Biotechnology Terminology by HC120727034758

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									            Biotechnology Terminology
1.    Active site (enzyme) – is the location on an enzyme where the
      substrate binds.
2.    Adult stem cells – are cells found in tissues of the body such as
      bones, muscle and nerve. These cells repair the tissue and some
      may have the ability to differentiate into other types of cells.
3.    Alleles - are members of a gene pair. One allele comes from the
      mother and one allele comes from the father.
4.    Allosteric site (enzyme) – is the location on an enzyme other than
      the active site.
5.    Bacillus thurigiensis (Bt) – a naturally occurring bacteria that
      produces toxins specific to certain insects. Used in genetically
      modifies crops such as corn to resist the European corn borer
      infestation.
6.    Bioethics – complex decision making process involving biological
      issues. How to best use, allocate and apply new biological
      technologies.
7.    Bioinformatics – is the use of computers and mathematics to help
      study and identify biological information - genes and proteins.
8.    Biotechnology – is the use of living organisms to make useful
      products. Biotechnology has been around for thousands of years.
      Genetic engineering is the “new” area of biotechnology.
9.    Blastocyst – the stage of development that contains an inner mass
      of cells able to differentiate to all the different types of cells.
10.   Cells -are the basic unit of all living things. Nothing smaller than a
      cell is considered to be alive.
11.   Central Dogma – is the principle used in biology to explain how
      proteins are made. It involves the processes of transcription and
      translation.
12.   Chromosomes - are the structures where DNA is located in cells.
13.   Clone – a copy of a gene or an organism.
14.   Complimentary DNA (cDNA) library – is a collection of DNA
      sequences that code for genes. cDNA is made from mRNA. An
      enzyme called reverse transcriptase synthesizes DNA from RNA.




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15. DNA - the blueprint of all living things. It is located in the nucleus
    of cells. It is made up of smaller subunits (ATCGCCATT) that
    direct all of an organism’s activities and traits.
16. DNA fingerprint (DNA profile) - is made by using restriction
    enzymes to cut DNA. Electrophoresis is used to separate the
    various size fragments. The unique banding pattern can be used to
    identify people, species of organisms and genes.
17. DNA gel electrophoresis - is the use of electricity to separate
    different size DNA fragments.
18. Embryonic stem cells – are cells that come from a developing
    embryo that have not differentiated into different tissues and
    organs.
19. Enzyme – is a catalyst (speeds up) used in chemical reactions.
20. Epidemiology – is the study of diseases, how they are transmitted
    and controlled.
21. Eukaryotic cells - cells with a nucleus. Plant, animals, fungus and
    protistans have eukaryotic cells.
22. Exons - the DNA sequence that make up a transcribed gene.
    Alternative splicing of exons can produce many different proteins
    from one gene.
23. Gene - defined very simply as a unit of heredity or a more complex
    definition would be a sequence of the DNA that may or may not
    code for protein. Only 2% of all the DNA is made up of genes.
24. Genetic engineering - also known as recombinant DNA. It is using
    genes from one organism and inserting them in another. The
    organism produced is a GMO (Genetically Modified Organism).
25. Genetic map - is the location of genes on chromosomes.
26. Gene therapy – genetically change an organism’s DNA to cure or
    treat a disease.
27. Genome - is the sum of all genes in an organism.
28. Genomics - is the study of how genes function and interact with
    other genes.
29. GMO - stands for Genetically Modified Organism.
30. Histone proteins –chromosomes wind around histone proteins in a
    very tight and coiled structure.
31. Human Genome Project - the mapping of all human genes. There
    is an estimated 20,000 to 25,000 genes.




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32. Introns - are the DNA sequences that are not transcribed when
    making a protein.
33. Jumping genes – also called transposon are pieces of DNA that
    can replicate and move from one location on a chromosome to
    another location or another chromosome. The Alu gene (named
    after the restriction enzyme that recognizes it) is an example of a
    jumping gene. It does not code for protein.
34. Meisois – is cell division that takes place in the reproductive
    organs and produces sex cells - egg (ovum) in the female or sperm
    in males.
35. Microarray - is a series of areas that contain DNA, RNA or
    proteins and are tagged with fluorescent dyes used to identify
    genes and diseases.
36. Micropipette - is an instrument used in biotechnology to measure
    and transfer very small amounts of a substance. The unit of
    measurement is the microliter ( µ ). A microliter is one millionth of
    a liter.
37. Mitosis – is cell division of body cells. It is the process used for
    cell growth and repair. Cancer results when cells divide without
    stopping.
38. Nanotechnology – A nano is a very small unit of measurement –
    one billionth of a meter. Nanotechnology studies and attempts to
    manipulate atoms and molecules. By making very small
    nanoparticles they can someday be used to deliver medicine or
    destroy very specific cancer cells. A virus is considered a
    biological “nanobot!”
39. Nucleotide- the building block of DNA and RNA. A nucleotide is
    made up of a phosphate, sugar and a base.
40. Plasmid - is a small round circular piece of DNA found in bacteria.
    They contain a few genes and are used in biotechnology to insert
    desired DNA sequences.
41. Probe – a piece of DNA that is tagged and can recognize specific
    sequences of DNA.
42. PCR - stands for Polymerase Chain Reaction. The technique is
    used to make copies (amplify) of DNA samples.
43. Prokaryotic - are cells without a nucleus. Bacteria are
    prokaryotic cells and are widely used in biotechnology




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44. Proteins - are made up of building blocks called amino acids. The
    20 amino acids make up over 100,000 proteins in human cells.
    Proteins are large complex molecules that make up cell structure
    and control many of its function.
45. Proteome - is the sum of all the proteins in an organism
46. Proteomics - is the study of protein structure and how they
    function in cells.
47. RNA (m-RNA, r-RNA, t-RNA) – Ribonucleic acid is involved in
    making proteins for the cell.
48. Recombinant DNA technology - uses restriction enzymes to cut
    genes from one organism and insert them into another organism.
49. Restriction enzymes are special enzymes that are used to cut
    DNA into smaller fragments.
50. Totipotent cells – cells in the zygote (blastocyst) that have the
    potential to become any type of tissue.
51. Transcription – the process of copying DNA into RNA.
52. Translation – the process of converting RNA to proteins.
53. Vectors - can be organisms that transmit disease to other
    organisms. For example, malaria is transmitted by mosquitoes,
    Lyme disease is transmitted by ticks. In biotechnology, a vector is
    a piece of DNA that carries a gene to be inserted into a cell.
    Types of vectors include bacteria plasmids, and viruses.
54. Viruses - are particles of DNA or RNA surrounded by protein.
    They are not considered to be living because they require a host
    to reproduce. In biotechnology, they are used to transfer genes
    to a cell (vector).
55. Zygote – is a fertilized. It will divide by mitosis and
    differentiate into all the tissues and organs that make up an
    organism.




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