reviewquestionschapt13and14noans

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					Name: __________________________ Date: _____________

     1. Which of the terms below refers to cutting dead and less desirable trees first and then later cutting of
        mature trees:
        A) subsistence use                                    D) edge effect
        B) shelterwood cutting                                E) rotation use
        C) selective cutting

     2. Which of the terms below refers to the phenomenon in which many species escape from a cut area and
        seek refuge in the border of the forest:
        A) subsitence use                                   D) edge effect
        B) shelterwood cutting                              E) rotation use
        C) selective cutting

     3. Which of the terms below refers to cutting all but a few mature trees with good genetic characteristics:
        A) seed-tree cutting                                   D) edge effect
        B) shelterwood cutting                                 E) rotation use
        C) selective cutting

     4. The figure below illustrates three different configurations for park land. All three arrangements include
        the same number of acres. The configuration that would provide the greatest insurance against natural
        disaster is _____. The configuration that would sustain the greatest biodiversity is _____:




        A) A, B       B) A, C      C) B, A       D) B, C        E) C, C

     5. Tree diseases are primarily:
        A) viral     B) bacterial      C) fungal       D) insect-related     E) all of the above

     6. The Case Study in Chapter 13 in the textbook about wildfires in 2005 and 2006 raises questions about the
        Smokey the bear approach of controlling and suppressing. The approach has led to
        A) flash flood control along natural streams valleys
        B) land available for restoration
        C) a build up fuels in forests and grasslands
        D) the premature death of old growth forests
        E) pollution from smoke during wildfires

     7. Forests differ from many other natural resources in that:
        A) their management is inexpensive
        B) in the U.S., most are publicly owned
        C) they are potentially renewable
        D) there is little government regulation associated with their use
        E) overuse has adverse environmental consequences

     8. According to the textbook, the nation with the largest forested land surface is:
        A) Brazil     B) Russia       C) Canada       D) USA         E) Argentina

     9. Causes of deforestation in developing nations include all of the following except:
        A) demand for firewood
        B) indirect deforestation
        C) demand for agricultural land
        D) declining awareness of environmental impacts
        E) demand for hardwoods as a cash crop

    10. In Germany, large areas of forested land have been damaged or lost. This loss is called “Waldsterben”.
        What is the cause of this indirect deforestation in Germany?
        A) fragmentation of the forest                         D) fire
        B) global warming                                      E) contamination of shallow groundwater
        C) acid rain

    11. What is the major product of photosynthesis?
        A) carbon dioxide     B) water      C) sugar         D) nitrogen       E) proteins




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12. Another term for virgin forest is a(n) __________ forest; a forest that cannot be classified as a) virgin
    forest would be called a(n) __________ forest.
    A) primary; deflowered                                D) natural; plantation
    B) old-growth; second-growth                          E) youthful; old-age
    C) maiden; clear-cut

13. Silviculture is defined as all the manipulating operations that go into the development and maintenance of
    a forest stand. Which of the following would not be included among common silvicultural practices?
    A) thinning       B) clear cutting      C) pruning      D) prescribed burning       E) grazing

14. What is the main point that the figure below attempts to make:




    A)   developing countries use about 50 times more firewood than developed countries
    B)   the total use of firewood worldwide is about 3 billion cubic meters
    C)   firewood is a more vital fuel for developing countries than it is for developed countries
    D)   the major use of wood worldwide is for firewood
    E)   about half of the wood used in developing countries is used as firewood

15. Which one of the following areas would allow the most recreational use by humans:
    A) nature preserve     B) representative natural area    C) park      D) wilderness          E) upwelling
    area

16. For the timber industry, the quality of a forest site is classified by:
    A) the maximum growth of trees in meters per unit time
    B) the number of trees which differ in height, girth, and vigor per unit area
    C) the purity of surface runoff from that site
    D) the maximum timber crop the land can produce in a given time
    E) soil fertility and water supply

17. In temperate and boreal forests, the age of a tree can be calculated by:
    A) measuring the circumference of the tree trunk        D) measuring the heights of the tree
    B) measuring the diameter of the tree trunk             E) measuring the depths of the roots
    C) counting the number of the growth rings

18. According to the Environmental Science text, a ____________ harvest is the amount of timber that can
    be removed periodically from a forest without decreasing the capacity of the forest ecosystem to sustain
    that level of harvest in the future.
    A) second growth          B) even-aged stand   C) shelterwood       D) seed tree       E) sustainable
    timber

19. Which of the following are among the causes of indirect deforestation:
    A) demand for firewood
    B) clearing land for agriculture, timber, and mining
    C) El Niño
    D) designation of land as representative natural areas
    E) acid rain and ozone




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20. Forests have been managed more successfully than fisheries mainly because:
    A) tree populations grow according to the logistic growth model, while fish populations fluctuate
        dramatically from year to year
    B) since trees have fewer species of predators than fish, the impact of predators on tree population
        dynamics can be assessed
    C) it is very difficult to know the size of a fish population, but trees are easier to count
    D) the environment of trees is more stable than the environment of fish
    E) tree populations are harvested according to the OSY, whereas fish populations are harvested
        according to the MSY

