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Fall Semester Final Exam Review Honors Biology Exam is 25% of your Semester grade. Semester grade is 1st term + 2nd term +3rd term + final 4 Final exam grade: ¼ of your grade will be your exam review Must be handwritten and is Due the day of the final (Not after) All Questions should be answered. If you can find the answers in your notes you can highlight the answer and then place the number of the question next to it. Place all the information in the correct order and turn it in the day of the exam. ¾ of exam grade is the exam itself Chapter 1 The science of Life 1.List and Explain the Seven Characteristics of life. (Include the terms and definitions: organization, growth and development, reproduction, species, stimulus, response, homeostasis and adaptation.) 2.Explain the levels of organization within an organism starting with the atom. 3. List and explain the steps in the Scientific Method a. What is the difference between a Hypothesis, Scientific Law and Theory 4. Explain the parts of designing an experiment: Independent variable, Dependent variable, Constants, control group vs. experimental group 5. Define the following Vocabulary: Qualitative data, Quantitative data, Inference, validity, science, biology Chapter 6-1 Chemistry of Life- Atoms, Elements and Compounds 6. Describe the three subatomic parts of the atom, where they are located, their charges and mass. 7. What does the atomic mass and atomic number represent in an element? 8. Where can you find the following on the periodic table: protons, electrons, valence electrons, atomic number, atomic mass, energy level, period and group 9. How do you figure out the amount of protons, electrons and neutrons an element has (use the periodic table)? 10. What is the difference between an element and a compound? What is a molecule? 11. Define valence electrons and the octet rule. 12. Explain why compounds are formed and how it relates to the octet rule. 13. Compare and contrast ionic and covalent bonds. What is an ion? 14. How is the net charge of an atom determined? (talk about protons and electrons) 15. What is an ion and why is important in biological processes? Chapter 6-2 Chemical Reactions and Enzymes 16. Explain a chemical reaction. What are the different parts of the chemical equation? 17. What is activation energy? What is the purpose of a catalyst? 18. What is the purpose of an enzyme is an organism? 19. Explain how an enzyme works? Explain the enzyme substrate complex. 20. Explain how the three factors (PH, temperature and concentration) affect enzymes and how they work. 21. Define: Product & reactant Chapter 6-3 Properites of water 22. What is polarity? Explain what a hydrogen bond is and why it forms in polar molecules 23. Explain the properties of water caused by polarity and hydrogen bonding: Solubility, Cohesion, Adhesion, temperature Moderation, High Specific Heat, surface tension and the density of ice. 24. Define capillarity and explain how it contributes to the upward movement of water from the roots of plants 25. Give three examples of how the properties of water influence life on earth. 26. Define: Solute, solvent, solution, Chapter 6-4 Organic Chemistry-Macromolecules 27. What is carbon and why is it important in living organisms? 28. What is the difference between Organic compounds and Inorganic compounds? Give examples of each. 29 Explain how a polymer, monomer, and macromolecule are related. 30. Explain the difference between a condensation reaction(Dehydration synthesis) and a hydrolysis reaction 31. Explain the structural difference between saturated fatty acids and unsaturated fatty acids 32. Explain the difference between good fats and the bad fats and how their structure is related. 33. Explain the following information for the following four macromolecules in the body: Carbohydrates, Lipids, Proteins, and Nucleic Acid. a. Structure b. Function c. Types d. Monomers or building blocks e. Examples of each type f. Main sources of food Make sure you are able to identify the different structures for the exam. (Be sure to include the following terms in question 33: monosaccharide, disaccharide, polysaccharide, triglycerides, fatty acids, glycerol, phospholipid, peptide, dipeptide, polypeptide, enzyme, DNA, RNA, nucleotide, amino acid, steroid.) Chapter 7 Structure and Function of the Cell 34. Explain the history of the cell theory. What is the Cell theory? 35. What advancement in technology advanced cell theory? 36. What is the difference between a compound microscope and an electron microscope? 37. What are the three basic parts of the cell? Give three differences difference between a unicellular and multicellular organism. 38. Explain the Structure and Function of all parts of the cell (you may attach your cell chart for this part). Make sure to know the detailed structure of the nucleus and cell membrane. 39. List and explain the organelles found in the Plant cell that you would not find in an animal cell. 40. What are the two basic types of cells? What are the three differences between Prokaryotic cells and Eukaryotic cells? Give an example of each. (Make sure you include the cell wall for prokaryotic cells!) 41. Explain how the structure of an organelle is related to its functions and be able to explain three examples for the test. (Hint Hint) 42. Explain why the cell membrane is considered the fluid mosaic model? 43. How did Eukaryotic cells evolve? Chapter 7-4 Homeostasis and Cellular Transport 44. Define Diffusion, Osmosis, Equilibrium, concentration gradient, Contractile Vacuoles. 45. Explain the difference between Hypertonic/Hypotonic/Isotonic Solutions and describe the direction of water movement in each. 46. What are the two main differences between Passive Transport and Active Transport 47. List the four types of Passive Transport and explain the process of Facilitated diffusion and Ion Channels 48. List and explain the three types of Active Transport 49. Explain the following processes endocytosis/exocytosis and pinocytosis and phagocytosis 50. Explain the process of the Sodium/potassium Pump. Special Instructions 1. You may use a 3X5 index card (Front and Back), with handwritten (not computer) notes as an aid during the exam. It will be handed in with your test. 2. No food, soda, calculators or walkmans during exams. Bring something to study or read when you are done. (Water is allowed) 3. No one is allowed to leave during the exam. 4. Make sure to get plenty of sleep the night before! Make sure to eat breakfast; especially carbohydrates! 5. Take your time during the final and read the questions carefully! You will have plenty of time to finish. 6. When preparing for the final start reviewing the older information first. 7. Exam Format: Multiple Choice, True/False, Matching 8. Please ask questions during the final if you do not understand. 9. You will need to be able to identify different structures on the test. .
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