Biodiversity and Invasion by HC120727023519

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									Biodiversity and Invasion
    The Resilient Lives of Plants
          In the Arid Southwest

                     Tomoe Natori
                   GIS Laboratory
            Dine College, Shiprock
  What Is Biodiversity?
  American Heritage Dictionary Definition
                                               bio-
                                                Life; living organism.
                                                <Greek. bios, life.
                                               diverse
                                                Distinct in kind;
                                                unlike. Having
                                                variety in form;
                                                diversified.
                                               -ty
Riparian Cottonwood Community                   Condition; quality
        Bosque del Alamos                       <Lat. –tas.
Components of Biodiversity


                        Biodiversity


      Concepts             Units          Measurements


     Evolutionary    Genetic diversity     Alpha diversity
     Community       Species diversity     Beta diversity
      Regional      Community diversity   Gamma diversity
       Global       Landscape diversity
What is biodiversity?
in the real world


  Biodiversity is multi-conceptual




It can be considered as:
     Evolutionary Radiation
What is biodiversity?
in the real world



Biodiversity is multi-conceptual



It can be thought of:

Globally and collectively
Currently described species are
on the order of 1.4 million.
Current estimates of the total
number of species run from
10-100 million.
Some places are known better
than other places.
What is biodiversity?
in the real world



Biodiversity is multi-conceptual



It can be thought
or looked as:

  Characteristics of natural communities
Plants of the Desert Community




  Shadscale (Atriplex confertifolia) Community
Goosefoot Family (Chenopodiaceae)
 Shadscale (Atriplex confertifolia)
Goosefoot Family (Chenopodiaceae)
    Winterfat (Eurotia lanata)
Lily Family (Liliaceae)
Mariposa Lily (Calochortus sp.)
   Grass Family
    (Poaceae)
     Saltgrass
(Distichlis spicata)
Grass Family
(Poaceae)

Indian Ricegrass
(Stipa hymenoides)
  Waterleaf Family
 (Hydrophyllaceae)
     Scorpionweed
(Phaclia crenulata)
   Sunflower Family (Asteraceae)
Blanket Flower (Gaillardia pulchella)
            Grass Family
               (Poaceae)
Purple Three-awn Grass
     (Aristida purpurea)
  Grass Family (Poaceae)
Cheatgrass (Bromus tectrum)
Goosefoot Family (Chenopodiaceae)
   Russian Thistle (Salsola spp.)
       Plantain Family
     (Plantaginaceae)
       Woolly Plantain
(Plantago patagonica)
Plants of the Riparian Community




   Cottonwood (Populus fremontii) Community
Fremont Cottonwood
  (Populus fremontii)
       Willow Family
         (Salicaceae)
Olive Family (Oleaceae)
New Mexico Olive (Forestiera neomexicana)
Cashew Family (Anacardiaceae)
   Three-leaf Sumac (Rhus
         aromatica)
Sunflower Family
(Asteraceae)

Rabbitbrush
(Chrysothamnus
nauseosus)
Goosefoot Family (Chenopodiaceae)
Fourwing Saltbush (Atriplex canescens)
 Goosefoot Family (Chenopodiaceae)
Greasewood (Sarcobatus vermiculatus)
       Family Tamaricaceae
Saltcedar (Tamarix ramossisima)
     Olive Family Elaeagnaceae
Russian-olive Elaeagnus angustifolia L.
Grass Family
(Poaceae)

Indian Ricegrass
(Stipa hymenoides)
Goosefoot Family (Chenopodiaceae)
   Russian Thistle (Salsola spp.)
Grass Family
(Poaceae)
Western Wheatgrass
(Agropyron smithii)
  Grass Family (Poaceae)
Cheatgrass (Bromus tectrum)
Grass Family
(Poaceae)
Saltgrass
(Distichlis spicata)
Hypothesis
 The presence of the nonnative species such as
 tamarisks and Russian Olive, has resulted in an
 overall reduction of the growth of native plants
 and trees with diverse biological life, whit this
 natural growth supports.


   • Sounds reasonable. But how do we
   measure it?
 Predicting outcomes from the
 Hypothesis on Biodiversity

If we found nonnative species-richness to be high
in our study plots, and if these plots had less
native species than other plots that didn’t have the
nonnative species, then there is a possibility that
nonnative species are decreasing the native plant
species richness.
How do we measure Biodiversity?

   Species diversity
       using multi-scale sampling technique
       species-(log)area curves

   Regional diversity
       using geographic information system
       incorporate the data from the
    Sampling and Analyzing
    Species Diversity
   Choosing the sites randomly from two different ecosystems
    (riparian vs. non-riparian)
      Aerial photography

      Random x and y coordinates along a line or curve

      Scouting for accessibility

   Using a current sampling methodology that allows analyses
    comparable to the regional data in future
      Modified-Whittaker plot

      Identifying the plant species found in all plots
 Site Selection from Aerial Photo




A total of ten plots were selected from this photo
 Multiple-scale sampling
 technique
Modified-Whittaker plot was
developed to:
Standardize vegetation
sampling method
Systemize vegetation
patterns in spatial scales at
1m2, 10m2, 100m2, and
1000m2
Modified Whittaker Plot
One 50m x 20m plot (K)

Two 5m x 2m subplots
(A and B)


One 20m x 5m subplot (C)

Ten 0.5m x 2m subplots
(1-10)
Using Modified-Whittaker Plot
All plant species in subplot 1-10 were recorded and
the coverage by each was estimated
All plant species in subplot A, B, and C were
recorded
All plant species in plot K were recorded
Species not identified in the field were collected
Four soil samples were collected from each plot
Result
         Our study sites mapped on DOQQ
Result
Work remained:


   Analyses of native vs. exotic for larger plots
   Species-area curve analysis of all plots
   Data management of the results in GIS software
Species-Area Curve
A cumulative number of species encountered
as a function of area
                               Log function is
                               often used to
                               correct the
                               values of
                               species
                               richness and
                               sampled areas
Lessons for future:
   More intense study in published literature in the
    field of environmental ecology is necessary.
   Appropriate ecological/mathematical models
    need to be identified and utilized.
   More survey (and more time) is required to
    visualize highly complex patterns of vegetation.
   Study sites should be selected in a protected
    areas with less disturbances.
Acknowledgement:
                          Cassandra Begay

                             Gregory Nells

  Tonia Clark             Shawna Sandoval

  Maxine Walter              Cheryl Walter

  Dr. Douglas Isely         Roberta Walter

  GIS lab, Dine College       GIS Student Interns
Acknowledgement:
Acknowledgement:



             This study was funded by the
    Air Force Office for Scientific Research
                                    (AFOSR)
FOSR)

								
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