AET 7410 Syllabus by HC120727023519


									                                       AET 7410 Syllabus

         NOTE: This schedule is approximate. Changes may be made at any time
                      to accommodate assignment presentations.
          The assignment topics may also be changed to fit the course content.

Week #           Major Topic(s)                                  Subtopics

  1      Course Overview ►                 Summary of topics; Recommended book(s); The
                                           scale of the Alternate Fuels Challenge; Alternate
                                           Fuel Limitations.

         AET Overview ►                    Benefits of Alternate Fuels; Problems Solved; Why
                                           we need Alternate Fuels; Drivers for AET use –
                                           costs, availability, Energy Independence, Making the
                                           Right Choices.
  2      Overview of Existing Energy       Oil: Are we running short? U.S. use of energy;
         Resources ►                       Energy use world-wide; The natural gas problem;
                                           Forecasting reserves of oil, natural gas; The Hubbert
                                           Curve and its derivatives; Conventional vs.
                                           Unconventional sources; Coal – the good and the

         New Uses for Old Fuels ►          Intro to Clean Coal Technologies; Other Energy
                                           Sources, Uses and Carriers; Natural Gas as an
                                           “alternate fuel”; Methane Hydrates, Other sources of
                                           Natural Gas; Bio-based fuels today; New energy
                                           sources; Actions for the near term;

         The “Energy Gap” ►                The Demand vs Supply Gap; Filling the Gap; Near-
                                           Term and Longer-Term Options; Hydrogen
                                           (Introduction); Bio-based Fuels (Introduction)
  3      Climate Change/Global Warming     General Overview; Facts vs. Fiction: CC is REAL!;
         ►                                 Probable causes of CC; Relative contributions from
                                           CO2, solar radiation; water vapor, other factors; CO2
                                           sources and sinks; Historical CO2 data.

         What can really be done about     Likely future CC trends; What should we be doing
         Climate Change? ►                 NOW?; The cost of cutting CO2 emissions; The
                                           failure of Kyoto1 – and the likely failure of Kyoto 2;
                                           Are there better solutions? What are they? Time to
                                           “stop talking and start doing”!! (Thanks, IBM!).

                                           Assignment Topic #1: Energy Conversion
  4      Hydrogen as a Fuel ►              Hydrogen is not an energy source; Making hydrogen;
                                           The dollar cost of hydrogen; The energy cost of

         Hydrogen in Use ►                 Hydrogen efficiencies in use;
                                           Source-to-Use analysis; Technical barriers to the
                                           USE of hydrogen; Conclusions about Hydrogen; Are
                                           there better ideas? The disinformation problem.
  5      Non-hydrogen Solutions            Overview; the alternatives; biofuels (ethanol, both
                                corn and cellulosic), methanol (maybe); biodiesel and
                                a portfolio of alternative and green diesel fuels; New
                                powertrain technologies (quick overview); ULSD
                                fuels (biobased and fossil based);

                                Beyond ULSD – GTL, CTL and BTL diesels;
    “Clean Diesel” Fuels        Biodiesel (discussed in depth next); The Synthol,
                                Fischer-Tropsch and similar processes; “Green
                                Diesel” from hydrogenated vegetable oils;

                                Assignment Topic #2: The Greening of Michigan
6   Biofuels (1)                Biodiesel and Ethanol; Definitions; Basic Chemistry
                                of Natural Oils; Biodiesel raw materials; Virgin vs.
                                Recycled oils and Fats;

    Biofuels (2)                Making fatty acid methyl esters; The biodiesel
                                manufacturing process; The glycerol problem;
                                Biodiesel composition and property-composition
                                relationships; Impact on fuel characteristics
7   Biofuels (3)                Optimizing composition – possible? If so, how?
                                History of biodiesel; Effect on engine performance;
                                Biodiesel and engine-out emissions; Biodiesel in
                                practice; Biodiesel quality issues; Alternatives to

    Biofuels (4)                Biodiesel thermodynamics (energetics); Comparison
                                to diesel fuel; Relative performance of synthetic and
                                “green” diesels; Key property issues – e.g.,
                                compressibility, lubricity, cold weather behavior;
                                Viability of synthetic diesels; Utility of alternative
                                feedstocks; Functionalization possibilities; Outlook
                                for natural oil hydrogenation.

                                Assignment Topic #3: Fleet Fuel Comparisons
8   Drivetrains                 Fuel alone is not enough; Advanced drivetrains also
                                needed!; Emphasis on efficiency, emissions; The
                                technology leaders; The new “clean diesel”
                                technologies; Fuel and engine technologies working
                                together – by design; Hybrid powertrains overview.;
                                New developments
    Emissions and Fuels
                                Recent history of emissions standards since ~1990;
                                Recent developments in US and EU standards;
                                Likely future developments in standards;
                                Technologies to meet them; Is the diesel doomed?;
                                What are the options?
9   Fuel Ethanol                Single-component vs. multi-component fuels; Ethanol
                                is C2H5OH only! Source NOT relevant to fuel
                                behavior and performance; The long and rocky
                                history of fuel ethanol; Definitions – E10, Enn; E85;

    Manufacturing Ethanol (1)   Overview; Ethanol from starch-containing feedstocks;
                                            e.g., Corn; Cassava (Manioc, Tapioca); Rice; Potato;
                                            Feedstock pretreatments; The manufacturing
                                            alternatives: Saccharification and Fermentation vs.
                                            gasification to syngas and downstream catalytic
                                            conversions to liquids

                                            Assignment Topic #4: The Greening of the
  10    Manufacturing Ethanol (2)           Processing of Corn; Typical plant configurations; Wet
                                            vs. dry milling, Hydrolysis to sugars; Corn syrup;
                                            Fermentation to ethanol; Separation and
                                            concentration technologies – distillation; Membrane
                                            and other methods; Dehydration to absolute alcohol;
                                            Duties and taxes

        Manufacturing Ethanol (3)           The corn cost problem; Making ethanol from
                                            cellulosic materials (e.g., biomass); Other possible
                                            sources; Wet processing biomass vs. gasifying
                                            biomass – which is best? Potential problems with
                                            large-scale industrial fermentations; Potential
                                            problems with gasification; Converting the syngas
  11    The energy efficiency of biofuels   The “Net Energy Balance” of biofuels (a non-issue!);
                                            Manufacturing energy inputs and outputs; Impact of
                                            by-products; Comparison to conventional fuels;
                                            Improving the “Net Energy Balance”; Cellulosic
        Fischer-Tropsch (FT)
        Technology                          The pathway to almost all synthetic fuels; History of
                                            the process; Uses today and in the future; Problems;
                                            Economics; Feedstocks: anything with carbon; Best
                                            choices; Converting wastes; Competing alternatives
                                            – e.g., pyrolysis; The “fungibility” of alternate fuels.

                                            Assignment Topic #5 : Manufacturing energy
  12    Source-to-Use Analyses (aka         Basis for comparison of energy efficiencies of
        Well-to-Wheels analysis)            different fuels; Energy delivered vs. energy used;
                                            Methodology; Results re biofuels vs. fossil fuels.

        Cellulose-based Bioethanol          Who is doing it and where? Corn vs. cellulosic; Plant
        Production Status                   conversions possible? Projected time to
                                            commercialize new bioethanol technologies;
  13    Predictions for The Future          2008-2010 – the developments in view today!
                                            Beyond 2050
                                            Assignment #6: Comparison of DOE-Funded
                                            Ethanol Manufacturing Technologies.
  14    Special Topics                      To be Determined by time available

JRW 1-21-08

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