chapter 7 Test Multiple Choice Identify the letter of the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. ____ 1. Who was one of the first people to identify and see cork cells? a. Anton van Leeuwenhoek c. Matthias Schleiden b. Robert Hooke d. Rudolf Virchow ____ 2. The work of Schleiden and Schwann can be summarized by saying that a. all plants are made of cells. b. all animals are made of cells. c. plants and animals have specialized cells. d. all plants and animals are made of cells. ____ 3. Which of the following is NOT a principle of the cell theory? a. Cells are the basic units of life. b. All living things are made of cells. c. Very few cells reproduce. d. All cells are produced by existing cells. ____ 4. The cell theory applies to a. bacteria. c. multicellular organisms. b. plants and animals. d. all of the above ____ 5. Electron microscopes can reveal details a. 100 times larger than those visible in light microscopes. b. the same size as those visible in light microscopes. c. 100 times smaller than those visible in light microscopes. d. 1000 times smaller than those visible in light microscopes. ____ 6. Which type(s) of microscopes can produce three-dimensional images of cells? a. transmission electron microscopes c. both A and B b. scanning electron microscopes d. neither A nor B ____ 7. Researchers use fluorescent labels and light microscopy to a. produce movies of cells as they grow, divide, and develop. b. scan cells with laser beams. c. follow molecules moving through the cell. d. build three-dimensional images of cells. ____ 8. Prokaryotes lack a. cytoplasm. c. a nucleus. b. a cell membrane. d. genetic material. ____ 9. Which of the following contain a nucleus? a. prokaryotes c. eukaryotes b. bacteria d. organelles ____ 10. Eukaryotes usually contain a. a nucleus. c. genetic material. b. specialized organelles. d. all of the above ____ 11. Which of the following organisms are prokaryotes? a. plants c. bacteria b. animals d. all of the above ____ 12. Which of the following is a function of the nucleus? a. stores DNA b. controls most of the cell’s processes c. contains the information needed to make proteins d. all of the above ____ 13. Which of the following is NOT found in the nucleus? a. cytoplasm c. chromatin b. nucleolus d. DNA ____ 14. Which of the following statements explains why the nucleus is important to cells? a. Only eukaryotes have nuclei. b. Only prokaryotes have nuclei. c. The nucleus contains coded instructions for making proteins. d. The nucleus is surrounded by a nuclear envelope. ____ 15. Which of the following structures is found in the cytoplasm? a. nucleolus c. chromatin b. ribosome d. cell wall ____ 16. Which organelle breaks down food into molecules the cell can use? a. Golgi apparatus c. endoplasmic reticulum b. lysosome d. mitochondrion ____ 17. Which structure makes proteins using coded instructions that come from the nucleus? a. Golgi apparatus c. vacuole b. mitochondrion d. ribosome ____ 18. Which organelle converts the chemical energy stored in food into compounds that are more convenient for the cell to use? a. chloroplast c. endoplasmic reticulum b. Golgi apparatus d. mitochondrion ____ 19. Which organelles help provide cells with energy? a. mitochondria and chloroplasts c. smooth endoplasmic reticulum b. rough endoplasmic reticulum d. Golgi apparatus and ribosomes ____ 20. Which sequence correctly traces the path of a protein in the cell? a. rough endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi apparatus, released from the cell b. ribosome, smooth endoplasmic reticulum, chloroplast c. smooth endoplasmic reticulum, lysosome, Golgi apparatus d. mitochondria, rough endoplasmic reticulum, cell membrane ____ 21. Which organelle would you expect to find in plant cells but not animal cells? a. mitochondrion c. chloroplast b. ribosome d. smooth endoplasmic reticulum ____ 22. Which of the following is a function of the cytoskeleton? a. helps a cell keep its shape c. surrounds the cell b. contains DNA d. helps make proteins ____ 23. Which structures carry out cell movement? a. cytoplasm and ribosomes c. microtubules and microfilaments b. nucleolus and nucleus d. chromosomes ____ 24. Which of the following is NOT a function of the cytoskeleton? a. helps the cell maintain its shape b. helps the cell move c. prevents chromosomes from separating d. helps organelles within the cell move ____ 25. The main function of the cell wall is to a. support and protect the cell. c. direct the activities of the cell. b. store DNA. d. help the cell move. ____ 26. Unlike the cell membrane, the cell wall is a. found in all organisms. c. a flexible barrier. b. composed of a lipid bilayer. d. usually made of tough fibers. ____ 27. You will NOT find a cell wall in which of these kinds of organisms? a. plants c. fungi b. animals d. all of the above ____ 28. Which of the following structures serves as the cell’s boundary from its environment? a. mitochondrion c. chloroplast b. cell membrane d. channel proteins ____ 29. Which of the following is a function of the cell membrane? a. breaks down lipids, carbohydrates, and proteins from foods b. stores water, salt, proteins, and carbohydrates c. keeps the cell wall in place d. regulates which materials enter and leave the cell ____ 30. The cell membrane contains channels and pumps that help move materials from one side to the other. What are these channels and pumps made of? a. carbohydrates c. bilipids b. lipids d. proteins ____ 31. Diffusion is the movement of molecules from a. an area of low concentration to an area of high concentration. b. an area of high concentration to an area of low concentration. c. an area of equilibrium to an area of high concentration. d. all of the above ____ 32. Diffusion occurs because a. molecules constantly move and collide with each other. b. the concentration of a solution is never the same throughout a solution. c. the concentration of a solution is always the same throughout a solution. d. molecules never move or collide with each other. ____ 33. When the concentration of molecules on both sides of a membrane is the same, the molecules will a. move across the membrane to the outside of the cell. b. stop moving across the membrane. c. move across the membrane in both directions. d. move across the membrane to the inside of the cell. ____ 34. Which means of particle transport requires input of energy from the cell? a. diffusion c. facilitated diffusion b. osmosis d. active transport ____ 35. The diffusion of water across a selectively permeable membrane is called a. osmotic pressure. c. facilitated diffusion. b. osmosis. d. active transport. ____ 36. An animal cell that is surrounded by fresh water will burst because the osmotic pressure causes a. water to move into the cell. c. solutes to move into the cell. b. water to move out of the cell. d. solutes to move out of the cell. ____ 37. Which term refers to cells having different jobs in an organism? a. multicellular c. levels of organization b. cell specialization d. unicellular ____ 38. The cells of multicellular organisms are a. smaller than those of unicellular organisms. b. simpler than those of unicellular organisms. c. specialized to perform different tasks. d. not dependent on one another. ____ 39. All of the following are examples of cell specialization EXCEPT a. a pancreatic cell that produces protein-digesting enzymes. b. muscle cells that control movement of materials in the body c. a prokaryotic cell that carries out photosynthesis. d. a red blood cell that carries oxygen. ____ 40. Which of the following is an example of an organ? a. heart c. digestive system b. epithelial tissue d. nerve cell ____ 41. All of the following are types of tissues EXCEPT a. muscle. c. digestive. b. connective. d. nerve. ____ 42. A group of similar cells that perform a particular function is called a(an) a. organ. c. tissue. b. organ system. d. division of labor. ____ 43. Which of the following is an organ of the digestive system? a. stomach c. muscle cell b. nerve tissue d. epithelial tissue ____ 44. An organ system is a group of organs that a. are made up of similar cells. b. are made up of similar tissues. c. work together to perform a specific function. d. work together to perform all the functions in a multicellular organism. ____ 45. Which list represents the levels of organization in a multicellular organism from the simplest level to the most complex level? a. cell, tissue, organ system c. tissue, organ, organ system b. organ system, organ, tissue, cell d. cell, tissue, organ, organ system Completion Complete each sentence or statement. 46. According to the cell theory, all cells come from existing ____________________. 47. In a eukaryote, the material between the cell membrane and the nucleus is called the ____________________. Figure 7–2 48. The material indicated in Figure 7–2 by the letter B is called the ____________________. 49. During cell division, chromatin condenses to form _________________________, which are threadlike structures containing genetic material. Figure 7–3 50. The structure labeled ____________________ in Figure 7–3 consists of DNA bound to protein. 51. RNA and other molecules leave the nucleus through the structure labeled ____________________ in Figure 7–3. 52. Eukaryotes contain specialized structures that perform important cellular functions. These structures are called ____________________. 53. Unlike smooth endoplasmic reticulum, rough endoplasmic reticulum has ____________________ attached to it. 54. Enzymes in the _________________________ attach carbohydrates and lipids to proteins. Figure 7–1 55. The structure indicated in Figure 7–1 by the letter F is usually larger in ____________________ cells. 56. The cell takes in food and water and eliminates wastes through the _________________________. 57. Molecules tend to move from an area where they are more concentrated to an area where they are less concentrated. This process is called ____________________. 58. Large molecules such as glucose that cannot cross the lipid bilayer can still move across the membrane with a concentration gradient by _________________________. 59. The cells in a multicellular organism have specific jobs. This is called cell _________________________. 60. The levels of organization in a multicellular organism are ____________________, tissues, ____________________, and organ systems. Short Answer 61. What advantages do cell walls provide plant cells that contact fresh water? 62. What would happen if the cell membrane became impermeable? 63. Explain, in terms of osmosis, why a raisin placed in a cup of pure water overnight will puff up with water. 64. What would happen to an animal cell with an internal salt concentration of 0.8% if it were placed in a salt solution with a concentration of 20%? Why? 65. List the four levels of organization in order from simplest to most complex.
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