21. The most fundamental difference between a park and a true wilderness area is:
    A) a park is managed                               D) fewer species are found in a park
    B) a park has defined boundaries                   E) human access is excluded in wilderness areas
    C) conservation of species takes place

22. Firewood shortages have been especially severe in:
    A) poor nations of the humid tropics                   D) during the Industrial Revolution
    B) developed countries                                 E) wealthy ski communities of the U.S. West
    C) the homes of colonial New England

23. From an ecological point of view, the largest drawback of whole-tree harvesting is:
    A) it is too expensive
    B) it contaminates groundwater
    C) it is a labor-intensive process
    D) most of the chemical elements needed for future growth in the forest are contained in the leaves, bark,
       small twigs, and roots
    E) it disrupts wildlife

24. As a forest management practice, clear cutting:
    A) typically leads to increased soil erosion
    B) may be important in inducing regeneration of desirable species
    C) is no longer frequently used
    D) is usually best used on steep hill slopes
    E) speeds the re-growth of the next generation of trees

25. A park should function as a biological preserve. What is the most important requirement for such a
    preserve?

26. How can deforestation lead to flooding?

27. The term for the population at which the number of individuals is just sufficient for the resources
    available to them:
    A) logistic carrying capacity                        D) optimum sustainable population
    B) maximum sustainable yield                         E) maximum sustainable population
    C) minimum viable population

28. The first target in recovery programs for endangered species is:
    A) logistic carrying capacity                         D) optimum sustainable population
    B) maximum sustainable yield                          E) maximum sustainable population
    C) minimum viable population

29. The term for the maximum population that can be sustained into the indefinite future without degrading
    the species' habitat or the viability of the species itself:
    A) logistic carrying capacity                              D) optimum sustainable population
    B) maximum sustainable yield                               E) maximum sustainable population
    C) minimum viable population

30. If a population grows beyond its carrying capacity, deaths _________ births, and the population
    ________ back to the carrying capacity. If a population falls below its carrying capacity, births
    _________ deaths, and the population ________.
    A) are exceeded by; increases; exceed; decline
    B) exceed; increases; are exceeded by; decreases
    C) exceed; decline; are exceeded by; increases
    D) are exceeded by; decline; exceed; increases
    E) none of the above is the correct option

31. Characteristics of species likely to become endangered and extinct as a result of human activities include:
    A) long-lived individuals                            D) rapid rates of population growth
    B) small body size                                   E) invertebrates
    C) rapid rates of reproduction




                                                  Page 3
32. Competition among individuals in a population:
    A) increases the birth rate
    B) increases the carrying capacity
    C) keeps the population at a constant level and is beneficial to the population in the long run
    D) slows the growth rate of the population
    E) lets the population increase at nearly exponential rate

33. Some introduced species become abundant pests because they are:
    A) parasites                                      D) a density-independent population
    B) superior competitors                           E) a minimum viable population
    C) predators

34. As people clear land and modify the environment, species which _____ are especially vulnerable to
    extinction.
    A) are generalists                                  D) can adapt to a different environment
    B) have highly specific habitats                    E) live in diverse ecosystems
    C) are mammals

35. A key to successful wildlife management is monitoring a population's age structure. What does it suggest,
    if a shift in catch of commercial fish towards younger ages is observed?
    A) this is an early sign of over-exploitation
    B) that the fish stock has reached its carrying capacity
    C) that the fishing is done according to the logistic growth curve
    D) that the fish stock obtained its maximum sustainable yield
    E) that global warming is impacting the population

36. At what size is the population growth rate greater than 0?




    The graph above illustrates the rate of growth of a hypothetical fish population off the California coast (in
    each question, more than one answer may be correct).
    A) A      B) B      C) C       D) D        E) E

37. At what size is the population growth rate zero in the figure above(more than one answer may be correct)?




    The graph above illustrates the rate of growth of a hypothetical fish population off the California coast (in
    each question, more than one answer may be correct).
    A) A      B) B      C) C       D) D        E) E




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38. What population size is the carrying capacity in the figure above? (only one correct answer)




    The graph above illustrates the rate of growth of a hypothetical fish population off the California coast (in
    each question, more than one answer may be correct).
    A) A      B) B      C) C       D) D        E) E

39. If you were harvesting the population in the figure above, what size would be the maximum sustainable
    yield? (only one correct answer)




    The graph above illustrates the rate of growth of a hypothetical fish population off the California coast (in
    each question, more than one answer may be correct).
    A) A      B) B      C) C       D) D        E) E

