Biotechnology Unlocking the secrets of life

Document Sample
Biotechnology Unlocking the secrets of life Powered By Docstoc
					  Biotechnology
Unlocking the secrets of life
What is Biotechnology?
 Definition:
  The use of living organisms to
   make or improve a product

  – Bio (life)
  – technology (the application
    of knowledge for practical
    use
Where did it begin?
 Ancient bread baking
 Wine brewing
 Cheese making
 Yogurt fermentation
 Animal and plant breeding
Biotechnology Today
 Focuses on how to change
  microorganisms, plants and
  animals
 Scientist isolated and made
  changes to DNA in the early 1970’s
  – DNA carries the “Blueprint”
  – Genes are units of DNA
Techniques

         Gene Mapping
                                  Tissue Culture
Biofermentation
                  Biotechnology
                                       Cloning
 Gene Transfer
                         Gene Mapping
Genetic Engineering
 Manipulation of genes is called
  genetic engineering or
  recombinant DNA technology
 Removes gene(s) from one
  organism and either:
  – Transfers them to another
  – Puts them back in the original with a
    different combination
 Transgenic
Techniques
 Genetic Mapping
   – Locating specific genes within heredity
     material
 Tissue Culture
   – Modified cells can grow into whole plants
 Biofermentation
   – Mass production of modified
     microorganisms
 Cloning
   – Reproducing genetically identical animals
Biotechnology in Agriculture
                  (Plants)
 Crops
   – Built in insect and herbicide resistance
   – Built in tolerance to environmental
     conditions
   – Improved color and quality
 Pharmaceuticals
   – Plants that produce edible vaccines
 Food
   – Improved taste and nutrition
   – Improved handling qualities
 Biotechnology in Agriculture
                  (Plants)
 Industrial
   – plants that produce plastics, fuels,
     and other products
   – plants for environmental cleanup
 Other
  – pesticides made from naturally-
    occurring microorganisms and insects
 Biotechnology in Agriculture
                  (Animals)
 Breeding
  – Disease tolerance
  – Exact copies of desired stock
  – Increased yields
 Health
  – Microorganisms introduced into feed for
    beneficial purposes
  – Diagnostics for disease and pregnancy
    detection
  – Animals engineered to to produce organs
    suitable for transplantation into humans
 Biotechnology in Agriculture
                  (Animals)
 Food
   – Increased milk production
   – leaner meat in pork
   – growth hormones in farm-raised fish that
     result in earlier market-ready fish
 Pharmaceuticals
   – Animals engineered to produce human
     proteins for drugs, including insulin and
     vaccines
Assignment
Develop a timeline of events outlining
  advances in the field of biotechnology.
  You may use the World Wide Web in the
  Career Center to search for these
  events.
Your timeline should have at lease five
  events.
The search engine www.google.com is a
  good start.
 History of Biotechnology
 1860’s-Botanist Gregor Mendel
  recognizes heredity information is
  stored in units (now called genes)
 1870’s-chromosomes are
  discovered
 1953-DNA Double Helix is
  discovered by James Watson and
  Francis Crick (England)
 History of Biotechnology
 1968-a process was developed for
  identifying chromosomes
  (Switzerland)
 1973-First successful combining of
  DNA from unrelated organisms
  (recombinant DNA) (USA)
 1978-First test tube baby (Louise
  Brown) was born in England
 History of Biotechnology
 1984-Sheep and goat embryo cells
  are fused together to create a
  sheep-goat
 1986-Light-producing gene of
  firefly is transferred to tobacco
  creating tobacco plants with
  glowing leaves
 1987-calf cloned from an embryo
 History of Biotechnology
 1991-sheep created that makes
  drug in milk to treat cystic fibrosis
 1994-first transgenic food
  approved (Flvr Savr) tomato
 1996-goat injected with a human
  gene produces an anticancer drug
 1997-Adult sheep cloned (“Dolly”)
Industry
 In 1998 there were 1,300
 biotechnology companies in the
 Unites States
  – small start up companies
    • one product or service
  – large multinational corporations
    • combine research and production
Industry
            In 1997 the overall
             biotechnology sales
             increases 20%
            13 billion dollar
             industry
            Over 93 billion
             dollars invested
Careers
 In 1998 biotechnology included
  about 140,000 jobs
 Jobs for high school graduates to
  PhD’s
 Provides over 17,000 jobs in North
  Carolina
  – $850 million dollar payroll
Career Examples
 Laboratory work
  – working on gene maps
  – growing plants from cells
  – working with animal embryos
 Experimental Farms
 Field jobs
 Industry jobs
  – manufacturing
  – regulatory affairs (FDA, USDA)
  – sales
Education
 High School Courses
  – Basic Biology
  – Agriculture
  – Biotechnology
 Post-secondary
  –   Biology
  –   Microbiology
  –   Genetics
  –   Biochemistry
Education

 North Carolina has an online
 biotechnology center
  – Information on NC Biotechnology
  – Educational Opportunities
  – News
  – Hot Topics
        www.ncbiotech.org/
Assignment
 Research two different careers related
  to biotechnology
 Find information regarding:
  –   Salary
  –   Education
  –   Job Description
  –   Job Demand
 Write a one paragraph summary for
  each career
 Keep the summaries in your notes

				
DOCUMENT INFO
Shared By:
Categories:
Tags:
Stats:
views:9
posted:7/27/2012
language:
pages:23