Unit 12 Protein Synthesis by qjeqk4P


									   Unit 12

Protein Synthesis
       How Proteins are Made
• DNA never leaves the nucleus
• The library of information stored in DNA can only
  be copied. This is done by m-RNA
• Protein is created by this pathway: DNA to RNA
• This is called the Central Dogma because it
  describes the key used by your cells to express
  their genes
             DNA and RNA
•   DNA has Deoxyribose as it’s sugar
•   RNA has ________ as it’s sugar
•   DNA is a double helix
•   RNA is a single helix
•   DNA has G, C, A, T as it’s bases
•   RNA has G, C, A, U as it’s bases
           Three RNAs
• m-RNA= Messenger RNA
• r-RNA= Ribosomal RNA
• t-RNA= Transfer RNA
• m-RNA transcribes DNA into its own code
• m-RNA then takes it’s information to the rough
  ER where translation takes place
• The DNA code for Thymine is replaced in the
  RNA code with Uracil
• So m-RNA transcribes DNA’s G to C, DNA’s C
  to G, DNA’s T for A and DNA’s A for U.
• So in RNA the T is replaced by U
• m-RNA takes the message from DNA in its
  own code to the r-RNA on the rough ER
• t-RNA carries amino acids to the r-RNA in
  the sequence that m-RNA dictates
• In translation a perfect protein is formed
  from the original instructions from DNA
• DNA read by m-RNA goes to r-RNA and t-
  RNA joins amino acids together = Protein
       Codons and Anticodons
• m-RNA has a codon (a code on it)
• t-RNA has an anti-codon (anti to the m-RNA
  codon) remember t-RNA is anti-codon
• The anticodon is the sequence of nucleotides bases
  on _______.
• See list of codons
• Why is thymine missing?
• All codons and anti-codons are 3 letters long, so
  the “language” of the genetic code consists of
  “words” that are ____ letters long
  Start Codons and Stop Codons
• AUG is the only start codon signal for
  starting translation, it also code for an
  amino acid- methionine.
• How does the cell know that it should stop
  or that it should code for methionine?
• UGA is a stop codon
     Protein Creation Summary
• Transcription to Translation to Protein creation
• The bond that forms between adjacent amino acids
  of a protein is called a ________ bond
• Transcription is when DNA is read by m-RNA
  and it transcribes the DNA information into RNA
• Translation is when m-RNA is read by t-RNA and
  protein is created.
   Cancer- Mitosis gone Wrong
• Lack of contact inhibition
   – Normal cells respect each other’s space, their growth is
     inhibited when they come in contact with each other
   – Cancer cells intrude on other cells, growing over them
     and causing a tumor to form.
• Oncogenes- many cancers arise through
  mutations, a mutated gene is called an oncogene
• Uncontrolled and invasive growth
• Benign and malignant tumors
   – Benign = soft, moveable example: Lipoma
   – Malignant = Stony hard, puckers skin example: breast
• Metastases- spread of cancer by blood and
  lymph due to cancers cells lack of adhesion
• Cancer cells are virtually immortal
• Angiogensis- cancer long term treatment
  – Cancerprotocol.com
 Cancer- Causes and prevention
• Environment- decrease exposure at home
  and work
• Carcinogens- smoking, moderate UV
  exposure, NO mothballs
• Heredity- modify risks
• Diet- Whole foods, veggies, fruit, fiber
• Viruses- Improve immunity
       Improving Your Immunity
•   Laugh, cry- express emotions
•   Positive mental attitude
•   Exercise 3 times per week for 20 mins.+
•   Fresh air and sunlight
•   Vitamins- multivitamin/mineral, antioxidants
•   Love/ Faith
•   Pet
The Dynamics of Genes

We have WILD genes that live in a
         TAME world
      Our Genetics Faults
 or “my genes made me do it.” I
• In our brain there is a fight between two
  – Personality
  – Gene machine
      Our Genetics Faults
 or “my genes made me do it.” II
• Gene machine
  – Genes have their own agenda
  – Source of our self-control problems
  – predisposes us to certain tendencies like:
     •   Obesity
     •   Addiction
     •   Choice of mate
     •   Faithfulness to that mate
       Human Gnome Project
• Sequence of every stretch of DNA in the
• A revolution in the making
• Human biology in disease and behavior are
  influenced by our genes
• Genes for alcoholism and aging are
• Why is a person attractive? Symmetry.
• Implies good genes, which are recognized by our
  genes as desirable
• Unconscious guide to our mating decisions
• Females have more orgasms with symmetrical
   – The purpose of the orgasm is to keep the female lying
• Bottom line for genes? To reproduce
   – And do it with the best genes possible
Saving account- the Genetic Way
• Fat is food storage: Eating is a way of storing
• Our ancestors didn’t have: the refrigerator
• Without a refrigerator fat became a saving account
  of energy
   – We could survive 2 months on our “fat” account
• The best way to save is to consume
   – Food spoils so, “Mongia, Mongia”
     Money: Against the Genes
• Saving money is opposite to the way a gene thinks
• We have trouble saving because our genes treat
  money like food- consume it!
• Consuming feels so good
   – Trick your genes into thinking there is a famine- they
     will stop consuming
   – Pay with cash, charging doesn’t feel like spending
   – Use payroll deduction, money saved before you see it
              Genes and Money
• Millionaire next door: book describes the heroes
  against the “gene machine”
   – They got rich not by making more
   – They got rich by spending less
• Credit card companies know about the “gene
  machine” in us and exploited it
   – Have it now- today!
   – Why do we want it now?
      • Food spoils if you don’t eat it right away.
• Genetically most animals are lazy
• Why? Genes are frugal with precious energy
• If an animal wasted energy by exercise they may
   – worst of all (to the genes) the genes would die with
• So, exercise is good for us but the genes don’t
  want us to do it
• Solution- attach a treat to exercise
   – Exercise with a friend, go to a health club with good-
     looking people, attach a exercise bike to the refrigerator

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