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Biology 435 - Animal Physiology Eric C. Toolson Tentative Lecture Schedule for Fall Semester, 2002 Week Dates Topic Reading Assignments 1 8/20 & 8/22 Thermodynamics Chaps. 1, 2, 3 & 4 2 8/27 & 8/29 Physiological adaptation Chap. 17 3 9/03 & 9/05 Physiological adaptation; Neurophysiology Chaps. 17, 5, & 6 4 9/10 & 9/12 Neurophysiology Chaps. 5 & 6 5 9/17 & 9/19 Neurophysiology Chap. 6 6* 9/24 & 9/26 Sensory physiology Chap. 7 7 10/01 & 10/03 Sensory physiology; Nervous systems Chaps. 8 & 11 8 10/08 Nervous systems; Muscle physiology Chaps. 11 & 10 9 10/15 & 10/17 Muscle physiology Chap. 10 10 10/22 & 10/24 Cardiovascular physiology Chap. 12 11 10/29 & 10/31 Cardiovascular physiology Chap. 12 12* 11/05 & 11/07 Respiration Chap. 13 13 11/12 & 11/14 Respiration Chap. 13 14 11/19 Renal physiology Chap. 14 15 11/26 & 11/28 Gastrointestinal physiology Chap. 15 16 12/03 & 12/05 Gastrointestinal physiology Chap. 15 *: Denotes planned week of midterm exam, subject to negotiation. Office Hours: Tuesdays & Thursdays, 0930-1030, or by appointment. Or, whenever you can catch me. My office is Room 113 (old wing of Castetter Hall), my lab is Room 156 (new wing); my phone numbers are 277-3329 (office) or 277-3325 (lab). You can also leave me a message in the Biology Department office (277-3411). If you have access to e-mail, you can contact me at: (firstname.lastname@example.org). E-mail is the most certain way of contacting me. Course Web Page: I have set up a web page for the course. Its URL is: http://www.unm.edu/~toolson/biol435.html The web site, while a bare-bones affair, will serve a number of purposes. Among other things, important announcements, hints on how to study, homework assignments, practice problems, and sample exams will be posted thereon. Your lab TA will also use the web site to communicate important information. Also, there are links to a number of computer simulations that I’ve written to help you gain a better understanding of physiology. You will be working with some of these simulations as lab exercises during the course of the semester. N.B. It is your responsibility to check the web set at least once per week. Goals of the Course: The overriding goal of this course is to give you an impressive understanding of physiology, including some of its sub-disciplines (e.g. environmental physiology). Because this is an organ-systems physiology course, that’s where we’ll direct most of our collective effort. However, just as nature abhors a vacuum, I abhor a contextual vacuum for the material I’m presenting in lecture. Therefore, we will approach the study of physiology from the perspective of problem-solving; i.e., what are the problems faced by organisms and how does their physiology help them solve those problems? I believe this approach provides for a more insightful and gratifying study of physiology than does the more typical factual approach. A key here will be to discuss different approaches taken by different organisms to solving the same ‘problem’ (e.g., ectothermy vs. endothermy or open vs. closed circulatory systems). Although we will adopt the comparative approach at times, for the most part, the material presented in lecture will be drawn from mammals. This is because our understanding of the function of mammalian systems is better than it is for almost any other animal species. As we will see, however, there are cases in which explicit presentation of non-mammalian systems will enhance our understanding of physiology in general, which is, after all, the primary goal of the course. Throughout the course, we will stress regulation and integration of function of the various organ systems we discuss. Too often, in my opinion, physiology courses focus on functional aspects, less on regulation of function, and even less (if at all) on the integration of function. The various organs and organ systems do not function in isolation, and one of the true delights in the study __ __ of physiology for me, at least is developing an appreciation of how the various functions of the diverse physiological systems in organisms are integrated in such a way that an organism’s overall function promotes its adaptation to its environment and its fitness. Basic Survival Information: Since this is a senior-level class, I assume that you have had at the very least Biology 121, 122, 219, & 221 or the equivalent. Therefore, I expect that you will be familiar with the material — basic cell biology, enzyme kinetics, and general anatomy of the various organ systems we’ll be discussing in class, for example — from these courses. In preparation for each exam, I would highly recommend you practice answering the questions at the back of each assigned chapter of your Eckert text — perhaps even going so far as to put the answers in writing. You might also consider giving mini-lectures on a particular topic to someone else. Assigned Readings: I strongly recommend that you do the reading prior to the first lecture on a particular topic. On the next page, I have presented a table that indicates: which parts of each chapter you may expect