40. Fishery management has used the optimum sustainable population in order to avoid over-fishing. What
    exactly is the optimum sustainable population?
    A) it is the largest number of fish that can be harvested
    B) it is the fish harvest that generates the highest possible market price for the fish
    C) it is the fish harvest that can be sustained through the lifetime of one fisherman
    D) it is the population that equals the maximum sustainable yield
    E) it is the largest fish harvest that can be sustained indefinitely

41. An ecological island is:
    A) an island uninhabited by humans
    B) the transition zone between two or more distinct ecosystems
    C) an island managed for the preservation of specific natural features
    D) an area that is biologically isolated
    E) public land set aside to protect the habitats of endangered species

42. Carrying capacity is the:
    A) largest-sized individual that can survive in a given ecosystem
    B) maximum number of a species that an environment can support without degradation to the
       environment
    C) maximum number of a species that can live in an environment without competition among
       individuals
    D) maximum number of a species confined to a specific area
    E) variety of species that can live in one habitat without going extinct

43. The survival of an endangered species depends strongly on the:
    A) competition of male individuals within the species
    B) size of the ecological island the species lives in
    C) maximum sustainable yield of the habitat
    D) succession stage of the ecosystem
    E) the macronutrients available within the ecosystem




                                                  Page 5
44. An early sign of the over-exploitation of a fish stock is:
    A) an increase in the average size of fish caught
    B) a shift in the catch towards younger fish
    C) overall declining quantity of catch
    D) an unstable maximum sustainable yield (MSY)
    E) decline in the logistic growth curve

45. Traditional wildlife management was based on:
    A) sustainable yield                                    D) the logistic growth curve
    B) exponential growth curve                             E) the minimum viable population
    C) age structure of the population

46. Which of the following would improve the food supply for a population of wild condors?
    A) people hunting mountain lions
    B) establishing large cattle ranches on fertile, undeveloped land
    C) planting trees on steep slopes
    D) suppressing all fires in chaparral environments
    E) improving soil conditions for trees

47. “Population risk” refers to:
    A) short-term changes in the habitat of a species
    B) a threat to species that consist of only a single population in one habitat
    C) the risk of changes in genetic characteristics
    D) the human population bomb
    E) catastrophes that change the environment

48. Species can be especially vulnerable to extinction when:
    A) the population has high genetic variability
    B) the population is small
    C) the population lives far from human activity
    D) the population is very widely distributed
    E) the population's ecosystem is productive and fertile

49. With the recent introduction of off-road vehicles to the Sahara desert, the Sahara goat has been subjected
    to an increase in hunting by Bedouins. Studies indicate that as the total population size is decreased by the
    hunting, the percentage of females that are pregnant is increasing. This is an example of:
    A) competitive exclusion                               D) density-independent population regulation
    B) density-dependent population regulation             E) prey and predator
    C) succession

50. Based only on the graphs below, which species (A or B) would be more likely to survive periodic
    disturbances?




    You are the manager of a reserve which contains two herbivorous species, A and B. The survivorship
    curves of the two species have been estimated in the graphs above.
    A) A       B) B     C) C       D) D      E) E




                                                   Page 6
51. In the figure below, which species (A or B) would better withstand sport hunting? (Assume that the
    hunters selectively shoot the largest [oldest] individuals.)




    You are the manager of a reserve which contains two herbivorous species, A and B. The survivorship
    curves of the two species have been estimated in the graphs above.
    A) A       B) B     C) C       D) D      E) E

52. European diseases caused fatal epidemics among native human populations in South and North America:
    A) through natural selection
    B) because Europeans introduced these diseases intentionally to reduce the native population
    C) because the natives did not have antibodies to fight the new diseases
    D) through parallel evolution
    E) because Europeans withheld medicine from the natives

53. In the course of evolutionary history:
    A) humans have been the primary agent of extinction
    B) about half of the species which have existed have become extinct
    C) all species alive today will eventually go extinct
    D) only poorly adapted species will go extinct
    E) extinction occurs only in connection with meteorite impacts

54. ______________ involves variations in the physical or biological environment
    A) Population risk                                  D) Environmental risk
    B) Genetic risk                                     E) A natural risk
    C) Human induced risk

55. A thorough population study of a fishery in 1940 led to the calculation of an "optimum sustainable yield"
    for that population. The same amount has been harvested every year since then. Judging by the data
    below, do you believe this yield is really sustainable? What may have happened to cause the pattern
    shown?




56. In what ways can illegal commercial trade of endangered animal species contribute to their extinction?

57. Which of the following government agencies is responsible for managing federal rangeland?
    A) The U.S. Park Service                           D) The Environmental Protection agency
    B) The U.S. Bureau of Mines                        E) The U.S. Commerce Department
    C) The Bureau of Land Management

58. Which is of the following true concerning the use of National Parks?
    A) They can be used for cutting timber as well as recreation
    B) They can be used for mining as well as recreation
    C) They can be used only for camping, fishing and hunting
    D) They can be used for conservation of natural habitat as well as livestock grazing
    E) They can be used for military activities and the development of natural resources.




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