases of testing have
    been completed.
    Safety in Biotechnology

   Rapidly gaining the public’s
    confidence.
   Important part of our lives.
   Many of its potential benefits have
    already been realized…..
    – But the surface has only been scratched.
            Designed By:

   Johnny M. Jessup, FFA Advisor
    – Hobbton High School

								
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