to be asked about on the lecture exams (the “Know It!!” column); which parts you should read for a grasp of the concepts contained therein (the “Read It” column); and which parts you may safely forego reading for purposes of this course (the “Skip It” column). Note, however, that you will not incur any penalty should you inadvertently or advertently (I know that’s not a word…but it should be) read some of that last category……… Grading: The lecture portion of the course will comprise 70% of your final grade. Lecture grades will be determined primarily on the basis of two (2) midterm exams and a final. The final will consist of a third midterm and some comprehensive questions, and will be worth 110% of one midterm, the ‘extra’ 10% being accounted for by the comprehensive questions. Exam questions will be based on lecture material (including handouts) and on your assigned readings. Final letter grades will be based on a curve, but the __ average final points total will not necessarily be rewarded with a grade of "C" my subjective assessment of students’ level of knowledge and understanding of the material will be important in that determination. Along these lines, I've noticed is that one of the main disparities between A/B students and C/D/F students is not only in the amount of factual information they learn but also in their understanding of the information they do learn. Many of the students who get C/D/F grades in this class seem to feel that it's enough to remember simply that they've heard a certain term, and that they should get a good grade on that basis alone. Not the case in this class! One of the criteria I use in my decision about what grade to assign a particular numerical score is my assessment of how well the student seems to understand the material. This is necessarily based in part on how well the student is able to express himself or herself in answers to the short essay questions that are part of each exam. You might want to re-read the last two sentences of the “Basic Survival Information” section above. Finally, a disturbing number of students each year don’t take the course seriously until after the first exam, by which time their grade has been irreparably damaged because they got a gorilla score on the first midterm. Needless to say, this does not have to happen; whether it does in your case is up to you. Role of the Labs: As will be discussed by your lab TA, your lab grade counts for 30% of your overall grade and will be determined primarily by your performance on a combination of lab write-ups, participation in paper discussions, lab quizzes, and an oral presentation at the end of the semester. In my courses, laboratory exercises are intended to do three things: 1. Reinforce and enhance your understanding of material presented in lecture by having you perform experiments that replicate some of the topics presented in lecture. 2. Present additional information that cannot be presented in lecture due to time constraints. 3. Provide you with the tools necessary to analyze, interpret, and present the results of physiological experiments. I believe that this is an increasingly important aspect of the preparation of Biology majors for post-graduate careers. You personally may consider role #1 to be the only appropriate function of lab exercises. While there is no question that this is important, I feel that labs should do more………hence, roles #2 and #3. Reading Assignments Week Topic Chapters Know It!! Read It Skip It 5-10, 11, 49-67, 71-72, 83- 1 Thermodynamics 1-4 3-5, 12-15, 17-40, 41-48, 67-71, 110 72-77, 79-83 699-701, 725-730 2 Physiological Ecology 17 701-725, 730-736 3 Neurophysiology 5&6 Everything, except: 146-150 4 Neurophysiology 5&6 Everything, except: 146-150 5 Neurophysiology 5&6 Everything, except: 146-150 215-230, 252-272 6 Sensory physiology 7 230-251, 241-251 275-280, 284-298, 425-431, 7 Nervous systems 8, 11 280-283, 458-467 454-458, 467-468 439-454 8 Muscle physiology 10 361-397, 394-402, 411-421 397-411 9 Muscle physiology 10 361-397, 394-402, 411-421 397-411 473-488495-511, 512-519 10 Cardiovascular physiology 12 488-495, 511-512, 519-523 473-488495-511, 512-519 11 Cardiovascular physiology 12 488-495, 511-512, 519-523 525-553, 562-568 556-562, 573-576 12 Respiration 13 553-556, 568-573 525-553, 562-568 556-562, 573-576 13 Respiration 13 553-556, 568-573 593-615 14 Renal physiology 14 579-593, 624-628 615-624 15 Gastrointestinal physiology 15 637-665 630-637 16 Gastrointestinal physiology 15 637-665 630-637 **: Readings are in preparation for laboratory exercises during Weeks 12, 13, & 14. Note: During your readings, always keep in mind that my overriding concern is that you learn and understand how things work. I am far less concerned that you learn lots of facts for their own sake. Thus, when you come across sections of text, figures, side-bars, or tables that don’t actually illustrate or refine your understanding of a key physiological concept, you may ignore them. If you’re not 100% comfortable with your assessment of certain textual material’s relevance, ASK ME!
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